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METHOD OF RESEARCH
The purpose of research is to find answers and solutions to
an inquiry or a question through scientific methods and
procedures. Thus, you must become literate in research, you
must sharpen your critical thinking skills and understand
published research based-materials. In whatever field of
specialization you are involved now, you must be ready to
conduct research to strengthen your decisions.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS
The Meaning of Research:
Research – is a scientific investigation of
phenomena employing techniques, tools,
instruments and procedures in order to obtain
adequate solutions to a problem.
This includes a methodology of collection,
organization, presentation, analysis and
interpretation of data/facts towards the
clarification or resolution of a problem.
Aguinaldo (2002) defines research as a purposive,
systematic, and scientific process of gathering ,
classifying, organizing, presenting, analyzing,
and interpreting data for the solution of a
problem, for prediction, for intervention, for the
discovery of truth, or for the expansion or
verification of existing knowledge, all for the
preservation and improvement of the quality of
Sevilla, et. Al. (1992) defines research as
“searching for theory, for testing theory or for
solving a problem. It means a problem exists and
has been identified and that the solution of the
problem is necessary.”
Andres (1998) defines research as a “careful,
critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts or
principles; a diligent investigation to ascertain
something. It is unbiased investigation of a
problem based, insofar as possible, on
demonstrable facts, and involves refined
distinctions, interpretations, and usually some
Research integrates theory, education and
practice. The theoretical formulation supported
by research findings may become the foundations
of theory- based practice in nursing. The
educational setting an environment in which
different theories can be explored and evaluated
in light of research findings.
The history of research comprises many changes
and developments. The groundwork for what has
blossomed was laid in the nineteenth century
and throughout the twentieth century. However,
in reading a research article, people may be
struck by the difference in style of format of a
research article and a theoretical article. The
terms may be new, and the focus of the content is
A rational examination of ideas, inferences,
assumptions, principles , arguments, conclusions,
issues, statements, beliefs, and actions (Paul and
Elder, 2001). This means that you are engage in:
1. Disciplined, self-directed thinking that exemplifies
the perfection of thinking appropriate to a specific
domain of thinking (research);
2. Thinking that displays a mastery of intellectual
skills and abilities (use of criteria for critiquing
3. the art of thinking about one’s thinking while
thinking to make one’s thinking better (i.e., more
clear accurate, or more defensive) (clarifying what do
you understand and what you don’t know)
In other words, being critical thinker means that
you are consciously thinking about your own
thoughts and what you say, write, read, or do, as
well as what others say, write or do. While
thinking about all of this, you are questioning the
appropriateness of the content, applying
standards or criteria, and seeing how things
ENCOUNTERED IN RESEARCH
1. Difficulty in finding or conceptualizing a good research
2. Scarcity or unavailability of updated and relevant
3. Financial (limited budget or funds).
4. Time constraints.
5. How to put into writing one’s own ideas.
6. Lack of teamwork among group members or inadequate
7. Uncooperative respondents or officials of an institution.
8. Personal problems get in a way of a good research work.
A Thesis is a research conducted by the students in partial
fulfillment of their requirements in the undergraduate and
/ or master’s degree.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD
On order for a research to be considered a good
research, it should meet the following criteria:
1. EMPIRICAL. Scientific is empirical in the
sense that the research must subject his belief to
empirical inquiry and test it against a reality-
referent. Research is based on direct experiences
or observations by the researcher. The collection
of data relies on practical experiences without
the benefits of scientific knowledge or theory.
2. LOGICAL. Research is based on valid
procedures and principles that makes it a
valuable tool for decision-making. The emphasis
is on testing rather than on proving the
hypothesis. It applies every possible test to verify
the data collected and the procedure employed.
The researcher has confidence in the results
since he resists the temptation to seek only data
that supports the hypothesis. All findings and
conclusions are logically based on empirical data
and no effort is made to alter the results of the
ACCORDING TO Leedy (1980), research starts
with a problem and ends with a problem.
For instance, the researcher starts with a
question or an obstacle and even if the specific
problem has been answered, the interpretation
may speak off another problems, and another
cycle is repeated.
Research uses analytical procedures in gathering the
data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental, or
In historical research, the data gathered focus on the
in descriptive research, the study focuses on the
in experimental research , the study focuses on the
in case study, the focus on either past, present, or
There is a critical analysis in all the data used so that
there is no error in the interpretation.
