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MASTER
IN
BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION
1
I declare that this Research work is my own original study and has never been
presented to any other university for award of any academic certificate or anything
similar to such. I seriously accept and stand to correct any inconsistence.
Signature
…………………………………………………..
DATE :
…………………………………….
STUDENT’S NAME
ACKNOWLDGEMENT
2
I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who contributed in any way to
the completion of this dissertation. These include
 -God Almighty for always leading me to greener pastures.
 -My Supervisor Mr. Kevin O’Hara for his guidance and valuable insights.
 -Many thanks to the senior executives of the company for their time and
response.
 -My deepest gratitude goes to my father for always supporting me in
everything that I do, and for looking after me.
 -All my class mates, especially those who have been part of my syndicate,
for sharing their knowledge and experience.
 My past colleague Mr.Pinakin Kodiawala from Reliance Radio FM for helping
me to contact my Research.
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 - Top 5 HR factors affecting retention
Table 4.2 - Top 5 organisational factors affecting retention
Table 4.3 - Demographic information of Participants (Age, Gender, Occupation)
Table4.4: Regression findings for Organisational Commitment as Dependent Variable
Table 4.5: Regression Results for Organisational Commitment as Dependent Variable
Table 4.6: Regression Results for Turnover Intention as Dependent Variable
Table 4.7: Regression Results for Turnover Intention as Dependent Variable
3
ABSTRACT
In recent times it has been acknowledged by many organisations that employee
retention in one of the main challenges they are facing. Retaining their most
productive and skilled employee becoming difficult day by day for the organisations
and it’s very for companies future growth and development that they keep their
existing staffs. This research will analyse the existing HR practices that the INDIAN
organisations adopt to retain their key and important staffs. This study mainly points
out the important HR practices of organisation which affects the staff’s decision to
stay with their companies.
The research divided into two parts.First part will be a qualitative approach and will
involve an in-depth one to one interaction with HR practitioners from an Indian
organisation to gain more data from them. Data gained from this will help the
researcher to build a more efficient tool for part two. Part two will involve a survey of
core and critical staffs of Indian organisation. This is quantitative analysis. This part
analysis the research question - ''Which of the HRM factors plays an important role
in the decision of employees to stay in an organisation"?
.The study has employed both the primary as well as secondary kind of data. The
technique used to gather primary data is a properly planned questionnaire. The
resources that were used for the gathering secondary data were the HR strategy
handbook of the companies involved and the data from the web pages and
management journals. In the present research the questionnaire and semi structured
interviews have been utilized for collection of primary data. The approach used is
deductive approach since no hypotheses have been framed.
The findings from this research have helped in determining the different HR factors
that contribute towards employee retention of Indian organisations. These factors
belong to two groups - HR Factors and Organisational Factors. The conclusion of
HRM-retention association has been presented in terms of organisational dedication
and earnings motives by means of multiple regression analysis. The outcome of the
study will make a contribution in HR practices of Indian and other global
organisations in terms staff retentions by presenting outcomes supported b empirical
evidence. This has pointed towards different HR factors that influence employee
retention.
4
CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction
In recent times it has been noticed that HRM practices has developed into more
tactical in its focus and function. HRM is supposedly being seen as a strategic
employee endeavour associated with organisational principles, aim and vision.
The retention techniques that can be very effective are career growth opportunities,
incentives and rewards programs. As per many studies it has been established that
reviewing of advancing HRM tools in training, reimbursement and incentive
involvement have shown that these can guide to reduced return and non-attendance,
enhanced value of work and improved economic outcome.
The purpose of this study is to critical analysed and examine the existing HR
practices on the retention of main employees in Indian organisations. HR practice
and retention relationship will be examined in this study and also fundamentals
related to the HR practices, which affects the employee decision to stay with an
organisation, will be identified in this. Result extracted from this study may help an
organisation to expand its effective HRM retention policies.
There has been substantial attention in the management study relating to the
improvement of key competences so that companies market value and performance
can be improved. Keeping these important key staffs is important part of corporate
strategic model and also for gaining competitive edge in market. Therefore, it has been
noted that there is not enough empirical studies related to the Indian organisations
retention policies. In order to achieve superior perceptive into the procedures and
tools that organisation employ to retain its staff, important research questions were
created to carry out this study.
There is increasing indication that HRM can act as an important factors in retaining a
high skilled and talented employees. It has been noted that advanced HRM policies
in training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution have shown that these can
guide to decreased turnover and non-attendance, good quality product/services, and
enhanced financial result. Moreover, employees are likely to stay with the company if
they realise that their potential, hard work and performance inputs are acknowledged
and valued (Davies 2001). Reimbursement gives recognition, but few other types of
5
non-monetary appreciation are also imperative. Many of the organisations in recent
times keep on struggling with retention because they are depending on wages
enhancement and bonuses to avoid turnover, many companies are now accepting
that retention is a strategic subject and correspond to a competitive edge in the
market. The easiest means to retain staffs is to boost satisfaction levels; but this will
only be efficient if executed correctly. The challenge is in handling or meeting
different staff requirements, as these are diverse.
1.1.1 The Influence of HR Practices on Retention
Human resource rules and policies that organisation make truly reflect their
philosophy and opinion and the connection between management and staffs.
Sometimes policies are only meant for solving problems and needs of employees.
As explained by Oakland, S and Oakland, J.S (2001), Human resource practices
consist of selection and recruitment, Training/Development, performance
measurement practices, wage and reward systems, quality, health and safety,
information systems etc. In 90's several researchers and authors like Becker B.
&Gerhart B. (1996), Pfeffer, J (1994) had argued that good HR practices is the only
way for sustaining in developing market and it also helps in gaining competitive edge
over competitors. Human resource practices helps in creating a workforce that will
be unique and valuable to gain market advantage and it will be hard for competitors
to copy those practices (Pfeffer, 1998). According to Porter & Tripoli (1997), Number
of different researches at the organisational level concluded that many of the HR
practices influences the outcomes of organisation through influencing staffs
performance and attitudes.
In recent times it has been noticed that HRM practices has develop into more tactical
in its focus and function. HRM is supposedly being seen as a strategic employee
endeavour associated with organisational principles, aim and vision. As a result,
there is now bigger focus on to determining and improving staff and organisational
working; equal job opening and positive action procedures planned and executed by
human resources offices have added vastly to the variety if the workforce;
recruitment system have develop into more refined way; member of staff
remunerations systems have increased ( Oakland and Oakland, 2001).
6
1.1.2 Strategic System - Retention Management
Researchers have said that retention management starts with finding the reason why
an employee agrees to join a particular company. As described by Fitzenz, J. (1990)
Retention management depends on following key parameters: company’s culture
and arrangement, staffing policies, wages and remuneration policies, staff support
systems in organisation and career growth prospects. The retention techniques that
can be very effective are career growth opportunities, incentives and rewards
programs. As per many studies it has been established that reviewing of advancing
HRM tools in training, reimbursement and incentive involvement have shown that
these can guide to reduced return and non-attendance, enhanced value of work and
improved economic outcome
To determine the retention parameters among the employee groups within an
organisation and then paying attention towards these factors helps an organisation in
forming a successful retention tools in their system. There are many key factors like
wages, compensation, quality of work, work relationship, award and recognition,
working hours, communication etc helps an organisation in retaining their talented
and skilful employees.
1.1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
It has been noted that in UK, Indian and other part of world that despite having HRM
practices in place many organisations is losing their key staffs. The purpose of this
study is to critical analysed and examine the existing HR practices on the retention of
main employees in Indian organisations. HR practice and retention relationship will
be examined in this study and also fundamentals related to the HR practices, which
affects the employee decision to stay with an organisation, will be identified in this.
Result extracted from this study may help an organisation to expand its effective
HRM retention policies. Retention of an employee is very vital for organisation with
respect of its strategic polices. Study may help an organisation in recruiting those
individuals who can commit themselves to their organisation and it will also aid in
improving the retention percentage of their highly talented and skilled core
workforce.
7
The research objectives are:
 To identify the factors that contribute to staff retention within the chosen
organisation
 To examine the factors that contributes for formulating an effective retention
strategy for any organization.
 To help in the development of an effective HRM retention policy for
organizations.
1.2 Background of the Study
In recent times when it has been seen that due to recession in market many
organisations have to cut down their head count few organisations have focused in
retaining their key staffs by investing money and time. The attention has been on
sorting out employees from the firms and not strengthening the bonds. The high loss
rate of key staffs is expensive to organisations. Losing an important employee
means organisation is losing the vital human resource, key expertise and institutional
reminiscence with them (Entrekin, 2001). With the loss of key workforce from a
group, company only they suffer low productivity nut also they lose the expertise
which can be valuable for companies growth. Skilful employees have the better
understanding of market in which organisation works, how to achieve competitive
advantage in market, they work on companies weakness and convert them to their
strength and also have better knowledge of customers and products. As stated by
Gutherie, J.P (2001), the knowledge and information stored in these key individuals
is an important part of company equity. There has been substantial attention in the
management study relating to the improvement of key competences so that
companies market value and performance can be improved (Prahalad& Hamel,
1990). Keeping these important key staffs is important part of corporate strategic
model and also for gaining competitive edge in market.
It has been noted that there is not enough empirical studies related to the Indian
organisations retention policies. This raises few concerns like: is one HRM practise
is OK for all or do we need different HR policies for different group of staffs? These
and some other untouched issues will form the background of this study. In order to
8
achieve superior perceptive into the procedures and tools that organisation employ
to retain its staff, important research questions were created to carry out this study.
The research organization
The present study will use the case of Reliance Radio FM. The company is operating
in the media field of broadcasting radio programmes under the name of Big FM. Its
parent company Reliance Industries is one of the biggest corporations globally. Big
FM was started in 2006 as a local radio channel in Mumbai and since then has
progresses to being broadcasted in all the states of India and has become the
second most listened channel in India.
The issue
Even though the company is growing rapidly in terms of ratings and audiences,
however it is faced with employee retention issues. The media sector is growing
rapidly in India and people working in one group can easily get opportunities in other
groups or organization. This has raised the issue of retaining the employees. The
present research works thus aims to examine this issue in two fold manner. Firstly by
analysing the available literature to examine the various theories and studies on
retention and then conducting as primary study to get first hand information on the
issue in the organization.
1.3Value of the Study
It has been noticed that in current researches related to HRM literatures in employee
retention field is very limited in Indian organisations. There are many queries related
to the retention policies were asked by researchers. All these queries ask for theory
advancement and call for new models to be developed in the area of retention
policies especially in technical and engineering organisations of India, UK and other
parts of world. These unknown matters will be the research focus. In addition, this
study will progress the HRM literature on the rising pattern of the era.
Fundamentally, this research will try to clarify the existing employment relationships
in Indian technical organisations.
9
This study will help in understanding the importance of retaining core employees in
an organisation. Study will add value in finding the reasons why retaining core staff is
beneficial to the organisations.
1.4Limitations of the study
According to Poole and Van de Ven (1989), a fine hypothesis is by description,
inadequate, comparatively accurate picture. There is constant strain among internal
uniformity and the scope of hypothetical models. The criterion for prudence, firmness
and consistency has motivated this thesis to communicate a small but internally
reliable outline. The other face of the coin is the disapproval of the ideas for being an
unfinished illustration of difficult phenomenon. Numerous irrelevant, unrestrained
aspects could manipulate the model parameters. Though, this has to be countered
by the detail that the study was mainly related with retention management of core
and key important workforce in technical organisations of India.
One of the limitations were the facts gathered will be cross-sectional, so cause and
effect cannot be surely examined. Also, research will be restricted to specific kind of
industries hence the generalisation of the research may be limited due to the small
number of industry.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1. Introduction
In the recent times it has been observed that managing and developing people at
work plays an important role in improving the organisational functioning (Marchington
and Wilkinson 1997). As stated by Accenture (2001) in their statement that ‘people
are our most important asset’ reflects the importance of working staff. As per
Maguire, S. (1995) it has been established that there is common thinking of
appreciating and spending in the workforce among the successful companies.
Several theories established that Human Resource Management (HRM) is the
source of gaining competitive edge in the market among different players (Delery,
1998; Walker 2001). Employee retention is one of the important aspects of the HRM.
10
Moseley, Jeffers and Paterson (2008) stated that employee retention is a key to
companies, as improved turnover generates unsteadiness and adds extra pressure
and stress on remaining employees, escalating job displeasure and therefore
affecting the turnover cycle.
Many of the organisations in recent times keep on struggling with retention because
they are depending on wages enhancement and bonuses to avoid turnover (Gumbus
and Johnson 2003). Fundamentally, many companies are now accepting that
retention is a strategic subject and correspond to a competitive edge in the market
(Walker 2001). The easiest means to retain staffs is to boost satisfaction levels; but
this will only be efficient if executed correctly (Denisi & Griffin, 2008). The challenge
is in handling or meeting different staff requirements, as these are diverse (Mello,
2010). Retention policy should be in places that deal with the requirements of staffs
that are more likely to leave.
This chapter explains the association between HRM practices and the retention of
core (important) staffs in the perspective of the Human Resource Architecture. It
inspects the roots of bad employee commitment and specially investigates
appropriate literature to recognize fundamentals of HR policies that influence staff
retention. The related literature is presented in this chapter to provide an overview of
the areas covered in the study.
2.2. HR Models of Architecture
A HR model of architecture is a structure by which to differentiate staffs in order to
plan human resource aid procedures. It has been observed that in between 1990s
and 2000s huge amount of downsizing was done in companies in order to enhance
productivity and cost reduction. Though, the continuous cycle of reforming and re-
structuring by organisations had changed the new employment association (Wright
1995). The growing model for this employment association took many shapes.
The labour flexibility model by Atkinson’s (1985), proposes that corporations can
shape their employees actively to reach their organisations goals using flexible staff
scheme. Atkinson recognized 3kinds of flexibility employment scheme: (1) numerical
flexibility (2) functional flexibility and (3) financial flexibility. This model recognises
“core” and “secondary” staffs. Secondary staffs include provisional, part time or
11
contractual staffs. Usually these staffs had been mentioned to as ''atypical'' and
''Contingent'' staffs in Europe and America respectively. These staffs are used for
numerical flexibility which includes the extension and reduction of staffs depends on
market variations and competitive demands (Lesperance 2001). Kaye and Jordan-
Evans (2010) stated that retention is even more important as an outcome of:
 The scarcity of skilled staffs,
 Transformation in staffs attitudes,
 The accessibility of new employment opportunities,
 The bigger revenue linked with employing new talent, and
 The reality that in the current market condition, acquiring talented staffs is the
separator.
Core or fulltime staffs gives corporations with functional flexibility and their skills and
talent can be transferred within the company because of change in demand of
product market and expertise. This set of the work force is multi-talented and well
trained to help a fast and soft deployment of staffs between works and assignments.
Retention is important for core employees because a leaving employee may have
the crucial skills and talent essential for a particular job or carrying out a task for a
project. It has been noted that because of such leavings product line may suffer. A
key talented staff may be hard to substitute – at least in the short term. Finally,
financial flexibility is explained as a condition where the amount a staff is paid rest on
the work done, working hours, or the organisational affordable sum (Atkinson 1984;
Nollen 1996). It may include a change to payment schemes such as performance
incentive (PI) to help either numerical or functional flexibility. Profit Sharing and
employee share ownership plans (ESOPS) are other examples of financial flexibility.
The RC Company (2010) comes up with three types of factors that decide an
organisation's capability to draw and retain core staffs. Factors are shown below in
figure 1.
12
Of the three groups mentioned above, organisational influences are the most
manageable; given a consideration of what is presently going on and what should be
occurring in an organisation. However, it may not be feasible or even legal to
manage person characteristics, it is comparatively simple to recognize connection
between them and job fulfilment and then adjust company’s policies accordingly.
Organisational influences that impact retention of employees are: career growth,
incentives/numeration, positive feedback, staff engagement and administration.
Similarly, Lepak & Snell (1999) Lepak and Snell came up with the basis of a HR
model that line ups diverse employment means and employment associations. This
model divided staffs into four sections as per the worth and exceptionality of their
ORGANISATIONAL
INFLUENCES
Employment plans, policies
and the variety of other
factors which make up the
working climate or culture
in an organisation
INDIVIDUAL
INFLUENCES
Characteristics of
individual employees that
may indicate likelihood of
their joining and staying
with a given employer
External
Factors
These are outside the
organisation such as the
global labour market or
overall economic climate
Attraction
and
Retention
Figure 1: Source: The RC Company 2010
13
skills/talent relative to the “core processes” of the company. The 4 employment
sections are (1) internal growth (core), (2) acquirement, (3) contracting and (4)
coalition. The descriptions of these 4 types of employees are outlined in Table 1
below:
Table 1: Four Different Employment Modes of HR Architecture. Source:“The human
resource architecture: toward a theory of human capital allocation and development,”
Academy of Management Review, vol. 24(1), Jan 1999, p. 31 (1), Lepak and Snell,
1999
Section 1 stand for core and key staffs that an organisation will spend in, with
respect of training and development, compensation/bonus and reimbursement and
other self improvement HR plans that will guard their investment (Entrekin and Court
2001; Lepak and Snell 1999).
Section 2 stands for a substantial amount, independent skilled professionals like CA,
solicitors, academics, engineers. These key personnel have important skills and
talent that are not exclusive to a particular organisation and are reasonably
extensively spread in the labour market. These staffs have a provisional reliability at
Section1: Internal Growth
High value, high uniqueness employeesare ‘core’ employees
and a source of competitive value. Their value and
uniqueness may be based on ‘tacit knowledge’ that would
be valuable toa competitor.
These employees would be developed internally and the
organisation wouldinvest intheirtraining anddevelopment.
Section 3: Contracting
Low value, low uniqueness employees are those with low-
level skills that arewidely available in themarket. In this
case labour is treated as a commodity to be acquired when
needed.Thereis no long termrelationship, rathera
short-termeconomic exchange.
No investment intraining and development.
Section2: Acquirement
High value, low uniqueness employees are those whose skills
are valuedbut arewidely available inthemarket,for
example, accountants. These employees are likely to be
career-focused and havea conditional loyalty toa specific
organisation.
HR strategy is to buy from the market, emphasising
recruitment and immediate deployment of skills. Little
investment intraining and development.
