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CHAPTER 1
Morality, Ethics, and Human
Behavior
Lecture slides prepared by Lisa J. Taylor
Why Study Ethics?
 Ethical issues exist in all areas of criminal justice system
(from passage of laws to punishment)
 Le...
discretion The power and
authority to make a choice between
two or more options.
Legislators: in making laws and determini...
What do criminal justice
professionals have in common?
 power to make decisions
 duty to enforce the law
 obligation to...
The Most
Corrupt
Members
of
Congress,
2011
Allegations
•19 members of congress
were corrupt
•14 members violated the law
o...
Ethical Demands on Public
Servants
(Edwin Delattre)
• Wisdom
• Good character
• Balanced perception
• Integrity (habits of...
SOURCE: Adapted from Josephson Institute of Ethics, Preserving
the Public Trust, available through www.josephsoninstitute....
Goals of the study of ethics
-Braswell
• Become aware of and open to ethical issues
• Begin developing critical thinking s...
We Study Ethics…
• Because criminal justice is uniquely involved in
coercion (there are many and varied opportunities
to a...
Defining Terms
morals The judgment of behavior as right or wrong.
• The term “moral” is often used as an adjective to desc...
Why Are Certain Behaviors
Considered Criminal?
• Public safety is usually the reason given
• In other cases, morality is u...
Same-
Sex
Marriage
Example
• Currently eight states allow
same-sex marriage
• How do legislators
determine what “the right...
Defining Terms
meta-ethics Technical investigation of the meaning of
ethical terms, as well as how ethical statements can ...
Defining Terms
duties Moral obligations that one must carry out to
be considered ethical.
supererogatory An act that goes ...
Sheriff
Landon
T. Smith
- 2009
• Served as sheriff in Noble County,
Ohio for 36 years
• Convicted of a felony count of
unl...
values Criteria of desirability,
worth, or importance.
• Honesty
• Health
• Family
• Financial success
• Beauty
What else ...
Example of
Agency
Values:
Core
Values of
the Ohio
State
Highway
Patrol
• Honesty
• Sense of urgency
• Attention to detail
...
To be judged moral or
immoral,
behavior must involve:
human acts
of free will
affecting others.
Michael
Vick
• 2007
• Convicted for conspiracy in an
interstate dog-fighting operation
• 70 dogs involved
• Pled guilty an...
Inventory of
Ethical Issues
Individual or Other Employees
backstabbing and lack of support
 gossip
 sexual or racial ha...
Organization and Employees
 sexual or racial harassment by
supervisors
 discouraging honest criticism or feedback
 arbi...
Cass
County
Judge
Accused of
Sexual
Harassmen
t - 2012
• Judge is accused of creating an
uncomfortable work environment fo...
By the Individual and
Organization
work ethic (day’s work for a day’s pay)
petty theft of supplies or cash
overtime abu...
Morality and Behavior
Even when people know what is right,
sometimes they choose to do wrong—why?
• Criminology (learning,...
Thinking
Point
Omar Thornton of Connecticut
walked into his employer, Hartford
Distributors, for a hearing
concerning his ...
Ethical Issues and Dilemmas
• Decriminalization of soft
drugs?
• Sex-offender registries?
• Death penalty?
• Mandatory DNA...
Steps for Clarifying
Ethical Dilemmas
1. Review all the facts.
2. Identify relevant values and concepts of all
parties.
3....
Utah
Highway
Patrol
Officer
Accused of
Racial
Profiling
• Black grandmother and 2 teenagers
stopped for traffic violation
...
Chapter Review
• Discretion permeates every phase of the
criminal justice system
• The study of ethics is critical for cri...
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  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 Morality, Ethics, and Human Behavior Lecture slides prepared by Lisa J. Taylor
  2. 2. Why Study Ethics?  Ethical issues exist in all areas of criminal justice system (from passage of laws to punishment)  Learning how to determine the “right thing to do” is critical  Criminal justice professionals have varying degrees of discretion, authority, and power  Criminal justice professionals encounter a multitude of situations in which they must make choices that affect people’s lives
  3. 3. discretion The power and authority to make a choice between two or more options. Legislators: in making laws and determining punishment Police: in enforcing laws Attorneys and Judges: affecting justice process Correctional Professionals: affecting offenders lives
  4. 4. What do criminal justice professionals have in common?  power to make decisions  duty to enforce the law  obligation to provide “due process” and “equal protection” for all  commitment to “public service”
  5. 5. The Most Corrupt Members of Congress, 2011 Allegations •19 members of congress were corrupt •14 members violated the law or engaged in serious misconduct •5 lack regarded for rules
  6. 6. Ethical Demands on Public Servants (Edwin Delattre) • Wisdom • Good character • Balanced perception • Integrity (habits of justice, temperance, courage, compassion, honesty, fortitude, and disdain for self-pity)
  7. 7. SOURCE: Adapted from Josephson Institute of Ethics, Preserving the Public Trust, available through www.josephsoninstitute.org 1. Public Service • Treating the office as a public trust 1. Objective Judgment • Free from conflict of interest 1. Accountability • Open decision making 1. Democratic Leadership • Letter/spirit of the law 1. Respectability 1. Avoiding appearance of impropriety Principles of Public Service Ethics
  8. 8. Goals of the study of ethics -Braswell • Become aware of and open to ethical issues • Begin developing critical thinking skills • Become more personally responsible • Understand coercive element of the justice system • Develop wholesight (the ability to explore with one’s heart as well as one’s mind)
  9. 9. We Study Ethics… • Because criminal justice is uniquely involved in coercion (there are many and varied opportunities to abuse power). • Because all criminal justice professionals are public servants and, thus, owe special duties to the public they serve. • To sensitize students to ethical issues and provide tools to help identify and resolve dilemmas they may face in lives.
