2. The American slave trade was an international business. It
began in Western Africa, where prisoners were taken for
sale to European and American slave traders, and
continued in permanent and impromptu slave markets in
the United States, ultimately concentrated in the South.
Not only were some ten to fifteen million Africans ripped
from their lives and families to be imported to the New
World--some half a million of them destined for the United
States--but the enslaved were also bred for sale on
American soil and transported, often under brutal
conditions, throughout the slave states. This Image Gallery
will continue to grow over the coming months.
3. The comic and often ridiculous images in the four Political
Cartoons of Slavery Collections are drawn from the
archives of the Library of Congress. They are editorial
cartoons, posters, cover pages to music sheets, and other
pictures. These Collections are separated into four themes
that cover the years in which the issue of slavery and its
aftermath was hotly debated in the nation, 1830 to 1890.
Around the time of the Nat Turner Rebellion in Virginia in
1831, southern supporters of slavery began more
aggressively to defend slavery as a moral and positive
institution. These same supporters used editorial cartoons
and posters to visually attack those northern politicians
opposed to slavery or its expansion into the western
4. During the generation after the Civil War, journalists
used blunt cartoons to address issues of voting rights,
equality, education, and social and political justice for
African Americans in the aftermath of slavery.
6. Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation is an executive order issued by
Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War
using his war powers. The Proclamation freed 50,000 slaves, with nearly
all the rest (of the 3.1 million) freed by union armies soon after. The
Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not itself outlaw
slavery, and did not make the ex-slaves citizens.
Man reading a newspaper with headline, "Presidential
Proclamation, Slavery," which refers to the Jan. 1863
Henry Louis Stephens (1824–1882)
7. Emancipation Proclamation
The Proclamation applied only in ten states
in 1863, it did not cover the nearly 500,000
slaves in the slave-holding border states
(Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware) — those
slaves were freed by separate state and
8. 13th Amendment
Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and
ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th
amendment abolished slavery in the United
States and provides that "Neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime whereof the party
shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States, or any place
subject to their jurisdiction.".
9. Reparations for slavery
Reparations for slavery are proposals that
compensation should be provided to
descendants of enslaved people in the
United States. In 1865 a temporary plan
granting each freed family forty acres and
unneeded mules were given to settlers of
South Carolina- around 40000 freed slaves.
However, President Andrew Johnson
reversed the order after Lincoln was
assassinated and the land was returned to its
11. 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson: This landmark Supreme
Court decision holds that racial segregation is
constitutional, paving the way for the repressive Jim
Crow laws in the South.
1909: The National Association for the Advancement
of Coloured People is founded in New York by
prominent black and white intellectuals. For the next
half century, it would serve as the country's most
influential African-American civil rights organization,
dedicated to political equality and social justice in 1910.
12. 1914: Marcus Garvey establishes the Universal Negro
Improvement Association, an influential Black
Nationalist organization "to promote the spirit of race
pride" and create a sense of worldwide unity among
1920s: The Harlem Renaissance flourishes in the
1920s and 1930s. This literary, artistic, and intellectual
movement fosters a new black cultural identity.
13. 1947: Jackie Robinson breaks Major League Baseball's
colour barrier when he is signed to the Brooklyn
Dodgers by Branch Rickey.
1948: President Harry S. Truman issues an executive
order integrating the U.S. armed forces.
14. 1952: Malcolm X becomes a minister of the Nation of
Islam. Over the next several years his influence
increases until he is one of the two most powerful
members of the Black Muslims (the other was its
leader, Elijah Muhammad). A Black Nationalist and
separatist movement, the Nation of Islam contends
that only blacks can resolve the problems of blacks.
1954: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans.
declares that racial segregation in schools is
unconstitutional (May 17).
15. 1955: A young black boy, Emmett Till, is brutally
murdered for allegedly whistling at a white woman in
Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat at the front of the
"coloured section" of a bus to a white passenger.
1957: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC), a civil rights group, is established by Martin
Luther King, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L.
16. 1960: Four black students in Greensboro, North
Carolina, begin a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's
lunch counter (Feb. 1). Six months later the
"Greensboro Four" are served lunch at the same
Woolworth's counter. The event triggers many similar
nonviolent protests throughout the South.
1962: James Meredith becomes the first black student
to enroll at the University of Mississippi.
17. 1963: Martin Luther King is arrested and jailed during
anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, Alabama.
1964: President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act,
the most sweeping civil rights legislation since
Reconstruction. It prohibits discrimination of all kinds
based on race, colour, religion, or national origin.
Martin Luther King receives the Nobel Peace Prize.
18. 1965: Malcolm X, Black Nationalist and founder of
the Organization of Afro-American Unity, is
1966: The Black Panthers are founded by Huey
Newton and Bobby Seale.
19. Mildred Jeter and
the Supreme court
to overrule the
1967: Major race riots take place in Newark (July 12-
16) and Detroit (July 23-30).
President Johnson appoints Thurgood Marshall to the
Supreme Court. He becomes the first black Supreme
The Supreme Court rules in Loving v. Virginia that
prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional.
20. 1968: Martin Luther King, Jr., is assassinated in
Memphis, Tenn. (April 4).
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968,
prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and
financing of housing.
22. Black Americans had to 'fight' for their right to equality. In the 1950s a Baptist
preacher named Martin Luther King became the leader of the Civil Rights
Movement. He believed that peaceful protest was the way forward
1952-the Supreme Court heard a number of school-segregation cases,
including Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. In 1954 the court
decreed that segregation was unconstitutional.
In Minnesota, the struggle was headed by leaders of the African-
American communities, including, among others, Fredrick L. McGhee,
the Reverend Denzil A. Carty, Nellie Stone Johnson, and Harry Davis;
by ministers and congregations of black churches; by editors and
publishers of black newspapers; by racial, interracial, and
interdenominational organizations; and by orchestrated legal
challenges in the courts
23. technological inno- vations in portable cameras
and electronic news gathering (ENG)
equipment increasingly enabled television to
bring the non-violent civil disobedience
campaign of the Civil Rights Movement and the
violent reprisals of Southern law enforcement
agents to a new mass audience.
WWI Black Soldiers
Although African Americans had participated in every major U.S. war,
it was not until after World War II that President Harry S. Truman
issues an executive order integrating the U.S. armed forces.
Members of The Black Panthers Party: Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
The Black Panthers are founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale (Oct.) Where black bands emerge.
2009- Barack Obama Democrat from
Chicago, becomes the first African-
American president and the country's 44th
president. Providing a sense of equality of
both black and white people in an equal
world. Causing black men aspiring to be like