Section4: Coalliton
Low value, high uniqueness employees are those who are not
essential to creating value and are therefore not ‘core’ but
who have skills that the organisation needs from time to
time, such as lawyers.
This is an alliance relationship for example, a law firm who
looks after a company’s legal affairs. There would be little or
no training and development.
14
best and are dedicated to their occupation (Entrekin and Court 2001; Lepak and
Snell 1999).
Section 3stands for staffs whose skills and talent are low in worth and exclusivity and
basically stand for staff as a commodity which is broadly accessible and can be
procured and disposed of as necessary. Employees are more often than not
contractual and sub let. Provisional workforce in office and secretarial sector, call
centre staff, cleaning and maintenance are jobs that come into this group (Entrekin
and Court 2001; Lepak and Snell 1999).
Section 4 stands for small value high exclusivity employees that the organisation
needs not to directly hire or employ. They are low in worth and unsuccessful to
improve value to the core procedures or add to a competitive gain. The skills are
exclusive in that a organisation do not want them frequently enough to validate their
full time service. An example - coalition between an organisation and an academic
institution to offer particular kind of study contributions on a regular basis where the
combined worth of the association surpass the value both institution can create on its
own (Entrekin and Court 2001;Lepak and Snell 1999).
The HR architecture unveils two outlooks: the first outlook is that every employment
form holds with it an intrinsically dissimilar form of employment connection.
Rousseau (1995) explains employment associations as the "psychological
agreement of individual philosophy, formed by the company, about conditions of an
exchange contract between personnel and their companies". As employment forms
change, so does the character of the psychological agreements.
The second outlook of the HR model contemplates the outlines of HR procedures or
HR compositions to aid describe the employment means, sustain the employment
connection and eventually sustain the strategic character of human resources.
2.3. HRM Practices
Fundamentally, key staffs execute the necessary responsibilities in the organisation,
and human resource systems of that organisation are intended to provide help and
handle this human resource (Gramm and Schnell 2001). In companies human HRM
procedures act as a moderator between HRM policies and HRM outcomes.
Sheppeck and Militello (2000) split HRM policies into four categories: employment
15
talent and job policies, accommodating surroundings, performance mark up and
strengthening, and market organisation. As argued by Stavrou‐Costea (2005) that
Efficient HRM can play an influential aspect in an organisational success. As per Lee
and Lee’s (2007) research, the result of HRM practices on company performance
like learning and development, team effort, reimbursement/incentive, HR
development, performance evaluation, and staffs security aids enhance
organisation’s business execution including staff's productivity, quality of product and
the organisation flexibility. Present HRM philosophy put importance on the benefits
of fulfilling employee requirement and facilitating staffs to have power over their
professional lives. Many organisations identify the requirement to offer the data,
flexibility and say that staffs want to add to organisational achievement (Capelli
2000). Companies attempt to pick and employ the correct candidates. On the other
hand, candidates collect information regarding companies and recent jobs market
trends and offers; because they cannot get full information of all options and their
possible descriptions, they depend on inadequate data’s (Chan & Kuok, 2011).Many
researches related employee organisation selection point out the importance of
having similarity between employee's principles and the organisational principles for
the reason that values are visualised of as essential and comparatively permanent
(Van Vianen 2000). It has been noted that less wages or salary may be the case of
employees leaving the company, but retention cannot be guaranteed by higher
packages. People remaining in company may because they have better
understanding with their working colleagues and are occupied and attracted by work
they do and thinks that it is refining their skills. Salary carries on being vital in
shaping motivation to execute (McCallum 1998). Previous motivational concepts like
expectancy and equity concepts had calculated dissimilarities in motivation and this
is because of altering valences of results as salary (Das 2002).Staffs will be satisfied
with their wages if they will feel that what the are getting in return of their time, effort
and dedication is same as other. If this is not the case then dissatisfaction might
happen within the employees. (Ryan & Sagas, 2009).Nonetheless, wages is read as
one of the options and it has been noted that time and again it is considered with
little exactitude (Mitchell and Mickel 1999).
Though a relationship is present among reimbursement fulfilment and dedication and
is one of the factors of company’s commitment, nonetheless, it has to be measured
as one of the portions in a multifaceted scenario (Boyd and Salamin 2001).
16
Organisation must not concentrate only on wages, remuneration and benefits, but
also towards other greatly appreciate de-employment aspects like balance between
lifestyles and flexible working hour’s systems. Mentioned all are nonmonetary
remunerations known as intrinsic awards and they play an important part in
compensation contentment (Mitchell and Mickel 1999; Parker and Wright 2001).
Employees are likely to stay with the company if they realise that their potential, hard
work and performance inputs are acknowledged and valued (Davies 2001).
Reimbursement gives recognition, but few other types of non-monetary appreciation
are also imperative.
This denotes that current HR procedures have a great deal of direct bond to
companies' strategy making and performance matters than the conventional way to
human resources management (Bach & Sisson, 2000).
High Involvement or commitment human practice methodology enhances
organisational efficiency by generating circumstances where staffs become greatly
involved in the company and put effort to achieve the organisation's objectives
(Arthur 1994; Bishop 1998). Many team leaders and managers in recent time identify
the profits of "high involvement and commitment" HRM practices that react to staffs
requirements, promote workforce to take liability for their professional lives, and
encourage staffs to perform in ways that help the company (Baron and Kreps 1999).
Knowledge sharing, communication accessibility, development and training, and
numeration are some of the way constantly establish in this "high involvement and
commitment" group. High involvement and commitment practices are those
procedures that motivate staffs to take on high levels of accountability for the
accomplishment of an organisation’s objectives. According to D'Cruz& Noronha
(2011) stated that high loyalty and commitment HRM practices improves staffs level
of ability, inspiration, data, and authorisation. With respect to make sure that this
procedure is doing well, HR unit must expand and execute HR practices that help
the employees to become self‐trained and self‐managed (Guthrie, 2001).If high
involvement and commitment HR procedures are used highly then it is possible to
have two bigger implications. One, as previous studies by different authors (Arthur,
1994; Huselid, 1995; Shaw, Delery, Jenkins, & Gupta, 1998) suggested that high
commitment and involvement in to work procedures increases staff retention.
Second, bigger use of these procedures may add to organisations exposure to
17
allocations connected with the staff loss (Guthrie, 2001).Huselid (1995) proposes,
after conducting a research of over 900 US companies, that HR practices can be
classed into two groups: one that enhance skills, and second that increases staff
motivation. The research observes that 1st group HR practices i.e includes
recruitment, training, learning, and development are connected with incomes and
financial accomplishment, and the 2nd group HR practices i.e. staff motivation
includes performance evaluation and reimbursement actions are linked with
quantification of efficiency. Arthur (1994) likewise discovers an intense association
among staff retention and productivity in high involvement and commitment HR
practices.
2.4 HRM factors deciding retention
In the value chain of an organisation role of HRM is very important. It has been
hypothesized by several researchers that the responsibility of HRM in a company is
a major factor in the organisation’s capacity to attain its organisational goals and
extend a viable competitive gain within the market where it functions.
This canbe accomplished by the strategies every organisations endorses, and the
process it adopt to entice and keep the correct workforce for its requirements
(Holland, et al., 2007). Studies done by many researchers reflected that there is
increasing indication that HRM can act as an important factors in retaining a high
skilled and talented employees. It has been noted that advanced HRM policies in
training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution have shown that these can
guide to decreased turnover and non-attendance, good quality product/services, and
enhanced financial result. Adding to this is the study done by Accenture (2001) in
INDIAN, Europe and other part of the world on retention strategies of the
organisations. These strategies comprises of following:
 Providing broad training and development—to all employees irrespective of
whether staffs are full time, part-time or contract.
 Giving opportunities to workforce to work on different projects to keep them
interested and challenged in work and at the same time giving them chance to
enhance their skills
18
 Authorising and delegating employees by responsibility and making sure that
there is balance between personal and professional life and appropriate
working culture.
 Flexible working hours should be provided
 Proper Mentor and buddy should be allocated to staffs and staff must have
knowledge of their own progress growth.
 Staff should be updated with latest methodology and principles
 Making sure that staff have good access to their seniors
 Staff should be motivated to work towards business goals.
 Staff benefits should be provided like club membership, insurances etc.
 Good reward and salary packages to be offered.
Appointing competent individuals is an alluring point of leaving in the process; but
forming and keeping dedicated employees is more expected to be assisted by the
introduction of a series of refined HRM setup (Y. Chew, 2005). As per Fitz-enz
(1990), staff retention management program is governed by quite a few important
aspects, which must be handled correspondingly are: firm’s culture and organisation,
employment policies, salary and reimbursement values, staff welfare programs, and
a learning and training opportunities and career growth scheme. Subsequently,
companies’ make use of a broad array of these HRM aspects guiding retention and
involvement/commitment (Beck 2001; Parker and Wright 2001; Stein 2000).
In this study, all the factors are assessed and divided into two groups – one is HR
factors includes employee organisation fit, salary/benefits, leaning and training and
career growth, exciting openings or opportunities. Other group is of organisational
Factors include top management actions, team unity, organisational environment
and culture and organisational strategies. In below section these two groups are
explained.
2.5HR Factors in Retention
 Employee Organisation Selection (fit)
Recruitment is a process in which an organisation look for candidates and invite
promising employees whereas selection is a process through which an organisation
19
find out those candidates with the talent, learning knowledge, expertise, capabilities,
and other qualities that will aid it accomplishing its objectives (De Cieri&Kramar,
2008).The concept of employee-job (E-J) selection (fit) stresses complementing
employee and jobs with respect of credentials based on understanding, talent and
knowledge, or capability, and observing other personal qualities of candidates that
possibly will be fit for the evaluation of "fit." (Edwards 1991). Though, as the job
complexity enhances, companies are adopting new selection techniques to get more
skilled workforce to do the job. Several employee-job selection studies shown that
employees attracted to works with difficulty levels in the job and that will
proportionate with their capability (Wilk and Sackett, 1996). Companies attempt to
pick and employ the correct candidates. On the other hand, candidates collect
information regarding companies and recent jobs market trends and offers; because
they cannot get full information of all options and their possible descriptions, they
depend on inadequate data’s (Chan & Kuok, 2011).Many researches related
employee organisation selection point out the importance of having similarity
between employee's principles and the organisational principles for the reason that
values are visualised of as essential and comparatively permanent (Van Vianen
2000). In this study, principle similarity and employee-culture fit are considered as
equal terms.
 Salary, Benefits/reward and appreciation of employee value
Salary is a vital attribute of HRM. Salary and benefits are the modes by which
employees measures whether the effort and time given by them to organisation is
worthwhile or not (Ryan & Sagas, 2009).
Organisations often offer salary packages better than the other players in market for
key talent. These packages comprise special salary payments, share options, or
additional benefits like bonus. Salaries have an effect on the recruitment process
and staff retention (Parker and Wright 2001;Williams and Dreher 1992) and thus play
an important part in the hiring process. Though, these studies correlate that wages,
by itself, will not be sufficient enough to keep staffs. It has been noted that less
wages or salary may be the case of employees leaving the company, but retention
cannot be guaranteed by higher packages. People remaining in company may
because they have better understanding with their working colleagues and are
occupied and attracted by work they do and thinks that it is refining their skills. Salary
20
carries on being vital in shaping motivation to execute (McCallum 1998). Previous
motivational concepts like expectancy and equity concepts had calculated
dissimilarities in motivation and this is because of altering valences of results as
salary (Das 2002).Staffs will be satisfied with their wages if they will feel that what
the are getting in return of their time, effort and dedication is same as other. If this is
not the case then dissatisfaction might happen within the employees. (Ryan &
Sagas,2009).Nonetheless, wages is read as one of the options and it has been
noted that time and again it is considered with little exactitude (Mitchell and Mickel
1999).
Though relationships present among reimbursement fulfilment and dedication and is
one of the factors of company’s commitment, nonetheless, it has to be measured as
one of the portions in a multifaceted scenario (Boyd and Salamin 2001).
Organisation must not concentrate only on wages, remuneration and benefits, but
also towards other greatly appreciated employment aspects like balance between
lifestyles and flexible working hours systems. Mentioned all are nonmonetary
remunerations known as intrinsic awards and they play an important part in
compensation contentment (Mitchell and Mickel, 1999; Parker and Wright, 2001).
Employees are likely to stay with the company if they realise that their potential, hard
work and performance inputs are acknowledged and valued (Davies 2001).
Reimbursement gives recognition, but few other types of non-monetary appreciation
are also imperative. Acknowledgment from top management, team co-workers,
colleagues and customers improve loyalty and commitment (Walker, 2001). It has
been noted that one of the most important aspect in retention is to allow employees
to participate in decision making and let them take the lead.
 Learning, training and career growth
Training is regarded as a type of human resources investment irrespective of
whether that investment is sanctioned by an individual or by the firm (Goldstein,
1991; Wetland, 2003). Training programs are meant to enhance the employee’s
skills once they were recruited to the organisation. Once an employee joins an
organisation he is expected to gain new expertise and knowledge through
companies training scheme and he must start applying those skills on the job, and at
the same time must communicate those with fellow colleagues (Noe 1999). World’s
21
several successful organisations are knowledgeable that the training and
development provisions they are making rest at the centre of their capability to entice
and retain the finest staffs for their company. Hence it is essential that companies
must offer an chance for their personnel to learn (Bernsen et al, 2009), as practical
development plans will enhance the potentials of their team and also it will
encourages workforce and consequently bring about a more dedicated staff
Group (Kyndt et al, 2009). Training and development could be of increasing
fundamental literacy, learning of new technology and getting familiar with existing
one, interactive communication, or training related to how to solve a problem.
It has been observed that staff turnover and training level are inversely correlated i.e
the high turnover level means less training required. This hypothesis is established
on the interpretation that the if a staff stays for long time with a organisation, the
training outcome will be higher. A research done by Frazis et al (1998) showed
That staffs of comparatively small companies spent about 59% of their entire training
time in formal training whereas in bigger orgainisation only 18% of staff invests time
in formal training. From the staff’s perspective if technical training is provided as per
company’s requirement then eventually it will reflect in the company’s productivity. If
productivity increases so does the wages of staffs will and hence giving them reason
to stay with company. It won’t be incorrect to say training can provide lower turnover
(Frazis et al. 1998; Wetland 2003). In summary, arrangement of proper training and
development can give positive result in the area of staff retention because through
this staffs feels that they are recognised for their abilities and talent and it generates
opportunities to expand their qualities (Kyndt, et al., 2009;Visser, 2001).
 Challenging and Exciting job opportunities and openings
It is very imperative that staffs should be engaged with the new exciting challenges
always else they will look for other opportunities where they will find the exciting jobs
to be done. One way to counter this issue is by allocating employees to the projects
in which they want to work and also keeping the options of inter unit or cross country
transfers. Engaging staffs with exciting and challenging projects and ensuring that
there is system in place through which performance can be measured and proper
feedback is given is vital for a good performance setting in which staffs can
accomplish their personal objectives (Furnham 2002). The need and eagerness of
learning new techniques keeps staffs fulfilled and inventive (Walker 2001). It has
22
been noticed that staffs always look for bigger responsibility and in quest of different
kind of works. Gaining cross function experience is also one of the factors which can
help in staff retention. In this if a employee stays with a company for a long period
then he can easily change his field like if he is good in technical then he can move to
management side to gain experience in that field. Shifting talented staffs in this way
not only guarantee that they will be tested, but also helps staffs to gain broad range
of experience within the group in the view that someday they will take leadership role
in the company.
Staffs who feels that company is not doing enough to provide them exciting and
challenging jobs and there is also not much scope of creativity and development,
those staffs will express their displeasure and will lack the dedication towards its
employers. More precisely, when the agreement linked to self-sufficiency and
development and bonuses and openings were violated, staffs were more prone to
register negative attitudes and displeasure toward the company, will also show low
commitment, and bigger signs to leave the company (Phillips 1997).
2.5.2. Organisational factor in Retention
 Top Management and Leadership
Leadership is explained as the actions of the person that ends in non-coercive affect
while that person is managing and organising the tasks of a team to the achievement
of a common objectives (Bryman 1992). Leadership and top management is
theorised with respect of four responsibilities that are required to be attained in every
organisation: giving objectives and direction, giving surety association, generating
loyalty and commitment and facing ever changing challenges (Risher and Stopper
2002). Leaders and Managers are key to the development of generating cultures,
schemes and arrangements that promote knowledge formation, sharing and
development (Bryant 2003). It has been noticed that after late 1990's organisations's
started putting emphasis on how leadership and top management behaviour
impacting the performance of a company (Giambatista, 2004; Rowe, Cannella,
Rankin, & Gorman, 2005). Lots of researchers had argued that the style of
leadership is important in achieving organisational success and it also affect the total
performance of an organisation (Rowe, et al., 2005). Many theories indicated that
leadership improved organisational loyalty and commitment. However differences
23
among the transformational and charismatic leadership concepts can be found,
academicians nowadays seeing them as they have many things in common which
they can share and coming up with new type of concepts known as the new
leadership or neo-charismatic theory (Gumbus and Johnson 2003;Nanus 1992).
Leaders from Transformational theory are considered as dynamic leaders with four
unique characteristics: charisma, motivation, logical stimulation and personalised
consideration (Kouzes and Posner 1995). Many studies related to the leadership
have observed the influence of transformational and charismatic leaders, and results
shows that these leadership styles helps in obtaining bigger number of followers,
inspiration and loyalty as well as better organisational performance (Podsakoff,
McKenzie and Bommer 1996; Steyrer 1998). Hence, from the literature review, it can
be concluded that leadership behaviour has a constructive impact on firms
commitment and turnover intention.
 Organisational culture and Strategies (policies)
Organisational culture is explained as the indistinguishable factors that outline life in
a business company (Fitz-enz 1990; Sheriden 1992). Top Management and
leadership thinking and approach, interactions procedures and policies, customs and
taboos act together to generate the exclusivity of each organisation (Furnham 2002;
Guzzo and Noonan 1994). It has been observed that workforce tends to join that
organisation where they find working culture and overall environment appealing. But
it has been seen in last decades that cultural styles of industries, the civilizing quality
of several organizations have transformed evidently. And as soon as the culture and
environment transformed, whether because of expansion, new management or
financial and policies interference, some staffs become uneasy and choose to leave
the organisation in search of new company whose culture will best suits them (Stum
1998). Structure is supplement of culture, which is created by environment, culture
and expertise. Structure begins by job designing and workflow outlines, and
comprises of strategies and processes, control period, interaction associations and
other aspects that govern how task is to be completed and conducted. In view of the
fact that employee enter organisations partially for the reason that they are
engrossed to the environment, working culture and configuration, and that's where
retention management starts. Managers and leaders who scrutinise how efficient
their organisational culture/environment and arrangement are at retaining staffs
require to do same from the bottom level (Judge and Cable 1997; Sheriden 1992).
