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Concept Evaluation/Selection
In Design
By
Yogesh Prasad
Concept Generation:
Number of alternate solution concepts attempting to satisfy the need.
Difficulties/Issues
 Limited kn...
Some methods
 External Decision – company chairman?, customer
 Product Champion – personal preference
 Voting – team co...
•FMEA- Assessment, negative
•FMEA- Assessment, negative
The Pugh Matrix
What is it and what does it do?
The Pugh Matrix (PM) is a type of Matrix Diagram that allows for the
comparison of a numbe...
Why do it?
Many decisions often concern a number of interwoven factors or criteria for
which humans struggle to handle the...
Where and when to use it?
Fundamentally a Pugh Matrix can be used
whenever there is the need to decide
amongst a number of...
Who does it?
An individual or team can use a Pugh
Matrix. It is important to emphasize,
however, that the quality of the o...
THE FIRST RUN
Generate multiple solutions to same problem spec.
Depict the solutions (sketches)
Form the matrix
Choose cri...
THE SECOND RUN
Strengthen the best concepts from first run
• This is substantial engineering work
• More detailed descript...
SOME CHALLENGES
“people who have a lot of experience … exhibit an impatience ‘to
get on with it’ and may consider that the...
ROLE OF THE FACILITATOR
Controls the flow / pace of the session
Records the results (creates the matrix)
Maintains a tight...
The Pugh matrix is for
• Structuring and representing an evaluation
procedure
–Serves as common visual
–Provides a discipl...
better than the baseline a “+” is
entered in the appropriate cell
worse than the baseline a “-” is
entered in the appropri...
The Pugh Process
The process for constructing a Pugh Matrix comprises five steps. This assumes
that alternative candidate ...
Step 3: Compare each candidate design option against the baseline design,
criteria by criteria (or requirement by requirem...
In this illustrative example the scenario is
of a user attempting to select amongst the
options for domestic use.
The firs...
Identifying Criteria
• Cost
• Reusability
• Geometry
• Connections
• Function
• Product life span
• Development time
• Siz...
Figure 3: Initial Pugh EvaluationFigure 2: Initial Pugh Matrix for the Toaster Selection Problem
The Pugh Matrix
Figure 5: Pugh Matrix with Weighted CriteriaFigure 4: Toaster example with the inclusion of a new criterion.
The Pugh Matr...
Please explore and enjoy the Tool.
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Pugh matrix concept evaluation in Design

A fantastic tool to Screen your Best Design from number of Design alternative.Its a scientific method.

Yogesh Prasad.
(Automotive Professional)

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Pugh matrix concept evaluation in Design

