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Humming earthquakes incident - حادثة الطنين من الزلازل والاهتزاز وتصدع الأبنية -- effect of seismic on soil type

Humming earthquakes incident
&vibration cracking buildings
حادثة الطنين من الزلازل والاهتزاز وتصدع الأبنية

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Humming earthquakes incident - حادثة الطنين من الزلازل والاهتزاز وتصدع الأبنية -- effect of seismic on soil type

  1. 1. 1 effect of seismic on soil type ‫ﺗﺄﺛ‬‫اﻟﺗﺄﺳﯾس‬ ‫ﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻧوع‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟزﻻزل‬ ‫ﯾر‬
  2. 2. 2 ‫اﻷﺑﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻻزل‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ Effects of Earthquakes on Buildings Seismic Terminology Ground shaking (pushing back and forth, sideways, up and down) generates internal forces within buildings called the Inertial Force (FInertial), which in turn causes most seismic damage. FInertial = Mass (M) X Acceleration (A). ‫اﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ = ‫اﻟﻌﻄﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮى‬×‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎرع‬  The greater the mass (weight of the building), the greater the internal inertial forces generated.  Lightweight construction with less mass is typically an advantage in seismic design  Greater mass generates greater lateral forces, thereby increasing the possibility of columns being displaced, out of plumb, and/or buckling under vertical load (P delta Effect).  Earthquakes generate waves that may be slow and long, or short and abrupt.  The length of a full cycle in seconds is the Period of the wave and is the inverse of the Frequency.  All objects, including buildings, have a natural or fundamental period at which they vibrate if jolted by a shock  The natural period is a primary consideration for seismic design, although other aspects of the building design may also contribute to a lesser degree to the mitigation measures.  If the period of the shock wave and the natural period of the building coincide, then the building will “resonate” and its vibration will increase or “amplify” several times.
  3. 3. 3 Fig. 4. Height is the main determinant of fundamental period—each object has its own fundamental period at which it will vibrate.  The period is proportionate to the height of the building.  ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫دور‬‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ T  The soil also has a period varying between 0.4 and 1.5 sec., very soft soil being 2.0 sec. Soft soils generally have a tendency to increase shaking as much as 2 to 6 times as compared to rock.  Also, the period of the soil coinciding -with the natural period of the building can greatly amplify acceleration of the building and is therefore a design consideration. Fig. 5. Tall –  buildings will undergo several modes of vibration, but for seismic purposes (except for very tall buildings) the fundamental period, or first mode is usually the most significant
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. 5 ‫واﻟزﻻزل‬ ‫اﻟرﯾﺎح‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻻھﺗزازﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺣرﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟطﻧﯾن‬ ‫ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟطﻧﯾن‬ ‫ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ‬‫اھﺗزازاﻟﺑ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ﯾﺗﺳﺎوى‬ ‫ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬‫ﻧ‬‫ﺎء‬T1 ‫اھﻧزاء‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬T2 ‫ﻗوى‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻗﺳم‬ ‫وﺗﺷﺗت‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻣﺗص‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫وﻋوﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺗزداد‬ ‫اﻟزﻟزال‬‫ﺗﺳﺎوي‬ ‫ﺑﺳﺑب‬ ‫اﻟﻌطﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗوى‬ ‫ﺗﺗﺿﺎﻋف‬ ‫وﻗد‬ ‫اﻟدورﯾن‬T1=T2‫اﻟﻣﻧﺷﺄ‬ ‫وﯾﻧﮭﺎر‬‫ﻟﺣدوث‬‫وﺟﮭود‬ ‫ﻗوى‬ ‫ﻋطﺎﻟﺔ‬‫اﻟﻣﻧﺷﺄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻣم‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻛﺑر‬ ‫داﺧﻠﯾﺔ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﺗﺳﺎوي‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟطﻧﯾن‬ ‫ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﺟﻧب‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺻﺧرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬T1 ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺧﻔض‬T2‫اﻻھﺗزازﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺣرﻛﺎت‬ ‫واﻟزﻻزل‬ ‫اﻟرﯾﺎح‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﻼت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻠﯾل‬ ‫اﻻرﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻷﺑﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘط‬ ‫ﯾﺣدث‬ ‫ﻓﮭذا‬ ‫اﺛﻧﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫واﺣد‬ ‫طﺎﯾﻖ‬‫ذات‬ ‫واﻷﺑﻧﯾﺔ‬‫واﻟدور‬ ‫اﻟﺟﺎﺳﺋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺻﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣل‬T‫اﻷﺑﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻠﯾل‬ ‫واﻟﺑﻠوك‬ ‫اﻟﺣﺟرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟذﻟك‬‫ﯾﻔﺿل‬ ‫اﻟﺻﺧرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗرب‬‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫اﺧﺗﯾﺎر‬ ‫ﻣرﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘص‬ ‫وﺟﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯾﻛﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻧوع‬‫دورھﺎ‬ ‫وزﯾﺎدة‬T ‫ﺛﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻣل‬ ‫او‬ ‫إطﺎرات‬ ‫ﺑل‬ ‫ﻓﻘط‬ ‫ﻗﺻﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟدران‬ ‫ﻟﯾﺳت‬ ‫واﻻطﺎرات‬ ‫اﻟﻘص‬ ‫ﺟدران‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻣﺧﺗﻠطﺔ‬‫اﻛﺛر‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫ﻟﺟﻌل‬ ‫ﻣروﻧﺔ‬‫وﺗﻛﺑﯾراﻟدور‬T‫اﻟﺻﺧرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗرب‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫اﻟدور‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬‫او‬ ‫اﻟﺣﺟري‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬‫اﺳﺗﻌﻣﺎل‬ ‫ﯾﻔﺿل‬ ‫واﻟطوب‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻠوك‬ ‫ﺧرﺳﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫إطﺎرات‬‫اﻟﻣروﻧﺔ‬ ‫وزﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺟدران‬ ‫وﺗﻛﺗﯾف‬‫ﻟﺗﺟﻧب‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫وﺗﺻدع‬ ‫اﻟطﻧﯾن‬ ‫ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ‬