24
From an organisational growth point of view, the idea of organisational environment
and culture proposes an opportunity for nurturing modifications in performance and
attitudes in bid to bring on required outcomes. The retention techniques that can be
very effective are career growth opportunities, incentives and rewards programs. As
per many studies it has been established that reviewing of advancing HRM tools in
training, reimbursement and incentive involvement have shown that these can guide
to reduced return and non-attendance, enhanced value of work and improved
economic outcome. There is increasing indication that HRM can act as an important
factors in retaining a high skilled and talented employees. It has been noted that
advanced HRM policies in training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution
have shown that these can guide to decreased turnover and non-attendance, good
quality product/services, and enhanced financial result. Moreover, employees are
likely to stay with the company if they realise that their potential, hard work and
performance inputs are acknowledged and valued (Davies 2001). Moreover, many of
the organisations in recent times keep on struggling with retention because they are
depending on wages enhancement and bonuses to avoid turnover, many companies
are now accepting that retention is a strategic subject and correspond to a
competitive edge in the market. The easiest means to retain staffs is to boost
satisfaction levels; but this will only be efficient if executed correctly. On the other
hand, the challenge is in handling or meeting different staff requirements, as these
are diverse.
But to carry on this effectively, company's experts related to development should
discover if they can forecast specific manners and approaches based on outline of
company working culture. Supporters of tactical cultural transformation
characteristically craft a number of unconditional postulations. First, organisations
own noticeable working cultures, which influence quality and execution of work.
Second, even though cultures may be defiant to change but to some degree they are
compliant and controllable. Thirdly, it is likely to recognise specific cultural
characteristics that make possible or reduce high-quality performance, and it must
be practicable for leader and managers to plan policies for cultural transformation.
Finally, it is believed that whichever profits attained from the cultural change will
overshadow any non-functional cost. All these researches and subjective support
25
recommends an encouraging relation among corporations working cultures and staff
loyalty and commitment (Koeneet al 1997).
 Communication and consultation
Effectual communication has come into view from the complete literature review as
an important aspect of man management be it communicating the objectives, aims,
vision, policies and strategies of an organisation or the announcement of details,
information and data communication arrangement (Hart, Miller and Johnson 2003).
The management accountabilities for efficient communication comprise (1) making
sure employee are informed on cores subjects, (2) fair and honest communication on
all subjects that can impact workforce, (3) motivating employees to talk about
organisations matters and provide upward responses and (4) making sure issues
from employees are passed to higher management and appropriate reply on time is
given (Fourtou 1997; Mumford and Hendricks 1996). Numerous official and casual
communication means are present; all intended to promote an atmosphere of open
channel of communication, shared skills and knowledge and data also faith in an
effectual cross functional arrangement. Standard staff meetings and other
information's permit workforce to regulate their hard work to sustain organisation
goals. Chances for responses offer staffs an opportunity to control their own work
and organisation strategies. Grievance process offer an official way through which
staffs issues can be point out there discontent by a verdict or result (Gopinath and
Becker 2000). Team leaders and colleagues are therefore mainly accountable for
communicating role potentials and responses regarding activity performance (Miller
and Jangwoo, 2001). Therefore, companies that run efficient communications make
sure that internal communications aid their staffs and create the link amid positive
facets of their job place and effectual management strategies (Walker 2001).
 Team working relationships
It has been seen that staffs stay with organisation when they have good bonding with
their fellow co-workers (Clarke 2001). In today's generation it has been noted that
Companies promote team building chances and the projects opportunities where
team can work together. Also companies are putting emphasis on social dealings on
and off the job. One significance of team-oriented group is the relationship they build
26
between team members. Fellow colleague’s helpfulness denotes to the
responsiveness of and the degree to which colleagues give notice to staff remarks
and concerns (Miller and Johnson 2003). Communications with fellow workers may
provide "an affective psychological function by providing emotional support against
the stresses of the organisation's socialisation initiatives and uncertainties of the
work setting" (Jablin 1987, p.702). In recent times, the attention on collaboration,
authorisation and flatter organisations places incentive on organisational behaviour
that sustains a sponsorship that staffs perform impulsively to advantage both the
company and one's team. Basically, staffs who function as a unit are more liable to
believe an augmented commitment to the job teams efforts and the company as a
whole (Cohen and Bailey 1997; Meyer and Allen 1997). Subsequently, staffs be
likely to stay in organisations due to the good association they have built at the
workplace (Clark 2001; Marchington 2000).
 Satisfactory working conditions
Personal and family life balance is the one of the most important factor that
management must realise to gather employee commitment is management's. In
leaving and staying of employee in a company sometimes depend on their personal
problems and circumstances. People will remain with an organisation that evidently
thinks and concerns for their career precedence's, wellbeing, geographic location,
family, and other individual requirements (Gonyea and Googins 1992). For example,
many organisations are offering flexi-hour schemes and are looking for different
plans that will help a staff to manage its personal and professional life (Perry-Smith
and Blum 2000; Solomon 1999). Gumbus and Johnson (2003) points that the
enhancement to several work-life proposals intended at an organisational culture
depend upon performance and staff commitment. For that reason, several
organisations have effectively formed a staff friendly situation by amalgamating
dedicated work configuration such as flexi-hours, telecom, work from home and
family-leave help to help staffs in generating a work/life balance. Few academicians
proposes that for productive job experiences to enhance commitment considerably,
staffs must think that such job experiences are an outcome of efficient management
Strategy (Parker and Wright 2001). So construct a positive culture into improved
commitment may rely on how better managers thrive at realising employees to credit
good management for their constructive experiences. Previous study in
27
organisational behaviour and HRM has shown that an organisation's commitment to
its staff tends, in return, to generate a further committed and responsible employees
(Eisenbergeret al. 1990; Organ 1990) Hence, it come into view that the
employee/environment-selection hypothesis presumes that, as staffs accumulate
positive job experiences, corresponding commitment increases consequently (Lahiry
1994).
Chapter 3
Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction
28
As per Collis and Hussey (2005) research is a systematic technique by which the
data could be collected, examined and deduced so as to understand the incidence
about which the researcher is a lot fascinated.
The chief motive of the research was that the scholar must search the aspects in the
corporation that has an influence on the senior persons working in the corporation
with reference to the retention of the higher management staff. The chief motive of
assisting the corporation is making it capable enough to formulate plans that are
associated to the retention of the staff and the corporation has to update the persons
about the outcome of the research. The research has been prepared after a suitable
study with reference to the professional growth, compensation, affirmative
appreciation, staff member involvement and administration that have an affirmative
influence on the retention of the employees in the corporation. The approach that
has been employed in the current research is the procedural approach that was put
forward by the Collis and Hussy (2009) in which the qualitative as well as the
quantitative approach have been employed. Hence these methods give an
authorization also that was not granted by Gill and Johnson (2002). In the current
research the researcher has employed the primary as well as secondary technique
to look for the information.
The procedure of procuring an answer to certain question in a methodical way is
called the research methodology. It comprises of the several stages and processes
that are used by the scholars to investigate the theme of the study and the scopes
related to it. Any person who is occupied with certain exploration or research has to
be familiar and assertive with the investigation techniques and processes as well as
the procedures to do the research. The research methodology blends the
investigation techniques and processes along with the motives and the causes that
are reason for the use of these processes.
Every research methodology has 3 standards. The standard can be defined as a
means of collective group of entire norms, sense and ideas that describes the
methodology of the study. The 3 standards of the study as talked over are:
29
1. Quantitative
2. Qualitative
3. Mixed research
3.2 Secondary Data
The data which is gathered for some definite cause and has been provided and can
be pulled out from the archives of the corporation and from its journals is termed as
Secondary data.
In my research I have employed primary as well as secondary kind of the data. The
technique used to gather primary data is a properly planned questionnaire. The
resources that were used for the gathering secondary data were the HR strategy
handbook of the companies involved and the data from the web pages and business
journals of the firm.
3.3 Primary Data
The data which is gathered for the study during research under process is termed as
primary data. The primary data can be gathered by three ways:
1. Observation
2. Questionnaire
3. Interview
3.3.1 Quantitative research
The present research is done mostly on the grounds of gathering of quantitative
information. Quantitative data here implies the quantifiable extents and measures. It
is valid for problems or difficulties that can be characterized or revealed by a
particular computable measure. Its features are:
The human resource principally comprises of the managing of the persons,
quantitative research approach is a technique in which the participants or the person
who are under study or used for gathering data gives the scholar with more
30
enhanced and thorough responses which have proven important for examining the
information required for this study. For some company to do certain research based
on quantitative numerical on the performance of the firm, it is extremely essential to
investigate the performance of the staff.
3.3.2Qualitative research
The qualitative research has developed out the social science and it is concerned
with the social behaviour of the people. The qualitative technique has emerged from
social science and is basically the study of social behaviour of people (Collis and
Hussey, 2009). Under the present research qualitative study has also been adopted
as internal environment of every organization differs and thus a generalized
statement regarding the satisfaction levels of employees and other aspects cannot
be Quantitative method is adopted in this research to illustrate the background of the
research and to dwell more into the research questions qualitative approach is used.
The main aim of this research was to examine and verify the current HR policies on
the retention of core employees in an Indian technical organisation. This is study is
divided into two parts in order to achieve its goal successfully. Stage one requires an
in-depth one to one interview with HR managers from Reliance Radio FM. This
qualitative methodology was adopted with the aim to obtain enough information and
data from the Indian organization policy makers.
The two stages of the research were considered essential to best answer the
research questions. Each stage of the research obtained important data to help and
add to the development of the tool of the following stage. This research is intended
to correct the gap in the existing literature and offer important perceptions that may
describe the dissimilarities in HRM policies and practices that influence the retention
of key (core) staffs of an organisation. For that reason it is relevant that the study
summarises the necessary information more agreeable to assessment and
discussion. As a result, the two-stage approach was deemed the most competent
research design to successfully investigate the wide objectives of the research
achieved by means of merely quantitative analysis.
3.4Research Approach
31
According to Collis and Hussey (2009), a research approach gives a way of a
research and opens the chance to consider about thediversemethods may
provide to, or bound the research.
3.4.1 Inductive approach
Inductive approach is the approach of expansion of a hypothesis which forms as the
basis of the research. This approach is also known as a foot to head approach. It is
generally related to qualitative research.
3.4.2Deductive approach
Deductive approach is the opposite of the deductive research and a definite issue is
the centre of the research (Collis and Hussey, 2009). Hence it is also known as a top
to down approach. It is generally associated and is followed in quantitative research.
In the present research the researcher has adopted a deductive research as there is
no hypothesis and researcher is framing the study on a specific issue.
3.5 Research Strategy
Case Study
This comprises of a thorough analysis of a certain situation or a person or an
organization.
Survey
A survey is conducted by distributing a predesigned set of questions among the
targeted participants (Collis and Hussey, 2009). In the present research the survey
strategy has been utilized by implementing questionnaires based method. The
survey was used because retention and human resource strategy is different in
different organizations hence a studying a single case would to be sufficient for the
study.
3.6Data Collection
The primary has been collected through two methods:-
 Questionnaires
32
 Interviews
3.6.1 Questionnaire Methods
The design of the questionnaire was associated to the formation of plans instead of
the retention concept and they too have structure concerns. The structure of the
study is taken by the aspects or the grouping from the section two. The
questionnaire was designed by means of plain and simple concepts about the study.
The questionnaire was made keeping in mind the main objective to provide the
answer to the study questions. In that the questions were converted into topics and
the participants were requested to give their opinions about it. The structure of the
study was dispersed in 6 sub segments in which the particulars of the retention could
be specified.
A. Retention Strategies
B. Career Development
C. Remuneration
D. Positive Recognition
E. Staff Engagement
F. Management
Before circulating, the questionnaire was circulated to 10 participants for the
analysis. The pilot study is a very essential entity of analysis of the questionnaire
before the circulation. The questionnaire was sent to the participant over the e-mail.
The participants were told that the secrecy of their identity will be maintained and
only on their desire the identity would be disclosed otherwise not.
3.6.2 Interviews
Interviews are discussion with subjects under study on a certain theme or topic
under study. Various issues and questions are out forward and a detailed feedback
of the participant is on the queries are acquired. In these research the author has
choose the semi- structured interview as it is very important to get the proper
33
information from the respondent so the pattern of the questions needs to change
according to the response.
3.7 Sampling
Random sampling was employed. The sample comprises of senior managers and
personnel from Reliance Radio FM. The name of the employees company has not
been disclosed as per the request of the mangers. However, the self created names
have been provided for ease of reading and in hiding the identity of the participants.
Distribution
The questionnaire was sent to 50 participants over the e-mails. The address of
persons which were selected to mail the questionnaire has to be provided from the
management roll of the selected companies. The questionnaire was kept along with
a cover note and the scholar had asked to return the questionnaires to him once they
are done with it. Also questionnaires were e-mailed to managers from companies in
the business in order to study their opinions about the problems.
3.8 Limitations of the Study
 Because of the character of the interview cantered technique, a noticeably
less populace of the businesses can participate for the research.
 The verdict and the outcomes could not be summarized in general. Here, this
implies that the verdicts and the remarks documented from a specific
interview at any instance cannot be same as other.
The documentation and the analysis of the questionnaire had been done in a
particular time intermission. This has a main disadvantage as the situations and
atmosphere may vary previously or in the time to come and therefore there can be
few disagreements in the information documented as compared to the genuine skills
that may differ to some extent as per the time frame for which it is noted. For
example, the company may have provided incentives to the staff keeping in mind the
profit in view or any other cause; consequently this would have raised their
34
enthusiasm intensities and could influence the participant’s own opinion on the
matter of the questionnaire.
 The employee can be partial in the response
There are prospects that some persons may be partial and may not give exact
information of what they have been through and their true opinions. This may be
because of the individual gratifications and doubt about the secrecy of the
questionnaire or may consider the questionnaires to be a segment of an in-house
research of the company and therefore it is better to provide positive responses to
the query rather than giving genuine information.
 Lack of faith on format
The participants may not be assured of the secrecy of their identity. He/she may be
afraid that their individuality may be exposed and as a result feel reluctant to give
actual response or any information at all. Questionnaire could not be distributed in
comprehensive form. There may be situations where the participant may not get the
complete questionnaire because of the technical causes or some other reasons.
Consequently, this will lead to inadequate data.
 Lack of interest
There will be cases when the participant might not be interested in replying the
queries however could have replied with just for formality sake and hence providing
unusable data which can at times be distracting as well.
35
Chapter 4
Results and Findings
4.1Conclusions of the questionnaire A
The retention approach about the influence on the inspiration to work at the
firm
Q No. Motives Differ Approve
1 The firm is a fine
investor in persons
10 40
2 The firm nurtures an
atmosphere in which
the miscellaneous
persons can work
collectively and
efficiently.
20 30
36
3 Staff is treasured as the
possessions to the firm
05 45
4 The firm helps the staff
in maintaining perfect
work life equilibrium
20 30
As shown in the overhead table, an appealing portion of participants approve that
they are valued as possessions to the firm. 30 participants approve that the firm
assists employees to maintain ideal work-life equilibrium. Furthermore, 30
participants agree that the firm nurture an atmosphere where mixed individuals can
work collectively and effectively. Also, 40 participants agree that the firm is an
outstanding investor in its human resources or staffs.
Career Development
Q No. Motives Differ Approve
0 20 40 60
The company is a good investor
in people
The company fosters an
environment in which the…
Employees are valued as the
assets to the company
The company assists the
employees and ideal work life…
No.of Respondents
The retention strategy about the influence on
the inspiration to work at the firm
Agree
Disagree
37
Company offers
human resources the
under mentioned aid
for their career growth
5 The firmoffers
monetary help
20 30
6 The firmoffers
education holiday
14 36
7 The firm offers
operational exercises
10 40
From 50, 30 participants approved that the firm provides monetary help such as
educational loans, etc. to their staffs. Furthermore, 36 approved that the firm offers
leaves for education to their staffs. Also, 40 participants approved that the firm offers
operational exercise to their staffs.
Remuneration
0 20 40 60
The company provides financial
assistance
The company provides study
leave
The company provides effective
training
No.of Respondents
Career Development
Agree
Disagree
38
Q No. Motives Differ Approve
8 Total Remuneration
is reasonable
12 38
9 Marginal welfares
are fine
14 36
10 Salary Gratification 8 32
11 Worthy Service
Incentive
6 54
From 50, 38 participants approved that the complete compensation of the firm is
reasonable. Furthermore, 36 approved that the peripheral paybacks of the firm are
fine. Also, 32 participants approved that they are gratified with the pay provided by
the firm. Moreover, 54 participants approved that firm offers fine service incentives to
the senior staffs.
Positive Recognition
Q No. Motives Differ Approve
0 20 40 60 80
Total Remuneration is
competitive
Fringe benefits are good
Pay Satisfaction
Good Service Bonus
No.of Respondents
Remuneration
Agree
Disagree
39
12 Managers get
acknowledgment on
worthy performance
10 40
13 Firm provides
worthy performance
promotions
12 38
From 50, 40 participants approved that the staffs of the firm get appreciation when
their performance is good. Also, 38 participants approved that the firm provide
worthy performance promotions to their staffs.
Staff Engagement
Q No. Motives Differ Approve
14 Care about the
well-being of the
branch
14 36
15 Happy with the
designation in the
20 30
0 20 40 60
Employees get recognition on
good performance
Company offers good
performance appraisals
No.of Respondents
Positive Recognition
Agree
Disagree
40
branch
From 50, 36 participants approved that they care regarding the well-being or the
prospect of their branch. Also, 30 participants approved that they are happy with
their designation or job allocated in their specific branch.