  1. 1. Concept Evaluation/Selection In Design By Yogesh Prasad
  2. 2. Concept Generation: Number of alternate solution concepts attempting to satisfy the need. Difficulties/Issues  Limited knowledge/data  Conceptual solutions - Rough/abstract ideas  Consensus among team members  Other ??
  3. 3. Some methods  External Decision – company chairman?, customer  Product Champion – personal preference  Voting – team consensus (subjective)  Intuition – feel good factor  Prototype & test – Expensive & time consuming  Decision Matrices – relatively more objective
  4. 4. •FMEA- Assessment, negative
  5. 5. •FMEA- Assessment, negative
  6. 6. The Pugh Matrix
  7. 7. What is it and what does it do? The Pugh Matrix (PM) is a type of Matrix Diagram that allows for the comparison of a number of design candidates leading ultimately to which best meets a set of criteria. It also permits a degree of qualitative optimization of the alternative concepts through the generation of hybrid candidates. The Pugh Matrix is easy to use and relies upon a series of pairwise comparisons between design candidates against a number of criteria or requirements. One of its key advantages over other decision-making tools such as the Decision Matrix is its ability to handle a large number of decision criteria. The Pugh Matrix
  8. 8. Why do it? Many decisions often concern a number of interwoven factors or criteria for which humans struggle to handle the complexity resulting in inconsistent and irrational decisions. The Pugh Matrix provides a simple approach to taking these multiple factors into account when reaching a decision. By exploiting people's innate ability to make a pairwise comparison allows for subjective opinions about one alternative versus another to be made more objective. The Pugh Matrix also allows for simple sensitivity analysis to be performed, thereby providing some information as to the robustness of a particular decision The Pugh Matrix
  9. 9. Where and when to use it? Fundamentally a Pugh Matrix can be used whenever there is the need to decide amongst a number of alternatives. Although specifically developed by Stuart Pugh1 to help in selecting between a number of design alternatives, the tools has in recent years be used a general purpose decision making aid because of its ease of use. The Pugh Matrix
  10. 10. Who does it? An individual or team can use a Pugh Matrix. It is important to emphasize, however, that the quality of the outcome is dependent upon the experience of team or individual. How to do it? Overview The basic concept of a Pugh Matrix is both simple and elegant. Figure 1 shows a completed Pugh Matrix that has been used to evaluate and select from a number of design alternatives. The Pugh Matrix
  11. 11. THE FIRST RUN Generate multiple solutions to same problem spec. Depict the solutions (sketches) Form the matrix Choose criteria (and clarify them) Choose datum (pick one of the ‘best’ solutions) Insert comparisons (+, S, -), form sums thereof Look at strongest concepts, try to reverse negatives (combine with complementary concepts) Look at weaker concepts, try to improve them Eliminate the weakest remaining concepts The Pugh Matrix
  12. 12. THE SECOND RUN Strengthen the best concepts from first run • This is substantial engineering work • More detailed descriptions will emerge • Note the plural –develop multiple concepts Expand evaluation criteria Choose new datum (pick one of the ‘best’ solutions) Insert comparisons (+, S, -), form sums thereof Seek agreement among team on the best concept Further phases may be required to obtain convergence “…experience has shown that, almost without exception, the results of Phases I and II will be confirmed…” The Pugh Matrix
  13. 13. SOME CHALLENGES “people who have a lot of experience … exhibit an impatience ‘to get on with it’ and may consider that the procedure holds them back…” “strong willed individuals who have a lot of experience and whose initial concepts have not emerged in the final selection … commence a defense based on emotion, experience, and bluster…” The Pugh Matrix
  14. 14. ROLE OF THE FACILITATOR Controls the flow / pace of the session Records the results (creates the matrix) Maintains a tight discipline on the participants –Comparison to the datum concept • Preventing tangents • Encourages clarification of criteria • Encourages clarification of concepts Seeks opportunities for divergence (hybrids) The Pugh Matrix
  15. 15. The Pugh matrix is for • Structuring and representing an evaluation procedure –Serves as common visual –Provides a discipline –Helps break down self-sealing behavior • Convergence –Eliminates weaker ideas –Retains a set of strong concepts • Divergence –Helps to identify opportunities for combination The Pugh matrix is NOT for Automatic decision making –”the scores or number … are for guidance only and must not be summed algebraically.” –”it avoids the rigidity and false confidence of rating/weighting matrices” • Completely controlling the process • Stimulates creative unconstrained thinking • Due to its lack of rigorous structure” Pugh, stuart, 1991, Total Design, Addison-Wesley, New York. The Pugh Matrix
  16. 16. better than the baseline a “+” is entered in the appropriate cell worse than the baseline a “-” is entered in the appropriate cell the same than the baseline a “S” is entered in the appropriate cell The Pugh Matrix can also be used to perform qualitative optimization by combining the candidate concept designs to form hybrid candidates. Figure 1 shows two such hybrids “Concept BC” and “Concept BD”. Figure 1: Example of a completed Pugh Matrix The Pugh Matrix
  17. 17. The Pugh Process The process for constructing a Pugh Matrix comprises five steps. This assumes that alternative candidate design options (or decision options) have been determined. Step 1: identify and clearly define the criteria for selection. Typically when using a Pugh Matrix to select between a number of candidate design options the design requirements can be used either in part or in whole. Ideally the design requirements should reflect both the user-customer as well as other key stakeholders including internal stakeholders. The robustness and validity of the outcome is fundamentally dependent on an appropriate set of criteria/requirements. Rushing this step usually results in a non-robust outcome that is challenged and overturned. Step 2: Use one candidate design option as the baseline and core all criteria/requirements as „S‟ (some people prefer to use an O) for this baseline. If appropriate, a good choice is to, use the previous design for the baseline because it exists and therefore its performance should be reasonably well known. The Pugh Matrix
  18. 18. Step 3: Compare each candidate design option against the baseline design, criteria by criteria (or requirement by requirement) and decide a “pair-wise score with: S = same + = better - = worse It is also possible to add extra levels of discrimination by using: ++ = much better -- = much worse Some people use a 1 to 5 scale where the baseline/same is a 3 with 1 and 2 being much worse and worse respectively, and 4 and 5 being better and much better respectively Step 4: For each candidate design option the total score can be calculated by summing the number of +‟s and –„s. The highest ranked score is the “winner” but use common sense - DON‟T just select “highest” ranked concept. Step 5: Having scored each candidate design option consider hybrids by combining where possible the best from each alternative. This is form of qualitative optimization. The Pugh Matrix
  19. 19. In this illustrative example the scenario is of a user attempting to select amongst the options for domestic use. The first step is to determine a suitable set of criteria. In this example the criteria will be solely user oriented. The following were identified: The Pugh Matrix
  20. 20. Identifying Criteria • Cost • Reusability • Geometry • Connections • Function • Product life span • Development time • Size • Material costs • Cleanliness • Resilience • Testability • Development costs • Manufacturing costs • Company standards • Manufacturing capabilities • Safety The Pugh Matrix
  21. 21. Figure 3: Initial Pugh EvaluationFigure 2: Initial Pugh Matrix for the Toaster Selection Problem The Pugh Matrix
  22. 22. Figure 5: Pugh Matrix with Weighted CriteriaFigure 4: Toaster example with the inclusion of a new criterion. The Pugh Matrix
  23. 23. Please explore and enjoy the Tool.

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