The research involves recording, generalization
and replication, its results are considered more
transitory in nature than are the products of
other problem solving process. The research
design and procedure are replicated to enable the
researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive
results. The more replicated the research is, the
more valid and conclusive the results would be.
Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
Every research activity must be done accurately
so that the findings will lead to a formulation of
scientific generalization. All conclusions are
based on actual evidence. It should brings a
higher level of confidence and certainty to one’s
understanding than what is possible by belief,
faith or simplistic reasoning alone.
Process and procedures are transmittable, which
enables other researchers to replicate them and
to assess their validity. The transmittable
property of research is critical both to its role in
extending knowledge and its role in decision
Research follows the scientific method which
includes the following steps.
SYSTEMATIC RESEARCH INCLUDES
THE FOLLOWING STEPS
A. identifying the problem;
B. formulating a hypothesis
C. doing the library research;
D. designing of the study;
E. developing the instrument for collecting data
F. collecting the data through the following method:
Iv. Experiment or observation
V. Case Study
G. Analyzing the data;
H. Determining the implications and conclusions based on
i. Writing of the recommendations for further research.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
Specific types of research according to its category:
According To Inquiry
RATIONALISTIC INQUIRY begins with an existing
theory. Formal instruments are used in categorizing
the basis for collecting data and transforming such
data into quantitative measures. Findings are
generalized. The problems is converted into
dependent and independent variables after which the
researcher develops strategies and instruments to
control relationships between and among naturally
occurring variables. Once the steps of the research
design are completed, the researcher returns to the
theory formulated to interpret the results.
NATURALISTIC INQUIRY evolves from man’s
desire to understand human nature by studying
environmental facts. It states that we must
understand the framework within which the
subjects under study interpret their environment
to be able to understand human behavior. The
individual’s thoughts, values, perceptions and
actions are studied.
ACCORDING TO PURPOSE
THE TYPES OF RESEARCH according to
purpose refers to the extent to which the finding
1. Pure Research. Known as the Basic,
Fundamental or Theoretical Research. It is done
to discover the basic theories and principles. It is
purely a gathering of truth and information. It
serves to prove a theory or applied research
which attempts to apply or put into practice the
knowledge or theory learned.
2. APPLIED RESEARCH.
known as “action research” is directed towards
the practical application of knowledge. The
theory may be supported, modified or revised. A
new theory may even be provided. It covers
mostly social science areas, entails large-scale
studies with subsequent problems on data
3. DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH. It refers to
the systematic work drawing on existing
knowledge gained from the research and /or
practical experience that is directed to producing
new materials, product and devices, to installing
new processes, systems and services, and to
improving substantially those already produced
or installed. This type of research is often used in
engineering and technology areas.
ACCORDING TO TIME ALLOTMENT
1. Historical Research. It describes what occurred
in the past and then makes a critical inquiry into
the truth of what had occurred. It describes what
it was. It is concerned with the past events or
facts. Archeologists, paleontologists and historian
try to discover what happened before, what took
place in the past. Data are gathered through the
collection of original documents or interviewing
2. Descriptive Research. According to Best, descriptive
research describes what the study is. The study focuses at
the present situation. The purpose is to find new truth. It is
concerned with conditions of relationships that exists,
practices that prevail processes that are going on, effects
that are being felt, or trends that are developing.
Descriptive research involves the elements or interpretation
of the significance of what is described and the major
emphasis is on the discovery of ideas and insights.
Qualitative methods (case studies, content analysis,
ethnographic studies) and quantitative methods (survey
research , cross-sectional survey, longitudinal study, trend
study, cohort study panel study and correlation research)
uses descriptive research.
3. Experimental Research. It describes what will be.
It is a problem solving approach that describes the
future of what will happen when certain variables are
carefully controlled or manipulated. John Dewey
(1959) stressed that an experimental research
represents directed observations guided by the
purpose of the study and by understanding of the
conditions. “Laboratory scientists and
pharmacologists engage in experimental control
groups. The experimental group receives the
treatment (e. g., the medicine under the study)
whereas the control group does not. Experimenters
try to establish the relationship between the
independent variable ( presumed cause) and the
dependent variable (presumed effect). Relying on the
results of the experiment, they predict outcomes of
future events under similar circumstances.