4.2 Findings of the Questionnaire B (Respondents from other companies of the
industry)
Management
Q No. Motives Differ Approve
1 Management
converses evident
vision and objective
14 36
2 Management
assists fresh
thoughts
8 42
3 Management
recompenses staffs
of the firm
10 40
0 20 40 60
Care about the welfare of the
department
Satisfied with the role in the
department
No.of Respondents
Staff Engagement
Agree
Disagree
41
From 50, 36 participants approved that the management of the firmconverses
evident vision and objective to their staff. Besides, 42 participants approved that the
management of the firmassists fresh thoughts. Also, 40 participants proven that the
management of the firm recompenses their staffs.
Possible Reasons for Leaving the Company
Q No. Motives Differ Approve
4 Unsatisfied with the
current profession
12 38
5 Receiving less
salary
14 36
6 Anticipated to start
own venture
42 8
0 20 40 60
Management communicates
clear vision and mission
Management supports new
ideas
Management rewards
employees of the company
No.of Respondents
Remuneration
Agree
Disagree
42
From 50, 38 participants approved that they are displeased with their current
profession and it is the chief motive for resigning the job. Also, 36 participants
approved that they get lesser salary and due to this they commonly quit their job.
While, just 8 participants approved that they wish to start their own ventures and
because of this they desire to quit their job. This connects with the finding of the
staffs of the company group in which from 50, 36 participants approved that they
care about the well-being or the prospect of their branch. Also, in the company group
participants approved that they are happy with their job or designation allocated in
their individual branch.
4.3Quantitative Findings
A fact has been evolved from the findings of the study that there exists an extremely
important link among the features of the firm and the retention of the staffs in the
similar firm. The firm has also selected a method which will offer the worker a
genuine route and give few suggestions by means of which the staff could be
retained in the similar firm as well. This method is focused in the direction of the
career development of their staffs. This line up with the conversation in the literature
review in which it was said by Schuler and Jackson (2006) that the better opponent
is one which enhances their staff in order to make them ready to face all the
possibilities that could arise and also for the time where they could put in their full
strength so as to attain their objectives. In case the staffs and the company have to
0 20 40 60
Unsatisfied with the present job
Getting lower remuneration
Desired to get self employed
No.of Respondents
Possible Reasonsfor Leaving the Company
Agree
Disagree
43
accomplish a competitive benefit over its opponents in that situation they have to
improve the expertise of the employees. The term career development could be
observed as a tool by which the managers are capable to look for the requirements
and desires of their staffs. By providing the opportunity by which the careers of the
individuals could be progressed is that they would have to be dedicated for the
company in which has employed them.
The chief administrative aspect is the career development in that by the model of
The company the persons search that nearly 90 percent of the staffs got that there
was no future in the firm for career development and nearly 89 percent of them
mention that their individual desires for the growth were not satisfied the way they
wanted and nearly 79 percent of them mentioned that neither of them in the firm had
been through the training and guidance packages that would enhance their skills.
The conversation in the literature review syncs with this feature of the findings and it
shows that it will be a severe condition for the firm’s retaining strategies. As talked
over in the review that growth aspect is there in each big firm and when any staff
member senses the requirement to utilize it they can effortlessly do. So as to
recognize this goals of the firm and they should do what the firm has assured to
them. The researcher have termed the career development as the procedure by
which constant or active and they have to go through from several levels or stages
and in each level they have to answer every non-similar queries, jobs or subjects.
Horwitz (2008) mentions that in the time to come the nations such as Japan, china
and several other Asian nations will be confronting a severe risk of absence of
trained and partially-trained employees. Accordingly in that situation the entire load
of the trained staff will be confronted by the nations and after that they will confront
few issues in the worldwide market with reference to the staffs.
The advices made by the scholar are very supportive for the organization when the
firm is deciding the yearly policy with reference the career development of the staffs.
In the firm nearly 89 percent of the individual’s mention that the questionnaires were
done in the firm in specific interval and nearly 89-99 percent mentioned that they
were not pleased about the sub-groups available in the administrative aspect that
was positive credit. It was the scholar’s advices that the performance management
and the development mechanism should be comprised in the research.
44
This syncs with the conversation in the literature review in which it was observed that
from years the staffs of the dissimilar firms expected that their job profile should be
extremely innovative, valuable and the job should be very stimulating (Phillips and
Connell, 2003). The findings and the outcomes of the questionnaire reflects the
conversation in the literature review that for maximum of the staffs their works
reveals their persona and they sense the necessity that they need to employ their
brains in any kind job they are working on in their occupation and they are of the
opinion that this would be an significant input for the development and the progress
of the firm. In case during their profession they do not figure out of what they are
expecting from the profession they will not look for another career, instead they will
hang on the similar profession.
Presently, the staffs in the firm are turning out to be enough capable to manage the
atmosphere of the office in which they are employed. Besides, the basic answer to
this is that they should build up their interaction skills so as to make our task easier.
Hence the staffs should select that firm in which the interaction structure is extremely
supple (Phillips and Connell, 2003).
Numerous personnel are searching for that mechanism wherein the staffs get more
incentives which demonstrate their input in the firm (Schuler and Jackson, 2006). In
the firm wherein they are not rewarded on performance basis, then the employees
search for the firm which provides the right worth of their services and the
aptitudes.Moreover in the firm the staffs desire that their appreciation should be
returned in form of money and not just as reward for the hard work that they have
paid to the firm. For several ages in the firm the simple gadget that is the cause of
the encouragement is the firm’s consistent response that it takes from the staffs and
enhances the area wherein they are behind others.
4.4Qualitative Findings
This section gives the outcomes of the qualitative section of the proposed study. It is
an in-depth interview with two HR managers of a Reliance Radio FM was conducted.
The interview questions were made to reflect below research questions:
1. Is the importance placed on HRM factors linked to retention?
2. How are these influential HR factors managed in organizations?
45
Respondents’ Profile
The partaking company was from India and functions in the field of media. This
organisation is one the largest media organisation of India with over more than
10,000 employees. From Interview it has been noted that more than 52% of
employees in the organisation are core employees.
The rationale for getting the percentage of core staffs of participating organisation
was to find out the significance the organization give on retaining a sensible level of
core staffs within its organisation. The company does nevertheless admit that cost
restraints and the nature of the working sector were the influential factors for their
lesser selection of core staffs. 6 HR managers were interviewed. The profile of the
interviewees is as follows
Interviewee’s Name Description
Mr. A Manager
Ms. B Assistant Manager
Mr. C HR Advisor
Mr. D Legal Advisor
Mr. E Assistant HR Manager
Mr. F HR Manager
46
Discussion of interview findings
4.4.1Human resource management department role in improving retention of
core employees
In regards to this aspect, the interviewees acknowledged HR factors in relative to
retention of their core staffs. Mr. A told that effective recruitment plays an important
role in retaining their core employees. Moreover, Miss B told that exciting job
opportunities are considered as most important factor. This was also discussed in
the literature review where it was reviewed that engaging staffs with exciting and
challenging projects and ensuring that there is system in place through which
performance can be measured and proper feedback is given is vital for a good
performance setting in which staffs can accomplish their personal objectives
(Furnham 2002). The need and eagerness of learning new techniques keeps staffs
fulfilled and inventive (Walker 2001). On the other hand Mr. F further argued the
interview discussion and told that training, learning and career growth were
considered as the most significant factor in retaining their core employee. While,
Mr.E told that compensation equity should also be considered as important factors
as most of the organizations have good packages of their staffs. Arguing the
statement Miss B thinks that remuneration and employee recognition has a bigger
impact on employee retention than compensation equity.
This was also reflected in the review of literature where it hypothesized by several
researchers that the responsibility of HRM in a company is a major factor in the
organisation’s capacity to attain its organisational goals and extend a viable
competitive gain within the market where it functions. The interviews were asked to
recommend some organizational factors with respect to the core employee retention.
Mr.E commended effective leadership and management policy to retain their core
employees. Moreover, they also told that good leadership and better management
policies helps in employee retention vastly. On the other hand Miss B feels company
culture and policies was important for core employee retention. Similarly, Mr. C
commended interaction and consultation and they feel these as important factors.
Miss B feels that association at work place is an important factor. On the other hand,
Mr.F and recommended that working culture is an important factor that plays role in
employee retention.
47
From the interview it has been established that factors like professional and personal
life balance, team unity and adequate working conditions are responsible for
changing the working nature. Exciting job chances and training, learning and career
enhancement were also pointed out as important issues for today's Generation
employee. Many of the interviewees termed effective leadership and management
as a important factor for the employee retention.
It was discussed in the literature review that this can be accomplished by the
strategies every organisations endorses, and the process it adopt to entice and keep
the correct workforce for its requirements (Holland, et al., 2007). Studies done by
many researchers reflected that there is increasing indication that HRM can act as
an important factors in retaining a high skilled and talented employees. It has been
noted that advanced HRM policies in training, reimbursement and remuneration
contribution have shown that these can guide to decreased turnover and non-
attendance, good quality product/services, and enhanced financial result.
4.4.2 Relation between organization’s commitment towards their employees
and retention
With respect to this aspect Mr.C told that the organisation commitment towards it
employees is reflected by its HR practices and management trustworthiness. In
return of this commitment employees reciprocate back by showing their
commitments towards the organisation. According to Miss B all through her tenure in
the company she has observed that Commitment policy can be seen as equal and
opposite reaction of employers and employees towards each other. It can be good or
bad. Organisation handling which employees receive can be reflected from
employees’ attitudes and performance. This was observed in the review of literature
where it was discussed that high Involvement or commitment human practice
methodology enhances organisational efficiency by generating circumstances where
staffs become greatly involved in the company and put effort to achieve the
organisation's objectives (Arthur 1994; Bishop 1998). Many team leaders and
managers in recent time identify the profits of "high involvement and commitment"
HRM practices that react to staffs requirements, promote workforce to take liability
48
for their professional lives, and encourage staffs to perform in ways that help the
company (Baron and Kreps 1999).
4.4.3 Role of higher managers in retention
Mr.D told that the answer to most people leaving organisation is because of their line
manager, supervisor or team leaders. One may enquire what it is about this office
association that formulates that it is the biggest cause why so many persons leave
their employments. Miss E told that it is the shortage of faith, contact, applicable and
well-timed feedback, positive reception, fair treatment and information. This was also
discussed in literature review where it was found that many theories indicated that
leadership improved organisational loyalty and commitment. Many studies related to
the leadership have observed the influence of transformational and charismatic
leaders, and results shows that these leadership styles helps in obtaining bigger
number of followers, inspiration and loyalty as well as better organisational
performance (Podsakoff, McKenzie and Bommer 1996; Steyrer 1998). Hence, from
the literature review, it can be concluded that leadership behaviour and role of higher
managers has a constructive impact on firms commitment and turnover intention.
4.4.4 Role of HR strategy of the company is Retention
Mr.E told that HR strategies influence employees attitudes by shaping staffs views
regarding how organisation work and impacting their anticipations of the nature and
wisdom of their association with the company. Miss B told that inside the company
there is a common concept that HR practices cooperate with insight of organisational
endorsement to shape employee loyalty. As told by Mr. A the objective of HRM in
their company is to make sure that the company is capable to attain achievement via
its work force. As per many studies in the literature review it has been established
that reviewing of advancing HRM tools in training, reimbursement and incentive
involvement have shown that these can guide to reduced return and non-attendance,
enhanced value of work and improved economic outcome. It has been noted that
advanced HRM policies in training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution
49
have shown that these can guide to decreased turnover and non-attendance, good
quality product/services, and enhanced financial result.
4.4.5 Relation between Salary and retention
As told by Miss B that the salary scheme has a significant role in implement
strategies. Work quality, employee’s behaviour and their loyalty and willingness to
improve are all proportionate to the salary paid. Mr.A also had the view that a good
amount of salary and benefits as compared to the other players in the market can
guarantee that a business draws and retains high‐quality workforce. As discussed in
the review of literature Salary is a vital attribute of HRM. Salary and benefits are the
modes by which employees measures whether the effort and time given by them to
organisation is worthwhile or not (Ryan & Sagas, 2009).
4.4.6 Balanced working conditions and retention
Mr.E told that their company is offering flexi-hour schemes and are looking for
different plans that will help a staff to manage its personal and professional. Miss B
told that the enhancement to several work-life proposals intended at an
organisational culture depend upon performance and staff commitment. Mr.D told
that their company believe in a healthy, well-balanced workplace that treats the
employee as an individual, a family member, and a member of the community. Miss
B and Mr.F both agreed that a healthy work environment is very important factor to
retain staff. Similar findings were also echoed in the review of literature in which it
was discussed that people will remain with an organisation that evidently thinks and
concerns for their career precedence's, wellbeing, geographic location, family, and
other individual requirements (Gonyea and Googins 1992). Also, Gumbus and
Johnson (2003) points that the enhancement to several work-life proposals intended
at an organisational culture depend upon performance and staff commitment.
50
Chapter 5: Conclusion
In the study the investigation about the firm aspects were included that has an effect
on the retention of the staffs. By the study this has been revealed that the firm could
improve on the enhancement about the aspects by which the senior staffs could be
retained in the firm were also shown in the study. The planning that is formed on the
retention of the senior staff is extremely hard to activate. The procedure by which the
planning that is formed for retaining the senior staff to be proficient, the executive
and the administrators must play their role for that as well.
The key objective of this segment is to integrate the qualitative and experiential
results from section 4 to provide and reply to the major research query of this
research i.e., whether HRM exercises can actually effect the retention of core
employees.
The effect of HRM aspects on retention of central staffs was inspected in two
phases.
Stage 1
The stage one of the research that is face to face detailed consultation was done to
confirm the answers of literature review examining the current retention board
guidelines of Indian managers. Hence, this qualitative technique contributes greater
awareness to the visualizations of the HR plan makers on the retention of their
employees.
First, the deductions of the Stage one recognized the rationality of the HRM-retention
aspects accredited from the literature review. Evidently, the outcomes provide
evidences that these retention HRM factors were current guidelines applied by
participating firms to combat resignations.
Second, findings from this qualitative method revealed that companies that manage
their HR proficiently may have greater retention of their employees. As stated by
Huselid (1995) that out of the test of 968 companies that those agreeing whole
employee recruitment and assortment process, broad staff participation and training,
and proper performance evaluation linked to incentive repayment were anticipated to
have lesser manpower incomings, greater efficiency, and enhanced trade monetary
51
outcome. Numerous other studies appear to approve this insight (Delaney and
Huselid 1996).
Third, the results of Stage one direct in the direction that all-inclusive and varied HR
policies were similarly recognized by participating firms. Still it might be in few cases
that some companies behave with all employees in the same manner, in spite of
their value and uniqueness, results of this research verifies that maximum of the
companies do notable separations in the methods they embrace for varied talent
sets and that they are vibrant features of firm performance. Further, this result
approves the academic HR model specified by Lepak and Snell (1999) which
encourages a dissimilar investment plan for dissimilar kinds of employees.
Stage 2
The end portion of the research is the stage two and it confirmed the HRM retention
model, formed from the results of Literature review and Stage one. This quantitative
method confirmed the relations between the HR aspects, administrative aspects, firm
assurance and objective to continue.
The outcomes of this study displayed affirmative interlinks among the HRM aspects
and organizational dedication. These comprehensive aspects comprises two
packages: HR aspects –organizational assortment, remuneration, incentive and
gratitude, exercise education and career development, thrilling and stimulating
professions forecasts and Organizational aspects - decision-making and headship,
organization policies, squad unison and satisfactory career atmosphere. Research
on communal give-and-take theory has revealed that employees ‘dedication to the
firm is initiated from their opinion of the proprietors ‘devotion to and support of them.
Earlier study also revealed that employees comprehend HR exercises as indicative
of the personified organization’s commitment to them (Settoon et al. 1996). They
reply their interpretations by giving their dedication to the firm. Few writers suggest
that for fine career know-how to improve dedication significantly, manpower needs to
feel that such job performs are a result of effective management policies (Parkerand
Wright 2001).
The outcomes of the study also proved a significant association among firm's
dedication and determination to stay. Meyer and Allen (1997) mentioned a positive
52
link between sentimental dedication and employee retention in their entire re-
evaluate. Together sentimental and quantitative commitments are believed to
enhance the probability that a person will be with a firm (Meyer, Bobocel and Allen
1991).Therefore, the conclusions fascinate consciousness to the intervening
situation of commitment as well. Inferred in the model is that firm dedication
facilitated the relations between organizational assortment, team unison, firm policies
and determination to stay. It was observed that dedication do have a partially
facilitating effect on few of the autonomous factors and intention to stay. The
consequences revealed that it facilitated prize, gratitude and compensation,
exercise, education and career development and profession atmosphere, and
intention to stay.
The results of the study recommended a main and positive link between age and
organizational dedication as well. This outcome is persistent with previous study.
Mathieu and Zajac (1990) mentioned that age was significantly more associated to
sentimental dedication than quantitative dedication.
One more result of this study was a fine association among gender category and
organizational dedication. This is validated by writers such as Beutell and Brenner
(1986) and Angle and Perry (1981) who demonstrated that feminine employees are
more dedicated to firm than masculine employees.
In summary, the outcomes of the study established that retention can be affected by
organizational selection, salary, remuneration, reward and recognition, training,
learning and career growth, challenging and exciting job prospects, managerial and
leadership attitude, company strategy, team unity and job environment. Furthermore,
commitment operates as a mediator of reward, recognition, pay and reward, training,
learning and career growth and job environment on intent to remain. Commitment
also moderates organizational selection, team unity, organization strategy on
intention to remain. Researchers on retentions have defined retention management
as a planned, logical procedure that begins with an assessment of the cause that
staffs join an organisation (Davies 2001; Solomon 1999).
It has been proposed by many researches that retention of employees can be
enhanced by high-involvement job pattern. In most of the cases retention efforts are
to be considered from employer’s side and hence new and well defined practices
53
has been introduced in the view of getting good and positive results out of it.
According Perry-Smith, J & Plum, T.C (2000) in many incidents it has been seen that
not all practices can be enjoyed by all employees like child care plans and flexi-hour
working benefits cannot be taken by every employee’s. It has been observed that
requirements depends on the employees career stage like younger employers will
need more salary, growth opportunities and more leave but where as a person with
family will need job security and benefits like fund and all. Also requirements will
depend on genders – a woman employee need will be different from men (Beck,
2001).
