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Visual Perception Lecture 2

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Visual Perception Lecture 2

  1. 1. Visual Perception Gestalt Principle Importance of Visual Perception in Art Elements of Art Art Visual Perception * Lecture 2 Philippine Women’s College of Davao Wilfred Dexter G. Tañedo
  2. 2. Review: Identify the Images based on Perceptual Processing Categories Visual Discrimination ability to be aware of the distinctive features of forms including shape, orientation, size, and color.
  3. 3. Review: Identify the Images based on Perceptual Processing Categories Visual Figure Ground ability to distinguish an object from irrelevant background information
  4. 4. Review: Identify the Images based on Perceptual Processing Categories Visual Closure ability to recognize a complete feature from fragmented information.
  5. 5. Gestalt Psychology  Tries to understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world.  The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies.  This principle maintains that when the human mind (perceptual system) forms a percept or gestalt, the whole has a reality of its own, independent of the parts.  "The whole is other than the sum of the parts” by Kurt Koffka  The Founders of Gestalt Psychology: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler. Created sometime in 1912.
  6. 6. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception We impose visual organization on stimuli
  7. 7. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Illusory Contours The Kanisza triangle as figure-ground illusory contours
  8. 8. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Three Main Principles: Grouping (Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure) Good of Figure or Law of Pragnanz Figure/Ground Relationships
  9. 9. Gestalt Laws of Grouping Humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. Proximity, Similarity, Closure, Good Continuation, Common Fate, and Good Form
  10. 10. Law of Proximity States that, all else being equal, perception tends to group stimuli that are close together as part of the same object, and stimuli that are far apart as two separate objects. This allows for the grouping together of elements into larger sets, and reduces the need to process a larger number of smaller stimuli. The brain groups together the elements instead of processing a large number of smaller stimuli, allowing us to understand and conceptualize information more quickly
  11. 11. Law of Similarity States that, all else being equal, perception lends itself to seeing stimuli that physically resemble each other as part of the same object, and stimuli that are different as part of a different object. Allows for people to distinguish between adjacent and overlapping objects based on their visual texture and resemblance. Other stimuli that have different features are generally not perceived as part of the object. Our brain uses similarity to distinguish between objects who may lay adjacent to or overlap with each other based upon their visual texture.
  12. 12. Law of Similarity in connection with Shape, Scale and Color What Principle of Art is exhibited by this examples? Pattern/Repetition/Rhythm
  13. 13. Law of Good Continuation/Continuity States that when there is an intersection between two or more objects, people tend to perceive each object as a single uninterrupted object. This allows differentiation of stimuli even when they come in visual overlap. People have a tendency to group and organize lines or curves that follow an established direction over those defined by sharp and abrupt changes in direction
  14. 14. Law of Closure States that the mind has a tendency to see complete figures or forms even if a picture is incomplete, partially hidden by other objects, or if part of the information needed to make a complete picture in our minds is missing. For example, if part of a shape’s border is missing people still tend to see the shape as completely enclosed by the border and ignore the gaps. This reaction stems from our mind’s natural tendency to recognize patterns that are familiar to us and thus fill in any information that may be missing.
  15. 15. Law of Common Fate States that when visual elements are seen moving in the same direction at the same rate (optical flow), perception associates the movement as part of the same stimulus. This allows people to make out moving objects even when other details (such as the objects color or outline) are obscured. Application of The Law of Common Fate is used extensively in user-interface design: For example where the movement of a scrollbar is synchronized with the movement (i.e. cropping) of a window's content viewport; The movement of a physical mouse is synchronized with the movement of an on- screen arrow cursor, and so on.
  16. 16. Law of Pragnanz (Law of Good Figure/Law of Simplicity) States that people tend to order their experience in a manner that is regular, orderly, symmetrical, and simple.
  17. 17. Law of Good Figure States that people have the tendency to group together forms of similar shape, pattern, color, etc. Even in cases where two or more forms clearly overlap, the human brain interprets them in a way that allows people to differentiate different patterns and/or shapes. An example would be a pile of presents where a dozen packages of different size and shape are wrapped in just three or so patterns of wrapping paper.
  18. 18. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception on Figure/Ground Relationships Figure/Ground Relationships between these 3 Elements: Figure – seen as the foreground Ground – seen as the background Contours – “belong” to the figure
  19. 19. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Reversible Figure/Ground relationship
  20. 20. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Reversible Figure/Ground relationship Can be affected by the principle of smallness: Smaller areas tend to be seen as figures against a larger background.
  21. 21. Gestalt Principles of Visual Perception Reversible Figure/Ground Relationship: Tessellation – interlocking figure/ground M.C. Escher
  22. 22. In General  Gestalt laws of Grouping organize the visual scene into units  The Law of Pragnanz, or Goodness of Figure creates the simplest most meaningful pattern  Figure/Ground relationships define important parts of the scene
  23. 23. Importance of Visual Perception in Arts  Builds up the Elements of Art and Principles of Design/Art  Distinguish one art form to the other  Creates the point of interest or disinterest in a work of art (Commercial and Design Industry has been relying on these studies of Visual Perception)  Recognized Creativity of Specific person or group of people
  24. 24. Assignment for June 23  Review on the Lecture 1 and Lecture 2 for a quiz on Tuesday, June 23.  Read on further on the Element of Art: Line, its properties and effectiveness in an art work

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