  10. 10. Defining Terms morals The judgment of behavior as right or wrong. • The term “moral” is often used as an adjective to describe a person’s actions. ethics The study and analysis of what constitutes good or bad conduct. • The term “ethics is often used as an adjective to refer to behaviors relating to a profession (Example: Hippocratic Oath for physicians). * The two words are often used interchangeably.
  11. 11. Why Are Certain Behaviors Considered Criminal? • Public safety is usually the reason given • In other cases, morality is used for determining which behaviors should be illegal (Examples: Drugs, gambling, prostitution, and same-sex marriage) • How do legislators use their discretion to balance the rights of ALL people?
  12. 12. Same- Sex Marriage Example • Currently eight states allow same-sex marriage • How do legislators determine what “the right thing to do” is? • What do you think legislators should do? Why? • Does your state permit same-sex marriage?
  13. 13. Defining Terms meta-ethics Technical investigation of the meaning of ethical terms, as well as how ethical statements can be verified. normative ethics Definition of right conduct and moral duties. applied ethics Application of ethical principles to specific issues or fields. professional ethics Examination of the behavior of certain professional groups.
  14. 14. Defining Terms duties Moral obligations that one must carry out to be considered ethical. supererogatory An act that goes beyond duty and is not required to be considered good or moral. imperfect duties General obligation with no specific acts.
  15. 15. Sheriff Landon T. Smith - 2009 • Served as sheriff in Noble County, Ohio for 36 years • Convicted of a felony count of unlawful interest in a public contract and a misdemeanor count of conflict of interest (for nepotism and using prisoners to perform labor at his properties) • How did he fare in the local court of public opinion ? • What ethical violations did he commit?
  16. 16. values Criteria of desirability, worth, or importance. • Honesty • Health • Family • Financial success • Beauty What else are values? Are some more important than others?
  17. 17. Example of Agency Values: Core Values of the Ohio State Highway Patrol • Honesty • Sense of urgency • Attention to detail • Team oriented • Professionalism • Adaptability • Self-discipline • Performance driven • Officer Safety
  18. 18. To be judged moral or immoral, behavior must involve: human acts of free will affecting others.
  19. 19. Michael Vick • 2007 • Convicted for conspiracy in an interstate dog-fighting operation • 70 dogs involved • Pled guilty and received 21 months in federal prison • After his release, signed by Philadelphia Eagles • Was his behavior ethical? • Discuss different views
  20. 20. Inventory of Ethical Issues Individual or Other Employees backstabbing and lack of support  gossip  sexual or racial harassment  lying to cover up blame  taking credit for others’ work  sexual or racial harassment
  21. 21. Organization and Employees  sexual or racial harassment by supervisors  discouraging honest criticism or feedback  arbitrary or unfair decisions  inadequate compensation  inadequate training  unrealistic or inappropriate demands  putting employees in unnecessary danger
  22. 22. Cass County Judge Accused of Sexual Harassmen t - 2012 • Judge is accused of creating an uncomfortable work environment for a female court employee. • Allegations unfolded after judge expressed negative issues regarding the victim's performance. • The Supreme Court says it legally could not charge the judge, as he is an elected official and not an employee. • What ethics did he violate?
  23. 23. By the Individual and Organization work ethic (day’s work for a day’s pay) petty theft of supplies or cash overtime abuse gifts and gratuities falsifying reports misuse of sick days personal use of supplies or equipment
  24. 24. Morality and Behavior Even when people know what is right, sometimes they choose to do wrong—why? • Criminology (learning, role modeling, & biological predisposition) • Psychology • Other fields seek to answer this question • Are people fundamentally good or fundamentally bad?
  25. 25. Thinking Point Omar Thornton of Connecticut walked into his employer, Hartford Distributors, for a hearing concerning his possible termination. During the meeting, Thornton pulled out a pistol and shot ten of his coworkers, killing eight, before turning the gun on himself. • What caused Thornton to carry out this horrific act? • Was he born intrinsically bad? • Was he a good person that had a tragic turn of circumstances that forced him into a criminal act?
  26. 26. Ethical Issues and Dilemmas • Decriminalization of soft drugs? • Sex-offender registries? • Death penalty? • Mandatory DNA testing? • Three-strikes legislation? • Racial profiling? • Same-sex marriage? • Abortion? • Use drugs? • Turn in your brother as a sex offender? • Vote for the death penalty as a juror? • Lie to a friend? • Turn in your partner for using excessive force? • Stop a black driver in an expensive car?
  27. 27. Steps for Clarifying Ethical Dilemmas 1. Review all the facts. 2. Identify relevant values and concepts of all parties. 3. Identify all moral issues of each party. 4. Identify most immediate moral issue facing an individual. 5. Resolve the dilemma by using an ethical system or other means of decision making.
  28. 28. Utah Highway Patrol Officer Accused of Racial Profiling • Black grandmother and 2 teenagers stopped for traffic violation • Driver refused to allow vehicle to be searched • Officer called K-9 to conduct “sniff” • When driver asked why officer thought they were transporting narcotics, he pointed to his uniform insignias on his shoulder and said, “this makes me think it” • Was the officer acting ethically? • Was his response appropriate?
  29. 29. Chapter Review • Discretion permeates every phase of the criminal justice system • The study of ethics is critical for criminal justice professionals • The terms “morals” and “ethics” both relate to standards of behavior • It’s important to be able to identify and resolve ethical issues and dilemmas
  • TanyaTimesWitt

    Feb. 3, 2017
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    Oct. 20, 2016

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