In recent times it has been noticed that HRM practices has develop into more tactical
in its focus and function. HRM is supposedly being seen as a strategic employee
endeavour associated with organizational principles, aim and vision. As a result,
there is now bigger focus on to determining and improving staff and organisational
working; equal job opening and positive action procedures planned and executed by
human resources offices have added vastly to the variety if the workforce;
recruitment system have develop into more refined way; member of staff
remunerations systems have increased ( Oakland and Oakland, 2001). There have
been lots of changes in HRM policies in last ten-twenty years and many reforms
have been introduced in this.
Chapter 6
Recommendations
The researcher feels that there are not enough opportunities for employees in the
firm from the career development point of view. Second essential entity in the
research is that in the industry segment the remuneration fluctuates immensely as
compared to the government sectors. Typically all of the persons that were in the
industry sector were happy with the salary offered and other peripheral advantages
whereas 65 percent of the persons mentioned that they were not happy with the
compensation and they feel that they deserve more than that. Consequently, the
scholar think there is further more scope in research as he feels that staffs were not
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Master in business adminstration [www.writekraft.com]

  • 1. Writekraft Research & Publications LLP (All Rights Reserved) Writekraft Research & Publications LLP (Regd. No. AAI-1261) Corporate Office: 67, UGF, Ganges Nagar (SRGP), 365 Hairis Ganj, Tatmill Chauraha, Kanpur, 208004 Phone: 0512-2328181 Mobile: 7753818181, 9838033084 Email: info@writekraft.com Web: www.writekraft.com MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  • 2. 1 I declare that this Research work is my own original study and has never been presented to any other university for award of any academic certificate or anything similar to such. I seriously accept and stand to correct any inconsistence. Signature ………………………………………………….. DATE : ……………………………………. STUDENT’S NAME ACKNOWLDGEMENT
  • 3. 2 I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who contributed in any way to the completion of this dissertation. These include  -God Almighty for always leading me to greener pastures.  -My Supervisor Mr. Kevin O’Hara for his guidance and valuable insights.  -Many thanks to the senior executives of the company for their time and response.  -My deepest gratitude goes to my father for always supporting me in everything that I do, and for looking after me.  -All my class mates, especially those who have been part of my syndicate, for sharing their knowledge and experience.  My past colleague Mr.Pinakin Kodiawala from Reliance Radio FM for helping me to contact my Research. LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1 - Top 5 HR factors affecting retention Table 4.2 - Top 5 organisational factors affecting retention Table 4.3 - Demographic information of Participants (Age, Gender, Occupation) Table4.4: Regression findings for Organisational Commitment as Dependent Variable Table 4.5: Regression Results for Organisational Commitment as Dependent Variable Table 4.6: Regression Results for Turnover Intention as Dependent Variable Table 4.7: Regression Results for Turnover Intention as Dependent Variable
  • 4. 3 ABSTRACT In recent times it has been acknowledged by many organisations that employee retention in one of the main challenges they are facing. Retaining their most productive and skilled employee becoming difficult day by day for the organisations and it’s very for companies future growth and development that they keep their existing staffs. This research will analyse the existing HR practices that the INDIAN organisations adopt to retain their key and important staffs. This study mainly points out the important HR practices of organisation which affects the staff’s decision to stay with their companies. The research divided into two parts.First part will be a qualitative approach and will involve an in-depth one to one interaction with HR practitioners from an Indian organisation to gain more data from them. Data gained from this will help the researcher to build a more efficient tool for part two. Part two will involve a survey of core and critical staffs of Indian organisation. This is quantitative analysis. This part analysis the research question - ''Which of the HRM factors plays an important role in the decision of employees to stay in an organisation"? .The study has employed both the primary as well as secondary kind of data. The technique used to gather primary data is a properly planned questionnaire. The resources that were used for the gathering secondary data were the HR strategy handbook of the companies involved and the data from the web pages and management journals. In the present research the questionnaire and semi structured interviews have been utilized for collection of primary data. The approach used is deductive approach since no hypotheses have been framed. The findings from this research have helped in determining the different HR factors that contribute towards employee retention of Indian organisations. These factors belong to two groups - HR Factors and Organisational Factors. The conclusion of HRM-retention association has been presented in terms of organisational dedication and earnings motives by means of multiple regression analysis. The outcome of the study will make a contribution in HR practices of Indian and other global organisations in terms staff retentions by presenting outcomes supported b empirical evidence. This has pointed towards different HR factors that influence employee retention.
  • 5. 4 CHAPTER 1 1.1 Introduction In recent times it has been noticed that HRM practices has developed into more tactical in its focus and function. HRM is supposedly being seen as a strategic employee endeavour associated with organisational principles, aim and vision. The retention techniques that can be very effective are career growth opportunities, incentives and rewards programs. As per many studies it has been established that reviewing of advancing HRM tools in training, reimbursement and incentive involvement have shown that these can guide to reduced return and non-attendance, enhanced value of work and improved economic outcome. The purpose of this study is to critical analysed and examine the existing HR practices on the retention of main employees in Indian organisations. HR practice and retention relationship will be examined in this study and also fundamentals related to the HR practices, which affects the employee decision to stay with an organisation, will be identified in this. Result extracted from this study may help an organisation to expand its effective HRM retention policies. There has been substantial attention in the management study relating to the improvement of key competences so that companies market value and performance can be improved. Keeping these important key staffs is important part of corporate strategic model and also for gaining competitive edge in market. Therefore, it has been noted that there is not enough empirical studies related to the Indian organisations retention policies. In order to achieve superior perceptive into the procedures and tools that organisation employ to retain its staff, important research questions were created to carry out this study. There is increasing indication that HRM can act as an important factors in retaining a high skilled and talented employees. It has been noted that advanced HRM policies in training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution have shown that these can guide to decreased turnover and non-attendance, good quality product/services, and enhanced financial result. Moreover, employees are likely to stay with the company if they realise that their potential, hard work and performance inputs are acknowledged and valued (Davies 2001). Reimbursement gives recognition, but few other types of
  • 6. 5 non-monetary appreciation are also imperative. Many of the organisations in recent times keep on struggling with retention because they are depending on wages enhancement and bonuses to avoid turnover, many companies are now accepting that retention is a strategic subject and correspond to a competitive edge in the market. The easiest means to retain staffs is to boost satisfaction levels; but this will only be efficient if executed correctly. The challenge is in handling or meeting different staff requirements, as these are diverse. 1.1.1 The Influence of HR Practices on Retention Human resource rules and policies that organisation make truly reflect their philosophy and opinion and the connection between management and staffs. Sometimes policies are only meant for solving problems and needs of employees. As explained by Oakland, S and Oakland, J.S (2001), Human resource practices consist of selection and recruitment, Training/Development, performance measurement practices, wage and reward systems, quality, health and safety, information systems etc. In 90's several researchers and authors like Becker B. &Gerhart B. (1996), Pfeffer, J (1994) had argued that good HR practices is the only way for sustaining in developing market and it also helps in gaining competitive edge over competitors. Human resource practices helps in creating a workforce that will be unique and valuable to gain market advantage and it will be hard for competitors to copy those practices (Pfeffer, 1998). According to Porter & Tripoli (1997), Number of different researches at the organisational level concluded that many of the HR practices influences the outcomes of organisation through influencing staffs performance and attitudes. In recent times it has been noticed that HRM practices has develop into more tactical in its focus and function. HRM is supposedly being seen as a strategic employee endeavour associated with organisational principles, aim and vision. As a result, there is now bigger focus on to determining and improving staff and organisational working; equal job opening and positive action procedures planned and executed by human resources offices have added vastly to the variety if the workforce; recruitment system have develop into more refined way; member of staff remunerations systems have increased ( Oakland and Oakland, 2001).
  • 7. 6 1.1.2 Strategic System - Retention Management Researchers have said that retention management starts with finding the reason why an employee agrees to join a particular company. As described by Fitzenz, J. (1990) Retention management depends on following key parameters: company’s culture and arrangement, staffing policies, wages and remuneration policies, staff support systems in organisation and career growth prospects. The retention techniques that can be very effective are career growth opportunities, incentives and rewards programs. As per many studies it has been established that reviewing of advancing HRM tools in training, reimbursement and incentive involvement have shown that these can guide to reduced return and non-attendance, enhanced value of work and improved economic outcome To determine the retention parameters among the employee groups within an organisation and then paying attention towards these factors helps an organisation in forming a successful retention tools in their system. There are many key factors like wages, compensation, quality of work, work relationship, award and recognition, working hours, communication etc helps an organisation in retaining their talented and skilful employees. 1.1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study It has been noted that in UK, Indian and other part of world that despite having HRM practices in place many organisations is losing their key staffs. The purpose of this study is to critical analysed and examine the existing HR practices on the retention of main employees in Indian organisations. HR practice and retention relationship will be examined in this study and also fundamentals related to the HR practices, which affects the employee decision to stay with an organisation, will be identified in this. Result extracted from this study may help an organisation to expand its effective HRM retention policies. Retention of an employee is very vital for organisation with respect of its strategic polices. Study may help an organisation in recruiting those individuals who can commit themselves to their organisation and it will also aid in improving the retention percentage of their highly talented and skilled core workforce.
  • 8. 7 The research objectives are:  To identify the factors that contribute to staff retention within the chosen organisation  To examine the factors that contributes for formulating an effective retention strategy for any organization.  To help in the development of an effective HRM retention policy for organizations. 1.2 Background of the Study In recent times when it has been seen that due to recession in market many organisations have to cut down their head count few organisations have focused in retaining their key staffs by investing money and time. The attention has been on sorting out employees from the firms and not strengthening the bonds. The high loss rate of key staffs is expensive to organisations. Losing an important employee means organisation is losing the vital human resource, key expertise and institutional reminiscence with them (Entrekin, 2001). With the loss of key workforce from a group, company only they suffer low productivity nut also they lose the expertise which can be valuable for companies growth. Skilful employees have the better understanding of market in which organisation works, how to achieve competitive advantage in market, they work on companies weakness and convert them to their strength and also have better knowledge of customers and products. As stated by Gutherie, J.P (2001), the knowledge and information stored in these key individuals is an important part of company equity. There has been substantial attention in the management study relating to the improvement of key competences so that companies market value and performance can be improved (Prahalad& Hamel, 1990). Keeping these important key staffs is important part of corporate strategic model and also for gaining competitive edge in market. It has been noted that there is not enough empirical studies related to the Indian organisations retention policies. This raises few concerns like: is one HRM practise is OK for all or do we need different HR policies for different group of staffs? These and some other untouched issues will form the background of this study. In order to
  • 9. 8 achieve superior perceptive into the procedures and tools that organisation employ to retain its staff, important research questions were created to carry out this study. The research organization The present study will use the case of Reliance Radio FM. The company is operating in the media field of broadcasting radio programmes under the name of Big FM. Its parent company Reliance Industries is one of the biggest corporations globally. Big FM was started in 2006 as a local radio channel in Mumbai and since then has progresses to being broadcasted in all the states of India and has become the second most listened channel in India. The issue Even though the company is growing rapidly in terms of ratings and audiences, however it is faced with employee retention issues. The media sector is growing rapidly in India and people working in one group can easily get opportunities in other groups or organization. This has raised the issue of retaining the employees. The present research works thus aims to examine this issue in two fold manner. Firstly by analysing the available literature to examine the various theories and studies on retention and then conducting as primary study to get first hand information on the issue in the organization. 1.3Value of the Study It has been noticed that in current researches related to HRM literatures in employee retention field is very limited in Indian organisations. There are many queries related to the retention policies were asked by researchers. All these queries ask for theory advancement and call for new models to be developed in the area of retention policies especially in technical and engineering organisations of India, UK and other parts of world. These unknown matters will be the research focus. In addition, this study will progress the HRM literature on the rising pattern of the era. Fundamentally, this research will try to clarify the existing employment relationships in Indian technical organisations.
  • 10. 9 This study will help in understanding the importance of retaining core employees in an organisation. Study will add value in finding the reasons why retaining core staff is beneficial to the organisations. 1.4Limitations of the study According to Poole and Van de Ven (1989), a fine hypothesis is by description, inadequate, comparatively accurate picture. There is constant strain among internal uniformity and the scope of hypothetical models. The criterion for prudence, firmness and consistency has motivated this thesis to communicate a small but internally reliable outline. The other face of the coin is the disapproval of the ideas for being an unfinished illustration of difficult phenomenon. Numerous irrelevant, unrestrained aspects could manipulate the model parameters. Though, this has to be countered by the detail that the study was mainly related with retention management of core and key important workforce in technical organisations of India. One of the limitations were the facts gathered will be cross-sectional, so cause and effect cannot be surely examined. Also, research will be restricted to specific kind of industries hence the generalisation of the research may be limited due to the small number of industry. Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1. Introduction In the recent times it has been observed that managing and developing people at work plays an important role in improving the organisational functioning (Marchington and Wilkinson 1997). As stated by Accenture (2001) in their statement that ‘people are our most important asset’ reflects the importance of working staff. As per Maguire, S. (1995) it has been established that there is common thinking of appreciating and spending in the workforce among the successful companies. Several theories established that Human Resource Management (HRM) is the source of gaining competitive edge in the market among different players (Delery, 1998; Walker 2001). Employee retention is one of the important aspects of the HRM.
  • 11. 10 Moseley, Jeffers and Paterson (2008) stated that employee retention is a key to companies, as improved turnover generates unsteadiness and adds extra pressure and stress on remaining employees, escalating job displeasure and therefore affecting the turnover cycle. Many of the organisations in recent times keep on struggling with retention because they are depending on wages enhancement and bonuses to avoid turnover (Gumbus and Johnson 2003). Fundamentally, many companies are now accepting that retention is a strategic subject and correspond to a competitive edge in the market (Walker 2001). The easiest means to retain staffs is to boost satisfaction levels; but this will only be efficient if executed correctly (Denisi & Griffin, 2008). The challenge is in handling or meeting different staff requirements, as these are diverse (Mello, 2010). Retention policy should be in places that deal with the requirements of staffs that are more likely to leave. This chapter explains the association between HRM practices and the retention of core (important) staffs in the perspective of the Human Resource Architecture. It inspects the roots of bad employee commitment and specially investigates appropriate literature to recognize fundamentals of HR policies that influence staff retention. The related literature is presented in this chapter to provide an overview of the areas covered in the study. 2.2. HR Models of Architecture A HR model of architecture is a structure by which to differentiate staffs in order to plan human resource aid procedures. It has been observed that in between 1990s and 2000s huge amount of downsizing was done in companies in order to enhance productivity and cost reduction. Though, the continuous cycle of reforming and re- structuring by organisations had changed the new employment association (Wright 1995). The growing model for this employment association took many shapes. The labour flexibility model by Atkinson’s (1985), proposes that corporations can shape their employees actively to reach their organisations goals using flexible staff scheme. Atkinson recognized 3kinds of flexibility employment scheme: (1) numerical flexibility (2) functional flexibility and (3) financial flexibility. This model recognises “core” and “secondary” staffs. Secondary staffs include provisional, part time or
  • 12. 11 contractual staffs. Usually these staffs had been mentioned to as ''atypical'' and ''Contingent'' staffs in Europe and America respectively. These staffs are used for numerical flexibility which includes the extension and reduction of staffs depends on market variations and competitive demands (Lesperance 2001). Kaye and Jordan- Evans (2010) stated that retention is even more important as an outcome of:  The scarcity of skilled staffs,  Transformation in staffs attitudes,  The accessibility of new employment opportunities,  The bigger revenue linked with employing new talent, and  The reality that in the current market condition, acquiring talented staffs is the separator. Core or fulltime staffs gives corporations with functional flexibility and their skills and talent can be transferred within the company because of change in demand of product market and expertise. This set of the work force is multi-talented and well trained to help a fast and soft deployment of staffs between works and assignments. Retention is important for core employees because a leaving employee may have the crucial skills and talent essential for a particular job or carrying out a task for a project. It has been noted that because of such leavings product line may suffer. A key talented staff may be hard to substitute – at least in the short term. Finally, financial flexibility is explained as a condition where the amount a staff is paid rest on the work done, working hours, or the organisational affordable sum (Atkinson 1984; Nollen 1996). It may include a change to payment schemes such as performance incentive (PI) to help either numerical or functional flexibility. Profit Sharing and employee share ownership plans (ESOPS) are other examples of financial flexibility. The RC Company (2010) comes up with three types of factors that decide an organisation's capability to draw and retain core staffs. Factors are shown below in figure 1.
  • 13. 12 Of the three groups mentioned above, organisational influences are the most manageable; given a consideration of what is presently going on and what should be occurring in an organisation. However, it may not be feasible or even legal to manage person characteristics, it is comparatively simple to recognize connection between them and job fulfilment and then adjust company’s policies accordingly. Organisational influences that impact retention of employees are: career growth, incentives/numeration, positive feedback, staff engagement and administration. Similarly, Lepak & Snell (1999) Lepak and Snell came up with the basis of a HR model that line ups diverse employment means and employment associations. This model divided staffs into four sections as per the worth and exceptionality of their ORGANISATIONAL INFLUENCES Employment plans, policies and the variety of other factors which make up the working climate or culture in an organisation INDIVIDUAL INFLUENCES Characteristics of individual employees that may indicate likelihood of their joining and staying with a given employer External Factors These are outside the organisation such as the global labour market or overall economic climate Attraction and Retention Figure 1: Source: The RC Company 2010
  • 14. 13 skills/talent relative to the “core processes” of the company. The 4 employment sections are (1) internal growth (core), (2) acquirement, (3) contracting and (4) coalition. The descriptions of these 4 types of employees are outlined in Table 1 below: Table 1: Four Different Employment Modes of HR Architecture. Source:“The human resource architecture: toward a theory of human capital allocation and development,” Academy of Management Review, vol. 24(1), Jan 1999, p. 31 (1), Lepak and Snell, 1999 Section 1 stand for core and key staffs that an organisation will spend in, with respect of training and development, compensation/bonus and reimbursement and other self improvement HR plans that will guard their investment (Entrekin and Court 2001; Lepak and Snell 1999). Section 2 stands for a substantial amount, independent skilled professionals like CA, solicitors, academics, engineers. These key personnel have important skills and talent that are not exclusive to a particular organisation and are reasonably extensively spread in the labour market. These staffs have a provisional reliability at Section1: Internal Growth High value, high uniqueness employeesare ‘core’ employees and a source of competitive value. Their value and uniqueness may be based on ‘tacit knowledge’ that would be valuable toa competitor. These employees would be developed internally and the organisation wouldinvest intheirtraining anddevelopment. Section 3: Contracting Low value, low uniqueness employees are those with low- level skills that arewidely available in themarket. In this case labour is treated as a commodity to be acquired when needed.Thereis no long termrelationship, rathera short-termeconomic exchange. No investment intraining and development. Section2: Acquirement High value, low uniqueness employees are those whose skills are valuedbut arewidely available inthemarket,for example, accountants. These employees are likely to be career-focused and havea conditional loyalty toa specific organisation. HR strategy is to buy from the market, emphasising recruitment and immediate deployment of skills. Little investment intraining and development. Section4: Coalliton Low value, high uniqueness employees are those who are not essential to creating value and are therefore not ‘core’ but who have skills that the organisation needs from time to time, such as lawyers. This is an alliance relationship for example, a law firm who looks after a company’s legal affairs. There would be little or no training and development.