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The final step that a student in research faces in writing a research paper or
thesis is the formulation of research problem.
A research problem is significant in the sense that will benefit a group of people or
it will have open a new avenues in a particular discipline.
A research problem should be stated clearly and unambiguously, usually in
interrogative form. A good research problem should be specific, measurable,
achievable, realistic and time-bound whether it is historical, descriptive,
experimental, case study or any alternative studies.
The research problem must posses certain elements namely:
1. WHY. This include the aims, objectives, targets, or purposes of the problem for
2. WHAT. The subject matter or topic to be investigated.
3. WHERE. The place or locate where the research is to be conducted.
4.WHEN. The period or time of the study during which the data are to be
5. WHO OR FROM WHOM. The population or universe from whom the data are
to be collected. This answers the questions “who are the respondents”.
CHARACTERISTIC OF A RESEARCH
An investigator knows that a problem is really researchable
1. there is no known solution to the problem
2. the solution can be answered by using statistical methods
3. there are probable solutions but they are not yet tested, or
4. the occurrence of phenomena require scientific
investigation to arrive at precise conclusion.
The research problem should be stated vividly and explicitly
expressed in interrogative form for “question have the
virtue of posing a problem directly.”
A good research problem should be SMART, that is, Specific,
Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound
whether it is historical, descriptive, experimental, or case
The characteristic of a good problem possesses the acronym—
This means that the research problem should be:
1. SPECIFIC. The problem should be specifically stated,
2. MEASURABLE. It is easy to measure by using research
instruments such as questionnaire, test and others in
3. ACHIEVABLE. The data are achievable using correct
statistical techniques to arrive at precise results,
4. REALISTIC. Real results are not manipulated, and
5. TIME-BOUND. Time frame is required in every activity
because the shorter completion of the activity the better.
There are several source of research problems that a
researcher can investigate. It is said that “Research was
born out of man’s problems and man’s major problem
GUIDELINES OR CRITERIA IN THE
SELECTION OF A RESEARCH
PROBLEM OR TOPICS
1. INTERESTING. An interesting research problem
attracts the attention of the investigator to study the
problem further. It also makes him determined to
work on it until its completion.
2. RELEVENT TO THE NEEDS OF THE PEOPLE.
Researcher must keep in mind that they work not for
themselves only but also for other people’s needs.
3. INNOVATIVE. A good research problem may not be
necessarily new. It may be a restatement and a
restructuring of an old problem to make it new. In
this manner, result will be more relevant and useful
to a greater number of people.
4. COST EFFECTIVE. The 4M’s—Man, Money,
Materials, Machinery are needed in conducting
research. A research problem should be economical
and effective in solving the problem of the society, it
should also augment social, economical and health
conditions of the people and many others.
5. MEASURABLE AND TIME-BOUND. A good
research problem is measurable by using research
instruments like tests, questionnaires, rating scales,
observation schedules or interviews, and statistical
treatment to arrive at scientific and meaningful
results. A good research can be completed within a
time frame stated. The shorter completion of the
project, the better.
6. IT MUST BE WITHIN THE SPECIALIZATION OF
THE RESEARCHER. This will make his work easier
because he is working on a familiar ground.
GUIDELINES IN WRITING THE
The research title is the personality of your thesis and has a value in the
bibliographical listings. The researcher should be guided by the characteristics
of a good title.
1. The title must contain the subject matter of the study, the locale , the
population involved, and the period when the data were gathered or will be
gathered. It should summarize the contents of the thesis in few words
2. It must be brief, descriptive and concise, yet comprehensive as possible.
3. It must be broad enough to include all aspect of the subject matter studied or to
be studied. It should be relevant and functional in relation to your research
4. It should encapsulate the heart of your research topic. It should be interesting
and has a name recall (read: boring titles collect dust in the library)
5. Using the terms “An analysis of”, “A study of”, “ An investigation of”, and the
like must be avoided since this things are understood to have been done or to
be done when a research is conducted.
One title must be written like an inverted pyramid if it contains more than one
1. THE TITLE PAGE
The title page of a research report, thesis, or dissertation
should be a specific and concise statement of the topic and
should refer to the major variables or theoretical issues
investigated. Its principal function is to inform the reader
about the study, therefore, it should be explanatory by
itself. The title should be written briefly but it must
contain the following: the variables of the study and the
relationship among the variables, and the target
population. Twenty substantive words, function words not
included, is the maximum allowance length of a title
2. THE APPROVAL SHEET
It is immediately follows the title page. It generally
contains a statement of acceptance of the research report.