  6. 6. 6 -‫اﻟدور‬ ‫ذان‬ ‫واﻟطﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟرﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗرب‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬T1‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻠﺟﺄ‬‫اﻷﺑﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻛس‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺑرﺟﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫دورھﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﻘﺎص‬2T ‫اﻟﻣﻘطﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻛﺑﯾر‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﻗﺻﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺟدران‬ ‫واﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺑﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑزﯾﺎدة‬ ‫وذﻟك‬ ‫اﻟطﻧﯾن‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺣدث‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻛﻲ‬ ‫زﻻزل‬ ‫ﻣﺧﻣدات‬ ‫اﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻗل‬ ‫ﻟﯾﺻﺑﺢ‬T1
  7. 7. 7 ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺄﺳﯾس‬ ‫ﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻧوع‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟزﻻزل‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯾر‬‫اﻟﻣﯾﺎه‬ ‫طﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗواﺟد‬ ‫ﻋﻧد‬ ‫وذﻟك‬‫اﻟﺗرب‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﯾﺎه‬ ‫ﺗواﺟد‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺿﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟرﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟزﻻزل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣرﻏوب‬ ‫ﻏﯾر‬ ‫ﻓﮭذا‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫اﺳﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﻔل‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫اھﺗزاز‬ ‫ﺣﯾث‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫ﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﯾﺎه‬ ‫ﺗواﺟد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫رﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ذرات‬ ‫وھروب‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻏرﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﯾؤدي‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺑﺷﺔ‬ ‫اﻟذرات‬ ‫ﻟﮭروب‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻣﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﯾﺎه‬ ‫ﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺗزداد‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺑﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ‫وﺗﺻدﻋﮫ‬ ‫اﻧﻘﻼﺑﮫ‬ ‫وﺣﺗﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﯾﻼن‬ ‫ﯾزﯾد‬ ‫ﻣﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﯾﺎه‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺳوب‬ ‫وارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫اﻟطﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗرب‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬ ‫ﻏﻲ‬ ‫ﻟذﻟك‬ ‫ﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘرﯾر‬ ‫ﺗواﺟد‬ ‫ﯾﻔﺿل‬ (‫)اﻟﺣﺻﯾرة‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺑﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
  8. 8. 8 ‫ﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫واﺳﺗﺑدال‬ ‫إﺣﻼل‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻣل‬ ‫ﯾوﺻﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻣﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻌﻣﺎل‬ ‫او‬‫اﻟﺧوازﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ -‫ﻟﺑﺷﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻌﻣﺎل‬ ‫وﯾﻣﻛن‬‫اﻟﻧزول‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ (‫ﺣﺻﯾرة‬ )‫اﻷﻋﻣﺎق‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﺑﯾﺔ‬ ‫طواﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻋدد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﯾط‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻧدة‬ ‫ﺟدران‬ ‫ﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫او‬‫ﻗﺎﻋدة‬ ‫ﺗﺻﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﯾث‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء‬ ‫ھروب‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻛﺻﻧدوق‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎس‬‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ذرات‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻣﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺎدﺛﺔ‬ ‫وﯾﻣﻧﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺑﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋدة‬ ‫ﺣدود‬  whirring incident in the vibrational animations of wind and earthquakes  Incident whirring is when the period T1 of building equal With the period of soil T2  Instead of the soil absorbs and dispersion part of the earthquake forces But increases and doubles inertia forces becuse of equal The two periods T1=T2 and building collapses to a strong stress internal inertia is greater than that designed the building on • For an incident to avoid whirring and equal periods
  9. 9. 9 Between rocky soil Low period T1 and building period T2 in case wind, earthquakes and seismic animations  This occurs only in buildings with little height as in apartments One floor to two and buildings with rigid shear sentences Where T as small as the period at the stone buildings and blocks  So in the rocky soil prefer to choice of construction  structural type and sentence shear flex type, such as frames  not only the shea walls, but frames or joint sentences Mixed shear walls and frames to make the building more Flexibility and increase the period T from a period of rocky soils  In the case of construction stone or brick blocks ,the prefer to use concrete frames surround walls to increase flexibility  In case sandy soils and clay with a period of higher T1 Resort to the opposite in buildings tower to relieve high period T 2 By increasing the stiffness and adding Shear walls or Maximize section Earthquake dampers or add to whirring process does not occurTo become less than the period of soil
  10. 10. 10 effect of seismic on soil type & water
  11. 11. 11
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  14. 14. 14  And when presence poor clay soil or presence water with sandy soils it is undesirable in terms of earthquakes shake the soil beneath the foundations of the building, especially in sandy soil with the presence of water  In the case of foundation mat will lead to a filtering the soil and the soil particles escape Outside the mat and increasing ratio of water and dilute the soil to escape the atoms And it increases the slope of building even rotation and cracking  Therefore, in the event of poor clay soil and high water levels Especially in the case of (the mat) prefer to presence soil report  recommends doing substitution and replacement of soil Or use of deep foundations Piles  - can be used (mat) with go down to the depths with a number of floors basements  Or the design of walls building supported on the perimeter of the base where they become The foundation a closed box prevents the escape of soil particles outside the boundaries of the base mat and prevents incident liquefaction
  15. 15. 15 Dr Youssef Hamid a

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