  • 15. 14 best and are dedicated to their occupation (Entrekin and Court 2001; Lepak and Snell 1999). Section 3stands for staffs whose skills and talent are low in worth and exclusivity and basically stand for staff as a commodity which is broadly accessible and can be procured and disposed of as necessary. Employees are more often than not contractual and sub let. Provisional workforce in office and secretarial sector, call centre staff, cleaning and maintenance are jobs that come into this group (Entrekin and Court 2001; Lepak and Snell 1999). Section 4 stands for small value high exclusivity employees that the organisation needs not to directly hire or employ. They are low in worth and unsuccessful to improve value to the core procedures or add to a competitive gain. The skills are exclusive in that a organisation do not want them frequently enough to validate their full time service. An example - coalition between an organisation and an academic institution to offer particular kind of study contributions on a regular basis where the combined worth of the association surpass the value both institution can create on its own (Entrekin and Court 2001;Lepak and Snell 1999). The HR architecture unveils two outlooks: the first outlook is that every employment form holds with it an intrinsically dissimilar form of employment connection. Rousseau (1995) explains employment associations as the "psychological agreement of individual philosophy, formed by the company, about conditions of an exchange contract between personnel and their companies". As employment forms change, so does the character of the psychological agreements. The second outlook of the HR model contemplates the outlines of HR procedures or HR compositions to aid describe the employment means, sustain the employment connection and eventually sustain the strategic character of human resources. 2.3. HRM Practices Fundamentally, key staffs execute the necessary responsibilities in the organisation, and human resource systems of that organisation are intended to provide help and handle this human resource (Gramm and Schnell 2001). In companies human HRM procedures act as a moderator between HRM policies and HRM outcomes. Sheppeck and Militello (2000) split HRM policies into four categories: employment
  • 16. 15 talent and job policies, accommodating surroundings, performance mark up and strengthening, and market organisation. As argued by Stavrou‐Costea (2005) that Efficient HRM can play an influential aspect in an organisational success. As per Lee and Lee’s (2007) research, the result of HRM practices on company performance like learning and development, team effort, reimbursement/incentive, HR development, performance evaluation, and staffs security aids enhance organisation’s business execution including staff's productivity, quality of product and the organisation flexibility. Present HRM philosophy put importance on the benefits of fulfilling employee requirement and facilitating staffs to have power over their professional lives. Many organisations identify the requirement to offer the data, flexibility and say that staffs want to add to organisational achievement (Capelli 2000). Companies attempt to pick and employ the correct candidates. On the other hand, candidates collect information regarding companies and recent jobs market trends and offers; because they cannot get full information of all options and their possible descriptions, they depend on inadequate data’s (Chan & Kuok, 2011).Many researches related employee organisation selection point out the importance of having similarity between employee's principles and the organisational principles for the reason that values are visualised of as essential and comparatively permanent (Van Vianen 2000). It has been noted that less wages or salary may be the case of employees leaving the company, but retention cannot be guaranteed by higher packages. People remaining in company may because they have better understanding with their working colleagues and are occupied and attracted by work they do and thinks that it is refining their skills. Salary carries on being vital in shaping motivation to execute (McCallum 1998). Previous motivational concepts like expectancy and equity concepts had calculated dissimilarities in motivation and this is because of altering valences of results as salary (Das 2002).Staffs will be satisfied with their wages if they will feel that what the are getting in return of their time, effort and dedication is same as other. If this is not the case then dissatisfaction might happen within the employees. (Ryan & Sagas, 2009).Nonetheless, wages is read as one of the options and it has been noted that time and again it is considered with little exactitude (Mitchell and Mickel 1999). Though a relationship is present among reimbursement fulfilment and dedication and is one of the factors of company’s commitment, nonetheless, it has to be measured as one of the portions in a multifaceted scenario (Boyd and Salamin 2001).
  • 17. 16 Organisation must not concentrate only on wages, remuneration and benefits, but also towards other greatly appreciate de-employment aspects like balance between lifestyles and flexible working hour’s systems. Mentioned all are nonmonetary remunerations known as intrinsic awards and they play an important part in compensation contentment (Mitchell and Mickel 1999; Parker and Wright 2001). Employees are likely to stay with the company if they realise that their potential, hard work and performance inputs are acknowledged and valued (Davies 2001). Reimbursement gives recognition, but few other types of non-monetary appreciation are also imperative. This denotes that current HR procedures have a great deal of direct bond to companies' strategy making and performance matters than the conventional way to human resources management (Bach & Sisson, 2000). High Involvement or commitment human practice methodology enhances organisational efficiency by generating circumstances where staffs become greatly involved in the company and put effort to achieve the organisation's objectives (Arthur 1994; Bishop 1998). Many team leaders and managers in recent time identify the profits of "high involvement and commitment" HRM practices that react to staffs requirements, promote workforce to take liability for their professional lives, and encourage staffs to perform in ways that help the company (Baron and Kreps 1999). Knowledge sharing, communication accessibility, development and training, and numeration are some of the way constantly establish in this "high involvement and commitment" group. High involvement and commitment practices are those procedures that motivate staffs to take on high levels of accountability for the accomplishment of an organisation’s objectives. According to D'Cruz& Noronha (2011) stated that high loyalty and commitment HRM practices improves staffs level of ability, inspiration, data, and authorisation. With respect to make sure that this procedure is doing well, HR unit must expand and execute HR practices that help the employees to become self‐trained and self‐managed (Guthrie, 2001).If high involvement and commitment HR procedures are used highly then it is possible to have two bigger implications. One, as previous studies by different authors (Arthur, 1994; Huselid, 1995; Shaw, Delery, Jenkins, & Gupta, 1998) suggested that high commitment and involvement in to work procedures increases staff retention. Second, bigger use of these procedures may add to organisations exposure to
  • 18. 17 allocations connected with the staff loss (Guthrie, 2001).Huselid (1995) proposes, after conducting a research of over 900 US companies, that HR practices can be classed into two groups: one that enhance skills, and second that increases staff motivation. The research observes that 1st group HR practices i.e includes recruitment, training, learning, and development are connected with incomes and financial accomplishment, and the 2nd group HR practices i.e. staff motivation includes performance evaluation and reimbursement actions are linked with quantification of efficiency. Arthur (1994) likewise discovers an intense association among staff retention and productivity in high involvement and commitment HR practices. 2.4 HRM factors deciding retention In the value chain of an organisation role of HRM is very important. It has been hypothesized by several researchers that the responsibility of HRM in a company is a major factor in the organisation’s capacity to attain its organisational goals and extend a viable competitive gain within the market where it functions. This canbe accomplished by the strategies every organisations endorses, and the process it adopt to entice and keep the correct workforce for its requirements (Holland, et al., 2007). Studies done by many researchers reflected that there is increasing indication that HRM can act as an important factors in retaining a high skilled and talented employees. It has been noted that advanced HRM policies in training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution have shown that these can guide to decreased turnover and non-attendance, good quality product/services, and enhanced financial result. Adding to this is the study done by Accenture (2001) in INDIAN, Europe and other part of the world on retention strategies of the organisations. These strategies comprises of following:  Providing broad training and development—to all employees irrespective of whether staffs are full time, part-time or contract.  Giving opportunities to workforce to work on different projects to keep them interested and challenged in work and at the same time giving them chance to enhance their skills
  • 19. 18  Authorising and delegating employees by responsibility and making sure that there is balance between personal and professional life and appropriate working culture.  Flexible working hours should be provided  Proper Mentor and buddy should be allocated to staffs and staff must have knowledge of their own progress growth.  Staff should be updated with latest methodology and principles  Making sure that staff have good access to their seniors  Staff should be motivated to work towards business goals.  Staff benefits should be provided like club membership, insurances etc.  Good reward and salary packages to be offered. Appointing competent individuals is an alluring point of leaving in the process; but forming and keeping dedicated employees is more expected to be assisted by the introduction of a series of refined HRM setup (Y. Chew, 2005). As per Fitz-enz (1990), staff retention management program is governed by quite a few important aspects, which must be handled correspondingly are: firm’s culture and organisation, employment policies, salary and reimbursement values, staff welfare programs, and a learning and training opportunities and career growth scheme. Subsequently, companies’ make use of a broad array of these HRM aspects guiding retention and involvement/commitment (Beck 2001; Parker and Wright 2001; Stein 2000). In this study, all the factors are assessed and divided into two groups – one is HR factors includes employee organisation fit, salary/benefits, leaning and training and career growth, exciting openings or opportunities. Other group is of organisational Factors include top management actions, team unity, organisational environment and culture and organisational strategies. In below section these two groups are explained. 2.5HR Factors in Retention  Employee Organisation Selection (fit) Recruitment is a process in which an organisation look for candidates and invite promising employees whereas selection is a process through which an organisation
  • 20. 19 find out those candidates with the talent, learning knowledge, expertise, capabilities, and other qualities that will aid it accomplishing its objectives (De Cieri&Kramar, 2008).The concept of employee-job (E-J) selection (fit) stresses complementing employee and jobs with respect of credentials based on understanding, talent and knowledge, or capability, and observing other personal qualities of candidates that possibly will be fit for the evaluation of "fit." (Edwards 1991). Though, as the job complexity enhances, companies are adopting new selection techniques to get more skilled workforce to do the job. Several employee-job selection studies shown that employees attracted to works with difficulty levels in the job and that will proportionate with their capability (Wilk and Sackett, 1996). Companies attempt to pick and employ the correct candidates. On the other hand, candidates collect information regarding companies and recent jobs market trends and offers; because they cannot get full information of all options and their possible descriptions, they depend on inadequate data’s (Chan & Kuok, 2011).Many researches related employee organisation selection point out the importance of having similarity between employee's principles and the organisational principles for the reason that values are visualised of as essential and comparatively permanent (Van Vianen 2000). In this study, principle similarity and employee-culture fit are considered as equal terms.  Salary, Benefits/reward and appreciation of employee value Salary is a vital attribute of HRM. Salary and benefits are the modes by which employees measures whether the effort and time given by them to organisation is worthwhile or not (Ryan & Sagas, 2009). Organisations often offer salary packages better than the other players in market for key talent. These packages comprise special salary payments, share options, or additional benefits like bonus. Salaries have an effect on the recruitment process and staff retention (Parker and Wright 2001;Williams and Dreher 1992) and thus play an important part in the hiring process. Though, these studies correlate that wages, by itself, will not be sufficient enough to keep staffs. It has been noted that less wages or salary may be the case of employees leaving the company, but retention cannot be guaranteed by higher packages. People remaining in company may because they have better understanding with their working colleagues and are occupied and attracted by work they do and thinks that it is refining their skills. Salary
  • 21. 20 carries on being vital in shaping motivation to execute (McCallum 1998). Previous motivational concepts like expectancy and equity concepts had calculated dissimilarities in motivation and this is because of altering valences of results as salary (Das 2002).Staffs will be satisfied with their wages if they will feel that what the are getting in return of their time, effort and dedication is same as other. If this is not the case then dissatisfaction might happen within the employees. (Ryan & Sagas,2009).Nonetheless, wages is read as one of the options and it has been noted that time and again it is considered with little exactitude (Mitchell and Mickel 1999). Though relationships present among reimbursement fulfilment and dedication and is one of the factors of company’s commitment, nonetheless, it has to be measured as one of the portions in a multifaceted scenario (Boyd and Salamin 2001). Organisation must not concentrate only on wages, remuneration and benefits, but also towards other greatly appreciated employment aspects like balance between lifestyles and flexible working hours systems. Mentioned all are nonmonetary remunerations known as intrinsic awards and they play an important part in compensation contentment (Mitchell and Mickel, 1999; Parker and Wright, 2001). Employees are likely to stay with the company if they realise that their potential, hard work and performance inputs are acknowledged and valued (Davies 2001). Reimbursement gives recognition, but few other types of non-monetary appreciation are also imperative. Acknowledgment from top management, team co-workers, colleagues and customers improve loyalty and commitment (Walker, 2001). It has been noted that one of the most important aspect in retention is to allow employees to participate in decision making and let them take the lead.  Learning, training and career growth Training is regarded as a type of human resources investment irrespective of whether that investment is sanctioned by an individual or by the firm (Goldstein, 1991; Wetland, 2003). Training programs are meant to enhance the employee’s skills once they were recruited to the organisation. Once an employee joins an organisation he is expected to gain new expertise and knowledge through companies training scheme and he must start applying those skills on the job, and at the same time must communicate those with fellow colleagues (Noe 1999). World’s
  • 22. 21 several successful organisations are knowledgeable that the training and development provisions they are making rest at the centre of their capability to entice and retain the finest staffs for their company. Hence it is essential that companies must offer an chance for their personnel to learn (Bernsen et al, 2009), as practical development plans will enhance the potentials of their team and also it will encourages workforce and consequently bring about a more dedicated staff Group (Kyndt et al, 2009). Training and development could be of increasing fundamental literacy, learning of new technology and getting familiar with existing one, interactive communication, or training related to how to solve a problem. It has been observed that staff turnover and training level are inversely correlated i.e the high turnover level means less training required. This hypothesis is established on the interpretation that the if a staff stays for long time with a organisation, the training outcome will be higher. A research done by Frazis et al (1998) showed That staffs of comparatively small companies spent about 59% of their entire training time in formal training whereas in bigger orgainisation only 18% of staff invests time in formal training. From the staff’s perspective if technical training is provided as per company’s requirement then eventually it will reflect in the company’s productivity. If productivity increases so does the wages of staffs will and hence giving them reason to stay with company. It won’t be incorrect to say training can provide lower turnover (Frazis et al. 1998; Wetland 2003). In summary, arrangement of proper training and development can give positive result in the area of staff retention because through this staffs feels that they are recognised for their abilities and talent and it generates opportunities to expand their qualities (Kyndt, et al., 2009;Visser, 2001).  Challenging and Exciting job opportunities and openings It is very imperative that staffs should be engaged with the new exciting challenges always else they will look for other opportunities where they will find the exciting jobs to be done. One way to counter this issue is by allocating employees to the projects in which they want to work and also keeping the options of inter unit or cross country transfers. Engaging staffs with exciting and challenging projects and ensuring that there is system in place through which performance can be measured and proper feedback is given is vital for a good performance setting in which staffs can accomplish their personal objectives (Furnham 2002). The need and eagerness of learning new techniques keeps staffs fulfilled and inventive (Walker 2001). It has
  • 23. 22 been noticed that staffs always look for bigger responsibility and in quest of different kind of works. Gaining cross function experience is also one of the factors which can help in staff retention. In this if a employee stays with a company for a long period then he can easily change his field like if he is good in technical then he can move to management side to gain experience in that field. Shifting talented staffs in this way not only guarantee that they will be tested, but also helps staffs to gain broad range of experience within the group in the view that someday they will take leadership role in the company. Staffs who feels that company is not doing enough to provide them exciting and challenging jobs and there is also not much scope of creativity and development, those staffs will express their displeasure and will lack the dedication towards its employers. More precisely, when the agreement linked to self-sufficiency and development and bonuses and openings were violated, staffs were more prone to register negative attitudes and displeasure toward the company, will also show low commitment, and bigger signs to leave the company (Phillips 1997). 2.5.2. Organisational factor in Retention  Top Management and Leadership Leadership is explained as the actions of the person that ends in non-coercive affect while that person is managing and organising the tasks of a team to the achievement of a common objectives (Bryman 1992). Leadership and top management is theorised with respect of four responsibilities that are required to be attained in every organisation: giving objectives and direction, giving surety association, generating loyalty and commitment and facing ever changing challenges (Risher and Stopper 2002). Leaders and Managers are key to the development of generating cultures, schemes and arrangements that promote knowledge formation, sharing and development (Bryant 2003). It has been noticed that after late 1990's organisations's started putting emphasis on how leadership and top management behaviour impacting the performance of a company (Giambatista, 2004; Rowe, Cannella, Rankin, & Gorman, 2005). Lots of researchers had argued that the style of leadership is important in achieving organisational success and it also affect the total performance of an organisation (Rowe, et al., 2005). Many theories indicated that leadership improved organisational loyalty and commitment. However differences
  • 24. 23 among the transformational and charismatic leadership concepts can be found, academicians nowadays seeing them as they have many things in common which they can share and coming up with new type of concepts known as the new leadership or neo-charismatic theory (Gumbus and Johnson 2003;Nanus 1992). Leaders from Transformational theory are considered as dynamic leaders with four unique characteristics: charisma, motivation, logical stimulation and personalised consideration (Kouzes and Posner 1995). Many studies related to the leadership have observed the influence of transformational and charismatic leaders, and results shows that these leadership styles helps in obtaining bigger number of followers, inspiration and loyalty as well as better organisational performance (Podsakoff, McKenzie and Bommer 1996; Steyrer 1998). Hence, from the literature review, it can be concluded that leadership behaviour has a constructive impact on firms commitment and turnover intention.  Organisational culture and Strategies (policies) Organisational culture is explained as the indistinguishable factors that outline life in a business company (Fitz-enz 1990; Sheriden 1992). Top Management and leadership thinking and approach, interactions procedures and policies, customs and taboos act together to generate the exclusivity of each organisation (Furnham 2002; Guzzo and Noonan 1994). It has been observed that workforce tends to join that organisation where they find working culture and overall environment appealing. But it has been seen in last decades that cultural styles of industries, the civilizing quality of several organizations have transformed evidently. And as soon as the culture and environment transformed, whether because of expansion, new management or financial and policies interference, some staffs become uneasy and choose to leave the organisation in search of new company whose culture will best suits them (Stum 1998). Structure is supplement of culture, which is created by environment, culture and expertise. Structure begins by job designing and workflow outlines, and comprises of strategies and processes, control period, interaction associations and other aspects that govern how task is to be completed and conducted. In view of the fact that employee enter organisations partially for the reason that they are engrossed to the environment, working culture and configuration, and that's where retention management starts. Managers and leaders who scrutinise how efficient their organisational culture/environment and arrangement are at retaining staffs require to do same from the bottom level (Judge and Cable 1997; Sheriden 1992).