For master’s and bachelor’s theses, only the adviser’s and
the dean’s signature are required. The approval sheet is
not the same as the form signed by the panel members
immediately after the defense of the research paper.
3. ACKNOLEDGEMENT SHEET
The acknowledgement sheet contains the writer’s expression of appreciation for
the assistance and encouragement given him in the course of his research. As
much as possible the Acknowledgement should not exceed two pages, double-
spaced. The acknowledgement sheet follows the approval sheet. The
acknowledgement should be simple and sincere. The writer should avoid
overdoing the expression of his gratitude. Only those who gave assistance
without payment should be mentioned in the acknowledgement. Typists and
others who have been paid for their services should not be included in the
The abstract is a brief summary of the research. Generally, it gives a concise
report of the problem, the methodology used, and the findings and conclusions.
The abstract allows the readers to survey the contents of the research report
The abstract should be limited to two double-spaced type written pages. It should
include a brief description of the background purpose of the study, a statement
of the conceptual or theoretical framework and hypothesis(ses), a specification
of subject or samples ( ethnic group, age, sex, number), research design, the
instrument and data gathering procedure and main conclusions.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This thesis aims to contribute significantly to researcher,
the readers and business sector in hospitality Industry.
This study will contribute to basic information and will
serve as guide to produce the results.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This thesis covers and focused on the similarities and
differences o BS HRM from BS HRM -CLM. This involved
BS HRM and BS HRM -CLM students regardless of their
year, age, and gender as primary source of information and
data needed for the success of the study.
This study was conducted during SY 2007-2008, The
respondents were selected through random sampling in
which everyone has an equal chance of being selected to be
included in the sample. It used descriptive method of
research specifically survey which used questionnaire to
gather the needed data.
The researcher used frequency distribution and percentage to analyze and
interpret the data gathered.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS (example)
The similarities and differences of BS HRM from BS HRM-CLM as a program
revealed that majority of the respondents strongly agree that both HRM and
HRM-CLM cater to one industry, the hospitality industry. Hospitality industry
is one of the oldest industries ever since people have gone out for eating and
CONCLUSIONS (example )
Both program cater to the Hospitality Industry.
Both HRM and HRM –CLM graduates have job opportunities in land-based
HRM graduates have the opportunity to work on board like HRM –CLM
Both graduates of the program have the edge to work on land-based operation.
Both graduates of HRM and HRM –CLM work as operations manager,
controller, purchaser, food and beverage manager, cook, bartender, dining
supervisor, food attendant, steward, receptionist, housekeeper, and concierge.
Both HRM and HRM –CLM students used the kitchen
laboratory, Casa Intramuros, and Le Café.
Both HRM and HRM –CLM students have the knowledge
and application in catering and banquet service , food and
beverage service, baking and cake decorating, financial
management, basic computer skills, front desk service,
housekeeping service, culinary techniques and at least one
Both HRM and HRM –CLM have different subject
HRM don’t have to undergo Basic Safety Training like
HRM –CLM students.
HRM –CLM graduates have the edge to work on board
than HRM graduates.
5. TABLE OF CONTENTS
The table of contents lists the preliminary parts, the
Chapter titles along with the subdivisions of the body
of the report, and the supplementary materials in the
6. LIST OF TABLES
Tables should be listed separately from the chapter
and section headings. It contains all the tables
presented in the research paper with the
corresponding numbers and titles/captions.
7. LIST OF FIGURES
Titles of pictures, graphs, charts and other
illustrative materials are all included in the list of
figures. It contains all figures presented in the
research work with the corresponding number and
WRITING THE INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 of the thesis is in essence an introduction of the
It outlines the backgrounds, rationale, statement of the
problem, theoretical and conceptual framework, hypothesis
and assumption of the study scope and limitations of the
study, significance of the study and the definition of term.
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The introduction or background of the Study section gives
an overview of the thesis. It introduce the reader the
general direction of the thesis, the context wherein which it
was conceptualized and the motivations behind the
researcher’s decisions to choose the particular research
area. It should be written in a direct and objective manner.
The use of simple words and statement is encouraged,
while flowery and literary phrases are avoided.
