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Extraction

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The presentation gives the basic information regarding the extraction in food matrix. It includes basics of extraction, principles of extraction and the theory behind the solvent extraction. It also involves terms and terminologies involved in the extraction process, Factors affecting extraction efficiency and Types of Extractors. Mixer-Settlers for extraction, Spray extraction towers, Plate towers contactors, etc.

Publié dans : Alimentation
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Extraction

  1. 1. Extraction PRESENTED BY BHOSALE YUVRAJ KHASHERAO PHD I YEAR, FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. Extraction may be defined as the removal of soluble constituents from a solid, liquid or semi-solid with means of suitable solvent. It may be defined as the treatment of the plant or animal tissues with appropriate solvent, which would dissolve the medicinally active constituents. Extraction
  3. 3. Extraction is the method of removal of a soluble fraction in the form of a solution from an insoluble matrix with the help of a suitable solvent. oThe soluble components may be present either as a solid or liquid oInsoluble matrix may be in powder form, openly porous or non porous or cellular with selective permeable cell walls as in case of vegetable and animal tissues. Extraction Extraction Solid – Liquid Extraction Liquid – Liquid Extraction Leaching
  4. 4. Solvent extraction, or liquid–liquid extraction, is the separation of impurities (solutes) from a liquid solution by contacting it with another immiscible liquid (solvent) in which the impurities have a high affinity. The high affinity driving the separation can be either ◦ Physical solubility differences ◦ Chemical reaction. The solvent may be a ◦ Single component liquid ◦ Mixture Liquid-liquid extraction
  5. 5. Principle
  6. 6. Basic steps in extraction Typical liquid-liquid extraction operations utilize the differences in the solubilities of the components of a liquid mixture. The basic steps involved include: 1. Contacting the feed with the extraction solvent. 2. Separation of the resulting phases 3. Removal/recovery of solvent from each phase.
  7. 7. Extraction is process of transferring substance of a water phase in organic Menstrum is reagent which with investigated substance forms compound which then is extracted Extract - is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold as tinctures or in powder form Re-extraction is process of transferring substance of organic phase in water Raffinate / Marc is a liquid from which impurities have been removed by solvent extraction Terminologies in Extraction
  8. 8. Polar : water (Di-electric constant: 80), Methanol : (33), Acetone : (21) Non-polar : Chloroform (4.81), Hexane (1.88), Benzene(2.3) , toluene (2.38) , diethyl- ether (4.3), Solvents with a dielectric constant of less than 15 are generally considered to be non-polar. Should not mix up with water. Should be selective. Should have the big capacity in relation to extractive. Conditions of a choice of solvent The density of extragent should be difference from water density. Should have the minimum viscosity. Should be inexpensive. Cannot be explosive.
  9. 9.  Single component liquid oHexane oEther oToluene oWater oDichloromethane oChloroform Mixture oWater and Ether oEther and Methylene chloride oAcetone and Ether oWater and Acetone oWater and Methylene chloride oEther and Dichloromethane Common used solvents
  10. 10. For a given compound, solubility difference between solvents is quantified as Distribution Coefficient or partitioning coefficient. Distribution Ratio: measure of how well a species is extracted. It is the ratio, K of the solubility of solute dissolved in the organic layer to the solubility of material dissolved in the aqueous layer.  K is independent of the actual amounts of the two solvents mixed. Extraction efficiency
  11. 11. The constant K, is essentially the ratio of the concentrations of the solute in the two different solvents once the system reaches equilibrium. At equilibrium the molecules naturally distribute themselves in the solvent where they are more soluble. Inorganic and water soluble materials will stay in the water layer and more organic molecules will remain in the organic layer. K= distribution coefficient = 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 (𝑔/100𝑚𝐿) 𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 (𝑔/100𝑚𝐿) Extraction efficiency
  12. 12. Extraction efficiency Unless K is very large, not all of a solute will reside in the organic layer in a single extraction. Usually more than one extractions of the aqueous layer with an organic solvent are carried out in sequence in order to remove as much of the desired product from the aqueous layer as possible.
  13. 13. Temperature Suitable size reduction Penetration of drug by the solvent Solution of the soluble matter within the cells Escape of dissolved material through the cell walls and through the boundary layer surrounding the particles Separation of the solution and exhausted drug Factors affecting extraction efficiency
  14. 14. Separation of elements Concentrating impurities Clearings of the basic component from impurities Definition of the basic component from impurities Identification and quantitative definition of chemical agent or substances- markers Increase of sensitivity and selectivity of reactions Studying of formation constant of complexes Studying of substance condition in a solution (a charge, polymerisation degree) Applications of Extraction
  15. 15. Column Contactors Mixer Settlers Centrifugal Used primarily in the metals industry due to: - Large flows - Intense mixing - Long Residence time - Corrosive fluids - History Used primarily in the pharmaceutical industry due to: - Large flows - Intense mixing - Long Residence time - Corrosive fluids - History Static Agitated Spray Packed Tray Pulsed Rotary Reciprocating Rarely used Used in: - Refining - Petrochemicals Used in: - Refining - Petrochemicals Used in: - Nuclear - Inorganics - Chemicals Used in: - Chemicals - Petrochemicals - Refining - Pharmaceutical Types of Extractors
  16. 16. Mixer-Settlers for extraction
  17. 17. Spray extraction towers
  18. 18. Plate towers contactors
  19. 19. Agitated towers contactors
  20. 20. Centrifugal extractor
  21. 21. Generally the desired liquid is dissolved in the solvent and then get extracted. To improve the efficiency, pretreatments are given to the mixture. The following pretreatments are generally applied to improve the efficiency. Microwave pretreatment Ultrasound pretreatment High Pressure Processing Pulse Electric Field Processing Cold plasma pretreatment Recent development in solvent extraction
  22. 22. Mechanism of pre-treatments
  23. 23. Case Study
  24. 24. Case Study
  25. 25. Case Study
  26. 26. Case Study
  27. 27. Hielscher – Ultrasound Technology Enerzi Microwave Systems Private Limited Udyambag, Belgaum, Karnataka IEEE Acquired Engineering, HPP Equipments Equipment Suppliers

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