  • 25. 24 From an organisational growth point of view, the idea of organisational environment and culture proposes an opportunity for nurturing modifications in performance and attitudes in bid to bring on required outcomes. The retention techniques that can be very effective are career growth opportunities, incentives and rewards programs. As per many studies it has been established that reviewing of advancing HRM tools in training, reimbursement and incentive involvement have shown that these can guide to reduced return and non-attendance, enhanced value of work and improved economic outcome. There is increasing indication that HRM can act as an important factors in retaining a high skilled and talented employees. It has been noted that advanced HRM policies in training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution have shown that these can guide to decreased turnover and non-attendance, good quality product/services, and enhanced financial result. Moreover, employees are likely to stay with the company if they realise that their potential, hard work and performance inputs are acknowledged and valued (Davies 2001). Moreover, many of the organisations in recent times keep on struggling with retention because they are depending on wages enhancement and bonuses to avoid turnover, many companies are now accepting that retention is a strategic subject and correspond to a competitive edge in the market. The easiest means to retain staffs is to boost satisfaction levels; but this will only be efficient if executed correctly. On the other hand, the challenge is in handling or meeting different staff requirements, as these are diverse. But to carry on this effectively, company's experts related to development should discover if they can forecast specific manners and approaches based on outline of company working culture. Supporters of tactical cultural transformation characteristically craft a number of unconditional postulations. First, organisations own noticeable working cultures, which influence quality and execution of work. Second, even though cultures may be defiant to change but to some degree they are compliant and controllable. Thirdly, it is likely to recognise specific cultural characteristics that make possible or reduce high-quality performance, and it must be practicable for leader and managers to plan policies for cultural transformation. Finally, it is believed that whichever profits attained from the cultural change will overshadow any non-functional cost. All these researches and subjective support
  • 26. 25 recommends an encouraging relation among corporations working cultures and staff loyalty and commitment (Koeneet al 1997).  Communication and consultation Effectual communication has come into view from the complete literature review as an important aspect of man management be it communicating the objectives, aims, vision, policies and strategies of an organisation or the announcement of details, information and data communication arrangement (Hart, Miller and Johnson 2003). The management accountabilities for efficient communication comprise (1) making sure employee are informed on cores subjects, (2) fair and honest communication on all subjects that can impact workforce, (3) motivating employees to talk about organisations matters and provide upward responses and (4) making sure issues from employees are passed to higher management and appropriate reply on time is given (Fourtou 1997; Mumford and Hendricks 1996). Numerous official and casual communication means are present; all intended to promote an atmosphere of open channel of communication, shared skills and knowledge and data also faith in an effectual cross functional arrangement. Standard staff meetings and other information's permit workforce to regulate their hard work to sustain organisation goals. Chances for responses offer staffs an opportunity to control their own work and organisation strategies. Grievance process offer an official way through which staffs issues can be point out there discontent by a verdict or result (Gopinath and Becker 2000). Team leaders and colleagues are therefore mainly accountable for communicating role potentials and responses regarding activity performance (Miller and Jangwoo, 2001). Therefore, companies that run efficient communications make sure that internal communications aid their staffs and create the link amid positive facets of their job place and effectual management strategies (Walker 2001).  Team working relationships It has been seen that staffs stay with organisation when they have good bonding with their fellow co-workers (Clarke 2001). In today's generation it has been noted that Companies promote team building chances and the projects opportunities where team can work together. Also companies are putting emphasis on social dealings on and off the job. One significance of team-oriented group is the relationship they build
  • 27. 26 between team members. Fellow colleague’s helpfulness denotes to the responsiveness of and the degree to which colleagues give notice to staff remarks and concerns (Miller and Johnson 2003). Communications with fellow workers may provide "an affective psychological function by providing emotional support against the stresses of the organisation's socialisation initiatives and uncertainties of the work setting" (Jablin 1987, p.702). In recent times, the attention on collaboration, authorisation and flatter organisations places incentive on organisational behaviour that sustains a sponsorship that staffs perform impulsively to advantage both the company and one's team. Basically, staffs who function as a unit are more liable to believe an augmented commitment to the job teams efforts and the company as a whole (Cohen and Bailey 1997; Meyer and Allen 1997). Subsequently, staffs be likely to stay in organisations due to the good association they have built at the workplace (Clark 2001; Marchington 2000).  Satisfactory working conditions Personal and family life balance is the one of the most important factor that management must realise to gather employee commitment is management's. In leaving and staying of employee in a company sometimes depend on their personal problems and circumstances. People will remain with an organisation that evidently thinks and concerns for their career precedence's, wellbeing, geographic location, family, and other individual requirements (Gonyea and Googins 1992). For example, many organisations are offering flexi-hour schemes and are looking for different plans that will help a staff to manage its personal and professional life (Perry-Smith and Blum 2000; Solomon 1999). Gumbus and Johnson (2003) points that the enhancement to several work-life proposals intended at an organisational culture depend upon performance and staff commitment. For that reason, several organisations have effectively formed a staff friendly situation by amalgamating dedicated work configuration such as flexi-hours, telecom, work from home and family-leave help to help staffs in generating a work/life balance. Few academicians proposes that for productive job experiences to enhance commitment considerably, staffs must think that such job experiences are an outcome of efficient management Strategy (Parker and Wright 2001). So construct a positive culture into improved commitment may rely on how better managers thrive at realising employees to credit good management for their constructive experiences. Previous study in
  • 28. 27 organisational behaviour and HRM has shown that an organisation's commitment to its staff tends, in return, to generate a further committed and responsible employees (Eisenbergeret al. 1990; Organ 1990) Hence, it come into view that the employee/environment-selection hypothesis presumes that, as staffs accumulate positive job experiences, corresponding commitment increases consequently (Lahiry 1994). Chapter 3 Research Methodology 3.1 Introduction
  • 29. 28 As per Collis and Hussey (2005) research is a systematic technique by which the data could be collected, examined and deduced so as to understand the incidence about which the researcher is a lot fascinated. The chief motive of the research was that the scholar must search the aspects in the corporation that has an influence on the senior persons working in the corporation with reference to the retention of the higher management staff. The chief motive of assisting the corporation is making it capable enough to formulate plans that are associated to the retention of the staff and the corporation has to update the persons about the outcome of the research. The research has been prepared after a suitable study with reference to the professional growth, compensation, affirmative appreciation, staff member involvement and administration that have an affirmative influence on the retention of the employees in the corporation. The approach that has been employed in the current research is the procedural approach that was put forward by the Collis and Hussy (2009) in which the qualitative as well as the quantitative approach have been employed. Hence these methods give an authorization also that was not granted by Gill and Johnson (2002). In the current research the researcher has employed the primary as well as secondary technique to look for the information. The procedure of procuring an answer to certain question in a methodical way is called the research methodology. It comprises of the several stages and processes that are used by the scholars to investigate the theme of the study and the scopes related to it. Any person who is occupied with certain exploration or research has to be familiar and assertive with the investigation techniques and processes as well as the procedures to do the research. The research methodology blends the investigation techniques and processes along with the motives and the causes that are reason for the use of these processes. Every research methodology has 3 standards. The standard can be defined as a means of collective group of entire norms, sense and ideas that describes the methodology of the study. The 3 standards of the study as talked over are:
  • 30. 29 1. Quantitative 2. Qualitative 3. Mixed research 3.2 Secondary Data The data which is gathered for some definite cause and has been provided and can be pulled out from the archives of the corporation and from its journals is termed as Secondary data. In my research I have employed primary as well as secondary kind of the data. The technique used to gather primary data is a properly planned questionnaire. The resources that were used for the gathering secondary data were the HR strategy handbook of the companies involved and the data from the web pages and business journals of the firm. 3.3 Primary Data The data which is gathered for the study during research under process is termed as primary data. The primary data can be gathered by three ways: 1. Observation 2. Questionnaire 3. Interview 3.3.1 Quantitative research The present research is done mostly on the grounds of gathering of quantitative information. Quantitative data here implies the quantifiable extents and measures. It is valid for problems or difficulties that can be characterized or revealed by a particular computable measure. Its features are: The human resource principally comprises of the managing of the persons, quantitative research approach is a technique in which the participants or the person who are under study or used for gathering data gives the scholar with more
  • 31. 30 enhanced and thorough responses which have proven important for examining the information required for this study. For some company to do certain research based on quantitative numerical on the performance of the firm, it is extremely essential to investigate the performance of the staff. 3.3.2Qualitative research The qualitative research has developed out the social science and it is concerned with the social behaviour of the people. The qualitative technique has emerged from social science and is basically the study of social behaviour of people (Collis and Hussey, 2009). Under the present research qualitative study has also been adopted as internal environment of every organization differs and thus a generalized statement regarding the satisfaction levels of employees and other aspects cannot be Quantitative method is adopted in this research to illustrate the background of the research and to dwell more into the research questions qualitative approach is used. The main aim of this research was to examine and verify the current HR policies on the retention of core employees in an Indian technical organisation. This is study is divided into two parts in order to achieve its goal successfully. Stage one requires an in-depth one to one interview with HR managers from Reliance Radio FM. This qualitative methodology was adopted with the aim to obtain enough information and data from the Indian organization policy makers. The two stages of the research were considered essential to best answer the research questions. Each stage of the research obtained important data to help and add to the development of the tool of the following stage. This research is intended to correct the gap in the existing literature and offer important perceptions that may describe the dissimilarities in HRM policies and practices that influence the retention of key (core) staffs of an organisation. For that reason it is relevant that the study summarises the necessary information more agreeable to assessment and discussion. As a result, the two-stage approach was deemed the most competent research design to successfully investigate the wide objectives of the research achieved by means of merely quantitative analysis. 3.4Research Approach
  • 32. 31 According to Collis and Hussey (2009), a research approach gives a way of a research and opens the chance to consider about thediversemethods may provide to, or bound the research. 3.4.1 Inductive approach Inductive approach is the approach of expansion of a hypothesis which forms as the basis of the research. This approach is also known as a foot to head approach. It is generally related to qualitative research. 3.4.2Deductive approach Deductive approach is the opposite of the deductive research and a definite issue is the centre of the research (Collis and Hussey, 2009). Hence it is also known as a top to down approach. It is generally associated and is followed in quantitative research. In the present research the researcher has adopted a deductive research as there is no hypothesis and researcher is framing the study on a specific issue. 3.5 Research Strategy Case Study This comprises of a thorough analysis of a certain situation or a person or an organization. Survey A survey is conducted by distributing a predesigned set of questions among the targeted participants (Collis and Hussey, 2009). In the present research the survey strategy has been utilized by implementing questionnaires based method. The survey was used because retention and human resource strategy is different in different organizations hence a studying a single case would to be sufficient for the study. 3.6Data Collection The primary has been collected through two methods:-  Questionnaires
  • 33. 32  Interviews 3.6.1 Questionnaire Methods The design of the questionnaire was associated to the formation of plans instead of the retention concept and they too have structure concerns. The structure of the study is taken by the aspects or the grouping from the section two. The questionnaire was designed by means of plain and simple concepts about the study. The questionnaire was made keeping in mind the main objective to provide the answer to the study questions. In that the questions were converted into topics and the participants were requested to give their opinions about it. The structure of the study was dispersed in 6 sub segments in which the particulars of the retention could be specified. A. Retention Strategies B. Career Development C. Remuneration D. Positive Recognition E. Staff Engagement F. Management Before circulating, the questionnaire was circulated to 10 participants for the analysis. The pilot study is a very essential entity of analysis of the questionnaire before the circulation. The questionnaire was sent to the participant over the e-mail. The participants were told that the secrecy of their identity will be maintained and only on their desire the identity would be disclosed otherwise not. 3.6.2 Interviews Interviews are discussion with subjects under study on a certain theme or topic under study. Various issues and questions are out forward and a detailed feedback of the participant is on the queries are acquired. In these research the author has choose the semi- structured interview as it is very important to get the proper
  • 34. 33 information from the respondent so the pattern of the questions needs to change according to the response. 3.7 Sampling Random sampling was employed. The sample comprises of senior managers and personnel from Reliance Radio FM. The name of the employees company has not been disclosed as per the request of the mangers. However, the self created names have been provided for ease of reading and in hiding the identity of the participants. Distribution The questionnaire was sent to 50 participants over the e-mails. The address of persons which were selected to mail the questionnaire has to be provided from the management roll of the selected companies. The questionnaire was kept along with a cover note and the scholar had asked to return the questionnaires to him once they are done with it. Also questionnaires were e-mailed to managers from companies in the business in order to study their opinions about the problems. 3.8 Limitations of the Study  Because of the character of the interview cantered technique, a noticeably less populace of the businesses can participate for the research.  The verdict and the outcomes could not be summarized in general. Here, this implies that the verdicts and the remarks documented from a specific interview at any instance cannot be same as other. The documentation and the analysis of the questionnaire had been done in a particular time intermission. This has a main disadvantage as the situations and atmosphere may vary previously or in the time to come and therefore there can be few disagreements in the information documented as compared to the genuine skills that may differ to some extent as per the time frame for which it is noted. For example, the company may have provided incentives to the staff keeping in mind the profit in view or any other cause; consequently this would have raised their
  • 35. 34 enthusiasm intensities and could influence the participant’s own opinion on the matter of the questionnaire.  The employee can be partial in the response There are prospects that some persons may be partial and may not give exact information of what they have been through and their true opinions. This may be because of the individual gratifications and doubt about the secrecy of the questionnaire or may consider the questionnaires to be a segment of an in-house research of the company and therefore it is better to provide positive responses to the query rather than giving genuine information.  Lack of faith on format The participants may not be assured of the secrecy of their identity. He/she may be afraid that their individuality may be exposed and as a result feel reluctant to give actual response or any information at all. Questionnaire could not be distributed in comprehensive form. There may be situations where the participant may not get the complete questionnaire because of the technical causes or some other reasons. Consequently, this will lead to inadequate data.  Lack of interest There will be cases when the participant might not be interested in replying the queries however could have replied with just for formality sake and hence providing unusable data which can at times be distracting as well.
  • 36. 35 Chapter 4 Results and Findings 4.1Conclusions of the questionnaire A The retention approach about the influence on the inspiration to work at the firm Q No. Motives Differ Approve 1 The firm is a fine investor in persons 10 40 2 The firm nurtures an atmosphere in which the miscellaneous persons can work collectively and efficiently. 20 30
  • 37. 36 3 Staff is treasured as the possessions to the firm 05 45 4 The firm helps the staff in maintaining perfect work life equilibrium 20 30 As shown in the overhead table, an appealing portion of participants approve that they are valued as possessions to the firm. 30 participants approve that the firm assists employees to maintain ideal work-life equilibrium. Furthermore, 30 participants agree that the firm nurture an atmosphere where mixed individuals can work collectively and effectively. Also, 40 participants agree that the firm is an outstanding investor in its human resources or staffs. Career Development Q No. Motives Differ Approve 0 20 40 60 The company is a good investor in people The company fosters an environment in which the… Employees are valued as the assets to the company The company assists the employees and ideal work life… No.of Respondents The retention strategy about the influence on the inspiration to work at the firm Agree Disagree
  • 38. 37 Company offers human resources the under mentioned aid for their career growth 5 The firmoffers monetary help 20 30 6 The firmoffers education holiday 14 36 7 The firm offers operational exercises 10 40 From 50, 30 participants approved that the firm provides monetary help such as educational loans, etc. to their staffs. Furthermore, 36 approved that the firm offers leaves for education to their staffs. Also, 40 participants approved that the firm offers operational exercise to their staffs. Remuneration 0 20 40 60 The company provides financial assistance The company provides study leave The company provides effective training No.of Respondents Career Development Agree Disagree
  • 39. 38 Q No. Motives Differ Approve 8 Total Remuneration is reasonable 12 38 9 Marginal welfares are fine 14 36 10 Salary Gratification 8 32 11 Worthy Service Incentive 6 54 From 50, 38 participants approved that the complete compensation of the firm is reasonable. Furthermore, 36 approved that the peripheral paybacks of the firm are fine. Also, 32 participants approved that they are gratified with the pay provided by the firm. Moreover, 54 participants approved that firm offers fine service incentives to the senior staffs. Positive Recognition Q No. Motives Differ Approve 0 20 40 60 80 Total Remuneration is competitive Fringe benefits are good Pay Satisfaction Good Service Bonus No.of Respondents Remuneration Agree Disagree
  • 40. 39 12 Managers get acknowledgment on worthy performance 10 40 13 Firm provides worthy performance promotions 12 38 From 50, 40 participants approved that the staffs of the firm get appreciation when their performance is good. Also, 38 participants approved that the firm provide worthy performance promotions to their staffs. Staff Engagement Q No. Motives Differ Approve 14 Care about the well-being of the branch 14 36 15 Happy with the designation in the 20 30 0 20 40 60 Employees get recognition on good performance Company offers good performance appraisals No.of Respondents Positive Recognition Agree Disagree
  • 41. 40 branch From 50, 36 participants approved that they care regarding the well-being or the prospect of their branch. Also, 30 participants approved that they are happy with their designation or job allocated in their specific branch. 4.2 Findings of the Questionnaire B (Respondents from other companies of the industry) Management Q No. Motives Differ Approve 1 Management converses evident vision and objective 14 36 2 Management assists fresh thoughts 8 42 3 Management recompenses staffs of the firm 10 40 0 20 40 60 Care about the welfare of the department Satisfied with the role in the department No.of Respondents Staff Engagement Agree Disagree
  • 42. 41 From 50, 36 participants approved that the management of the firmconverses evident vision and objective to their staff. Besides, 42 participants approved that the management of the firmassists fresh thoughts. Also, 40 participants proven that the management of the firm recompenses their staffs. Possible Reasons for Leaving the Company Q No. Motives Differ Approve 4 Unsatisfied with the current profession 12 38 5 Receiving less salary 14 36 6 Anticipated to start own venture 42 8 0 20 40 60 Management communicates clear vision and mission Management supports new ideas Management rewards employees of the company No.of Respondents Remuneration Agree Disagree
  • 43. 42 From 50, 38 participants approved that they are displeased with their current profession and it is the chief motive for resigning the job. Also, 36 participants approved that they get lesser salary and due to this they commonly quit their job. While, just 8 participants approved that they wish to start their own ventures and because of this they desire to quit their job. This connects with the finding of the staffs of the company group in which from 50, 36 participants approved that they care about the well-being or the prospect of their branch. Also, in the company group participants approved that they are happy with their job or designation allocated in their individual branch. 4.3Quantitative Findings A fact has been evolved from the findings of the study that there exists an extremely important link among the features of the firm and the retention of the staffs in the similar firm. The firm has also selected a method which will offer the worker a genuine route and give few suggestions by means of which the staff could be retained in the similar firm as well. This method is focused in the direction of the career development of their staffs. This line up with the conversation in the literature review in which it was said by Schuler and Jackson (2006) that the better opponent is one which enhances their staff in order to make them ready to face all the possibilities that could arise and also for the time where they could put in their full strength so as to attain their objectives. In case the staffs and the company have to 0 20 40 60 Unsatisfied with the present job Getting lower remuneration Desired to get self employed No.of Respondents Possible Reasonsfor Leaving the Company Agree Disagree
  • 44. 43 accomplish a competitive benefit over its opponents in that situation they have to improve the expertise of the employees. The term career development could be observed as a tool by which the managers are capable to look for the requirements and desires of their staffs. By providing the opportunity by which the careers of the individuals could be progressed is that they would have to be dedicated for the company in which has employed them. The chief administrative aspect is the career development in that by the model of The company the persons search that nearly 90 percent of the staffs got that there was no future in the firm for career development and nearly 89 percent of them mention that their individual desires for the growth were not satisfied the way they wanted and nearly 79 percent of them mentioned that neither of them in the firm had been through the training and guidance packages that would enhance their skills. The conversation in the literature review syncs with this feature of the findings and it shows that it will be a severe condition for the firm’s retaining strategies. As talked over in the review that growth aspect is there in each big firm and when any staff member senses the requirement to utilize it they can effortlessly do. So as to recognize this goals of the firm and they should do what the firm has assured to them. The researcher have termed the career development as the procedure by which constant or active and they have to go through from several levels or stages and in each level they have to answer every non-similar queries, jobs or subjects. Horwitz (2008) mentions that in the time to come the nations such as Japan, china and several other Asian nations will be confronting a severe risk of absence of trained and partially-trained employees. Accordingly in that situation the entire load of the trained staff will be confronted by the nations and after that they will confront few issues in the worldwide market with reference to the staffs. The advices made by the scholar are very supportive for the organization when the firm is deciding the yearly policy with reference the career development of the staffs. In the firm nearly 89 percent of the individual’s mention that the questionnaires were done in the firm in specific interval and nearly 89-99 percent mentioned that they were not pleased about the sub-groups available in the administrative aspect that was positive credit. It was the scholar’s advices that the performance management and the development mechanism should be comprised in the research.