Tips and Elements of the Introduction or Background of the
Since a thesis is a formal presentation of the study, it
should therefore include the following:
1. THE PROBLEM BEING INVESTIGATED. The research
should explain what the problem is all about particularly the
main variables or factors that are covered by the study, a brief
historical background, and the research local may also help to
describe the setting of the problem. Likewise, the subjects who
were involved and how the researcher investigated the
problem. Discuss the overview of your research area.
2. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY. Refers to the reason(s) why a
study on a particular topic is necessary. A researcher may
state his views based from some related literature and studies
he/she gathered, or from what he/she observed. Outline the
type of research undertaken. State the study’s objects of
analysis to orient the reader on the focus of the research.
3. MEASUREMENT or INSTRUMENT. Mentioning briefly the
instrument and it uses can provide an ides to the reader on how the
researcher studied the problem. Outline the research approach or
paradigm used for the study whether qualitative or quantitative.
Discuss the underlying theoretical and conceptual framework.
4. CITATION OF SOME PREVIOUS RESEARCHES. These can
generally strengthen the reason for investigation. The researcher
must establish a clear picture of the prevailing problem by presenting
some previous studies that are related to the present research.
Review existing studies relevant directly or indirectly to the study
and state how the study will offer new knowledge.
5. GENERALLY, ORIENT THE READER ON WHAT TO EXPECT
FROM THE THESIS.
A good introduction should contain facts or information that is based
from credible sources like professional journals, master’s theses, or
dissertations. An introduction is not necessarily too lengthy, rather a
two or three page is sufficient is enough to encourage the reader of
the purpose of such study.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The section state the research problem of the
study (main area of inquiry ) to be investigated
through factual data gathering and
interpretation during the course of the thesis
project. It should be developed first before
conducting the research. It is usually expressed
as (1) main problem (2) specific problem.
The purpose of the study encompasses the aim or
goals the investigator hopes to achieve with
research, not the problem to be solved.
CHARACTERISTIC OF A GOOD
1. Relevant to the research topic (if scientific research: shows
relationships between variables)
2. Clear and shows the implied question form of the problem
3. Specific and measurable or can be tested and investigated
4. Neutral in tone
5. Indicates the thesis direction in terms of theoretical and
practical contribution to the thesis solution..
The following must considered in writing the statement of the
1. The general statement of the problem is written in a
The general statement of the problem is usually stated
in a declarative form and covers the broad problem area. It
also covers the intent of the investigation in a clear,
grammatical sequence and conceptual framework and
methodology. Lastly, it is usually an expression of an implied
‘why’ and ‘how’ question.
A. Each sub-problem is a complete research unit
or a logical sub-component of the larger research
question for data interpretation
B. It adds totality to the research question.
Specific question + main problem = research area
C. It contributes to the solution of the main
D. Each sub-problem can be tested separately
but it will result to findings directly related to
the main problem
THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL
The theoretical framework shapes the
justification of the research problem objectives in
order to provide the basis or its parameter.
1. It serves as the legal basis to describe
properly of the study.
2. it is a symbolic construction with uses abstract
concept, facts or laws, variables and their
relations that explains and predicts how an
observed phenomenon exists and operates.
In planning and writing the theoretical
framework, it is note worthy to cite the theory
that will be used by giving assumptions.
Defining terms concepts identifying the
variables, and stating the relationship of
variables and presenting hypothesis.
The conceptual framework presents specific and
well-defined concepts which are called construct
s. its function is similar with theoretical
framework because the constructs used are
derived from abstract, concept of the theoretical
Research has theoretical underpinnings that
provide justification for the study or inquiry.
It is used to guide and direct the research
towards data analysis and interpretation. Thus,
it is a summary of all the theories referred to by
the researcher to guide his/her research.
USES OF THEORETICAL
1. Narrow down the research area.
2. Suggests ways that yield the meaning for the
3. Predicts facts that can be found through
4. Organizes data gathering procedure since the
study is anchored on a theory.
5. Guides the discovery of new knowledge and
Note: It is suggested that communication
theories to be used are directly related to each
other and the research topic.
On the other hand, conceptual framework refers
to the set of concepts used for the research study.
The researcher should demonstrate that ideas
and concepts deduced from the working theories
and synthesized in the research paradigm are
also organized around the research problem too.