  • 45. 44 This syncs with the conversation in the literature review in which it was observed that from years the staffs of the dissimilar firms expected that their job profile should be extremely innovative, valuable and the job should be very stimulating (Phillips and Connell, 2003). The findings and the outcomes of the questionnaire reflects the conversation in the literature review that for maximum of the staffs their works reveals their persona and they sense the necessity that they need to employ their brains in any kind job they are working on in their occupation and they are of the opinion that this would be an significant input for the development and the progress of the firm. In case during their profession they do not figure out of what they are expecting from the profession they will not look for another career, instead they will hang on the similar profession. Presently, the staffs in the firm are turning out to be enough capable to manage the atmosphere of the office in which they are employed. Besides, the basic answer to this is that they should build up their interaction skills so as to make our task easier. Hence the staffs should select that firm in which the interaction structure is extremely supple (Phillips and Connell, 2003). Numerous personnel are searching for that mechanism wherein the staffs get more incentives which demonstrate their input in the firm (Schuler and Jackson, 2006). In the firm wherein they are not rewarded on performance basis, then the employees search for the firm which provides the right worth of their services and the aptitudes.Moreover in the firm the staffs desire that their appreciation should be returned in form of money and not just as reward for the hard work that they have paid to the firm. For several ages in the firm the simple gadget that is the cause of the encouragement is the firm’s consistent response that it takes from the staffs and enhances the area wherein they are behind others. 4.4Qualitative Findings This section gives the outcomes of the qualitative section of the proposed study. It is an in-depth interview with two HR managers of a Reliance Radio FM was conducted. The interview questions were made to reflect below research questions: 1. Is the importance placed on HRM factors linked to retention? 2. How are these influential HR factors managed in organizations?
  • 46. 45 Respondents’ Profile The partaking company was from India and functions in the field of media. This organisation is one the largest media organisation of India with over more than 10,000 employees. From Interview it has been noted that more than 52% of employees in the organisation are core employees. The rationale for getting the percentage of core staffs of participating organisation was to find out the significance the organization give on retaining a sensible level of core staffs within its organisation. The company does nevertheless admit that cost restraints and the nature of the working sector were the influential factors for their lesser selection of core staffs. 6 HR managers were interviewed. The profile of the interviewees is as follows Interviewee’s Name Description Mr. A Manager Ms. B Assistant Manager Mr. C HR Advisor Mr. D Legal Advisor Mr. E Assistant HR Manager Mr. F HR Manager
  • 47. 46 Discussion of interview findings 4.4.1Human resource management department role in improving retention of core employees In regards to this aspect, the interviewees acknowledged HR factors in relative to retention of their core staffs. Mr. A told that effective recruitment plays an important role in retaining their core employees. Moreover, Miss B told that exciting job opportunities are considered as most important factor. This was also discussed in the literature review where it was reviewed that engaging staffs with exciting and challenging projects and ensuring that there is system in place through which performance can be measured and proper feedback is given is vital for a good performance setting in which staffs can accomplish their personal objectives (Furnham 2002). The need and eagerness of learning new techniques keeps staffs fulfilled and inventive (Walker 2001). On the other hand Mr. F further argued the interview discussion and told that training, learning and career growth were considered as the most significant factor in retaining their core employee. While, Mr.E told that compensation equity should also be considered as important factors as most of the organizations have good packages of their staffs. Arguing the statement Miss B thinks that remuneration and employee recognition has a bigger impact on employee retention than compensation equity. This was also reflected in the review of literature where it hypothesized by several researchers that the responsibility of HRM in a company is a major factor in the organisation’s capacity to attain its organisational goals and extend a viable competitive gain within the market where it functions. The interviews were asked to recommend some organizational factors with respect to the core employee retention. Mr.E commended effective leadership and management policy to retain their core employees. Moreover, they also told that good leadership and better management policies helps in employee retention vastly. On the other hand Miss B feels company culture and policies was important for core employee retention. Similarly, Mr. C commended interaction and consultation and they feel these as important factors. Miss B feels that association at work place is an important factor. On the other hand, Mr.F and recommended that working culture is an important factor that plays role in employee retention.
  • 48. 47 From the interview it has been established that factors like professional and personal life balance, team unity and adequate working conditions are responsible for changing the working nature. Exciting job chances and training, learning and career enhancement were also pointed out as important issues for today's Generation employee. Many of the interviewees termed effective leadership and management as a important factor for the employee retention. It was discussed in the literature review that this can be accomplished by the strategies every organisations endorses, and the process it adopt to entice and keep the correct workforce for its requirements (Holland, et al., 2007). Studies done by many researchers reflected that there is increasing indication that HRM can act as an important factors in retaining a high skilled and talented employees. It has been noted that advanced HRM policies in training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution have shown that these can guide to decreased turnover and non- attendance, good quality product/services, and enhanced financial result. 4.4.2 Relation between organization’s commitment towards their employees and retention With respect to this aspect Mr.C told that the organisation commitment towards it employees is reflected by its HR practices and management trustworthiness. In return of this commitment employees reciprocate back by showing their commitments towards the organisation. According to Miss B all through her tenure in the company she has observed that Commitment policy can be seen as equal and opposite reaction of employers and employees towards each other. It can be good or bad. Organisation handling which employees receive can be reflected from employees’ attitudes and performance. This was observed in the review of literature where it was discussed that high Involvement or commitment human practice methodology enhances organisational efficiency by generating circumstances where staffs become greatly involved in the company and put effort to achieve the organisation's objectives (Arthur 1994; Bishop 1998). Many team leaders and managers in recent time identify the profits of "high involvement and commitment" HRM practices that react to staffs requirements, promote workforce to take liability
  • 49. 48 for their professional lives, and encourage staffs to perform in ways that help the company (Baron and Kreps 1999). 4.4.3 Role of higher managers in retention Mr.D told that the answer to most people leaving organisation is because of their line manager, supervisor or team leaders. One may enquire what it is about this office association that formulates that it is the biggest cause why so many persons leave their employments. Miss E told that it is the shortage of faith, contact, applicable and well-timed feedback, positive reception, fair treatment and information. This was also discussed in literature review where it was found that many theories indicated that leadership improved organisational loyalty and commitment. Many studies related to the leadership have observed the influence of transformational and charismatic leaders, and results shows that these leadership styles helps in obtaining bigger number of followers, inspiration and loyalty as well as better organisational performance (Podsakoff, McKenzie and Bommer 1996; Steyrer 1998). Hence, from the literature review, it can be concluded that leadership behaviour and role of higher managers has a constructive impact on firms commitment and turnover intention. 4.4.4 Role of HR strategy of the company is Retention Mr.E told that HR strategies influence employees attitudes by shaping staffs views regarding how organisation work and impacting their anticipations of the nature and wisdom of their association with the company. Miss B told that inside the company there is a common concept that HR practices cooperate with insight of organisational endorsement to shape employee loyalty. As told by Mr. A the objective of HRM in their company is to make sure that the company is capable to attain achievement via its work force. As per many studies in the literature review it has been established that reviewing of advancing HRM tools in training, reimbursement and incentive involvement have shown that these can guide to reduced return and non-attendance, enhanced value of work and improved economic outcome. It has been noted that advanced HRM policies in training, reimbursement and remuneration contribution
  • 50. 49 have shown that these can guide to decreased turnover and non-attendance, good quality product/services, and enhanced financial result. 4.4.5 Relation between Salary and retention As told by Miss B that the salary scheme has a significant role in implement strategies. Work quality, employee’s behaviour and their loyalty and willingness to improve are all proportionate to the salary paid. Mr.A also had the view that a good amount of salary and benefits as compared to the other players in the market can guarantee that a business draws and retains high‐quality workforce. As discussed in the review of literature Salary is a vital attribute of HRM. Salary and benefits are the modes by which employees measures whether the effort and time given by them to organisation is worthwhile or not (Ryan & Sagas, 2009). 4.4.6 Balanced working conditions and retention Mr.E told that their company is offering flexi-hour schemes and are looking for different plans that will help a staff to manage its personal and professional. Miss B told that the enhancement to several work-life proposals intended at an organisational culture depend upon performance and staff commitment. Mr.D told that their company believe in a healthy, well-balanced workplace that treats the employee as an individual, a family member, and a member of the community. Miss B and Mr.F both agreed that a healthy work environment is very important factor to retain staff. Similar findings were also echoed in the review of literature in which it was discussed that people will remain with an organisation that evidently thinks and concerns for their career precedence's, wellbeing, geographic location, family, and other individual requirements (Gonyea and Googins 1992). Also, Gumbus and Johnson (2003) points that the enhancement to several work-life proposals intended at an organisational culture depend upon performance and staff commitment.
  • 51. 50 Chapter 5: Conclusion In the study the investigation about the firm aspects were included that has an effect on the retention of the staffs. By the study this has been revealed that the firm could improve on the enhancement about the aspects by which the senior staffs could be retained in the firm were also shown in the study. The planning that is formed on the retention of the senior staff is extremely hard to activate. The procedure by which the planning that is formed for retaining the senior staff to be proficient, the executive and the administrators must play their role for that as well. The key objective of this segment is to integrate the qualitative and experiential results from section 4 to provide and reply to the major research query of this research i.e., whether HRM exercises can actually effect the retention of core employees. The effect of HRM aspects on retention of central staffs was inspected in two phases. Stage 1 The stage one of the research that is face to face detailed consultation was done to confirm the answers of literature review examining the current retention board guidelines of Indian managers. Hence, this qualitative technique contributes greater awareness to the visualizations of the HR plan makers on the retention of their employees. First, the deductions of the Stage one recognized the rationality of the HRM-retention aspects accredited from the literature review. Evidently, the outcomes provide evidences that these retention HRM factors were current guidelines applied by participating firms to combat resignations. Second, findings from this qualitative method revealed that companies that manage their HR proficiently may have greater retention of their employees. As stated by Huselid (1995) that out of the test of 968 companies that those agreeing whole employee recruitment and assortment process, broad staff participation and training, and proper performance evaluation linked to incentive repayment were anticipated to have lesser manpower incomings, greater efficiency, and enhanced trade monetary
  • 52. 51 outcome. Numerous other studies appear to approve this insight (Delaney and Huselid 1996). Third, the results of Stage one direct in the direction that all-inclusive and varied HR policies were similarly recognized by participating firms. Still it might be in few cases that some companies behave with all employees in the same manner, in spite of their value and uniqueness, results of this research verifies that maximum of the companies do notable separations in the methods they embrace for varied talent sets and that they are vibrant features of firm performance. Further, this result approves the academic HR model specified by Lepak and Snell (1999) which encourages a dissimilar investment plan for dissimilar kinds of employees. Stage 2 The end portion of the research is the stage two and it confirmed the HRM retention model, formed from the results of Literature review and Stage one. This quantitative method confirmed the relations between the HR aspects, administrative aspects, firm assurance and objective to continue. The outcomes of this study displayed affirmative interlinks among the HRM aspects and organizational dedication. These comprehensive aspects comprises two packages: HR aspects –organizational assortment, remuneration, incentive and gratitude, exercise education and career development, thrilling and stimulating professions forecasts and Organizational aspects - decision-making and headship, organization policies, squad unison and satisfactory career atmosphere. Research on communal give-and-take theory has revealed that employees ‘dedication to the firm is initiated from their opinion of the proprietors ‘devotion to and support of them. Earlier study also revealed that employees comprehend HR exercises as indicative of the personified organization’s commitment to them (Settoon et al. 1996). They reply their interpretations by giving their dedication to the firm. Few writers suggest that for fine career know-how to improve dedication significantly, manpower needs to feel that such job performs are a result of effective management policies (Parkerand Wright 2001). The outcomes of the study also proved a significant association among firm's dedication and determination to stay. Meyer and Allen (1997) mentioned a positive
  • 53. 52 link between sentimental dedication and employee retention in their entire re- evaluate. Together sentimental and quantitative commitments are believed to enhance the probability that a person will be with a firm (Meyer, Bobocel and Allen 1991).Therefore, the conclusions fascinate consciousness to the intervening situation of commitment as well. Inferred in the model is that firm dedication facilitated the relations between organizational assortment, team unison, firm policies and determination to stay. It was observed that dedication do have a partially facilitating effect on few of the autonomous factors and intention to stay. The consequences revealed that it facilitated prize, gratitude and compensation, exercise, education and career development and profession atmosphere, and intention to stay. The results of the study recommended a main and positive link between age and organizational dedication as well. This outcome is persistent with previous study. Mathieu and Zajac (1990) mentioned that age was significantly more associated to sentimental dedication than quantitative dedication. One more result of this study was a fine association among gender category and organizational dedication. This is validated by writers such as Beutell and Brenner (1986) and Angle and Perry (1981) who demonstrated that feminine employees are more dedicated to firm than masculine employees. In summary, the outcomes of the study established that retention can be affected by organizational selection, salary, remuneration, reward and recognition, training, learning and career growth, challenging and exciting job prospects, managerial and leadership attitude, company strategy, team unity and job environment. Furthermore, commitment operates as a mediator of reward, recognition, pay and reward, training, learning and career growth and job environment on intent to remain. Commitment also moderates organizational selection, team unity, organization strategy on intention to remain. Researchers on retentions have defined retention management as a planned, logical procedure that begins with an assessment of the cause that staffs join an organisation (Davies 2001; Solomon 1999). It has been proposed by many researches that retention of employees can be enhanced by high-involvement job pattern. In most of the cases retention efforts are to be considered from employer’s side and hence new and well defined practices
  • 54. 53 has been introduced in the view of getting good and positive results out of it. According Perry-Smith, J & Plum, T.C (2000) in many incidents it has been seen that not all practices can be enjoyed by all employees like child care plans and flexi-hour working benefits cannot be taken by every employee’s. It has been observed that requirements depends on the employees career stage like younger employers will need more salary, growth opportunities and more leave but where as a person with family will need job security and benefits like fund and all. Also requirements will depend on genders – a woman employee need will be different from men (Beck, 2001). In recent times it has been noticed that HRM practices has develop into more tactical in its focus and function. HRM is supposedly being seen as a strategic employee endeavour associated with organizational principles, aim and vision. As a result, there is now bigger focus on to determining and improving staff and organisational working; equal job opening and positive action procedures planned and executed by human resources offices have added vastly to the variety if the workforce; recruitment system have develop into more refined way; member of staff remunerations systems have increased ( Oakland and Oakland, 2001). There have been lots of changes in HRM policies in last ten-twenty years and many reforms have been introduced in this. Chapter 6 Recommendations The researcher feels that there are not enough opportunities for employees in the firm from the career development point of view. Second essential entity in the research is that in the industry segment the remuneration fluctuates immensely as compared to the government sectors. Typically all of the persons that were in the industry sector were happy with the salary offered and other peripheral advantages whereas 65 percent of the persons mentioned that they were not happy with the compensation and they feel that they deserve more than that. Consequently, the scholar think there is further more scope in research as he feels that staffs were not