Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Organometallic Compounds
Mr.Zamir S. Shekh
Assistant Professsor
Defination & Importance Of OMC :-
Organometallic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds containing at
least one bond...
Look at the electronegativities
of the metals Li, Na, K and Mg
compared to C and the other
atoms we have seen so far,
The ...
Organo Lithium
Organolithiurn reagents react with a wide variety of organic substrates to form
carbon-carbon bonds and ser...
Organolithium reagents exhibit reactivities similar to those of Grignard reagents
Organolithiums Via Iithium-Halogen Excha...
Chemoselectivity
Ortho-Metalation of Substituted Benzenes and Heteroaromatic compounds
Metalation Alkynes
This imparts sufficiently greater acidity to acetylene and 1-alkynes (pKa 24-26) so that
bases such as ...
Organo Magnesium
The Grignard reaction, reported in 1900 by Victor Grignard (Nobel Prize, 1912)
provides the synthetic che...
Alkynyl Grignard reagents are obtained by deprotonation of 1-alkynes with
ethylinagnesium bromide in THF. For the preparat...
Organo
Magnesium
Flow Chart lApplications of RMgX
Flow Chart ll
Organo
Magnesium
Applications of RMgX
Cram’s rule
In 1952, Donald I. Cram (1919-2001, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1987) and his cowork-
er Fathy A. Abd Elhafez pr...
In contrast to the polar nature of C-Li and C-MgX bonds,
the C-Zn bond is highly covalent and hence less
reactive,allowing...
The Reformatsky reaction involves condensation of a-haloester with aldehydes
or ketones in presence of zinc enolates to gi...
Mechanism
l. Generation Of Zinc Enolate Using Alpha Halo Ester With Zn
ll. Attack of Enolate on the Carbonyl Carbon(Aldehy...
In 1958, Simmons and Smith reported that treatment of a zinc-copper couple
with diiodomethane (CH2I2) in ether produces a ...
The synthetic utility of the reaction stems from the following characteristics
1) Stereospecificity
2) Tolerance of a vari...
Organo Copper
Organocopper complexes (RCu)
Lower-order cuprates (R2CuLi, also known as Gilmanreagents
Lower-order cyanocup...
Conjugate Addition Reactions
Enantioselective Variants
Epoxide opening with organocuprates is highly
selective for the less hindered position
Ppt on omc
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Ppt on omc

4 622 vues

Publié le

Organometallic Compounds

Publié dans : Formation
  • Identifiez-vous pour voir les commentaires

Ppt on omc

  1. 1. Organometallic Compounds Mr.Zamir S. Shekh Assistant Professsor
  2. 2. Defination & Importance Of OMC :- Organometallic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds containing at least one bond between a carbon atom of an organic compound and a metal Organometallic compounds provide a source of nucleophilic carbon atoms which can react with electrophilic carbon to form a new carbon-carbon bond. Nomenclature:- Organometallic compounds are normally named as substituted metals, e.g. alkyl metal or alkyl metal halide. Organomagnesium compounds are generally referred to as Grignard reagents. Examples: CH3Li = methyllithium, CH3MgBr = methylmagnesium bromide. Physical Properties:- Organometallic are usually kept in solution in organic solvents due to their very high reactivity (especially with H2O, O2 etc.) Structure:- Organosodium and organopotassium compounds are essentially ionic compounds.Organolithiums and organomagnesiums have a σ bond between a C atom and the metal: C-M These are very polar, covalent bonds due to the electropositive character of the metals.
  3. 3. Look at the electronegativities of the metals Li, Na, K and Mg compared to C and the other atoms we have seen so far, The images show the electrostatic potentials for methyl chloride, methyl lithium and methyl magnesium bromide. The more red an area is, the higher the electron density and the more blue an area is, the lower the electron density. In the alkyl halide, the methyl group has lower electron density (blue), and is an electrophile. In methyl lithium, the methyl group has higher electron density (red) and is a nucleophile. In methyl magnesium bromide, the methyl group is less electron rich that methyl lithium.
  4. 4. Organo Lithium Organolithiurn reagents react with a wide variety of organic substrates to form carbon-carbon bonds and serve as precursors for the preparation of other organometallic reagents. Important points to consider when preparing and using organolithiums are, Atmosphere :- inert atmosphere (Ar and He are best) Nature of the halide :- Bromides generally are best; iodides have a tendency to undergo the Wurtz reaction Purity and physical state of the metal:- The rnetal surface should be clean and have a large surface area. Solvent:- Most R-Li reagents are prepared in hydrocarbon solvents. However, phenyllithium, methyllithium Reactivity:- The basicity of organolithium reagents decreases with increasing stability of the carbanion moiety (e.g., t-BuLi > s-BuLi > n-BuLi).
  5. 5. Organolithium reagents exhibit reactivities similar to those of Grignard reagents Organolithiums Via Iithium-Halogen Exchange Aryllithium Reagents Metal-halogen exchange provides an efficient route to aryllithiums and heteroaromatic lithium reagents that are inaccessible by metal-hydrogen exchange
  6. 6. Chemoselectivity Ortho-Metalation of Substituted Benzenes and Heteroaromatic compounds
  7. 7. Metalation Alkynes This imparts sufficiently greater acidity to acetylene and 1-alkynes (pKa 24-26) so that bases such as alkyllithiums, lithium dialkylamides, sodium amide in liquid ammonia, and ethylmagnesium bromide may be used to generate the alkynyl anions. Applications of Organo lithium:- a) Addition to Carbonyl Compounds b) Adddition to Acids c) Addition to Nitriles & CO2 d) Displacement of Halo Groups e) Opens Epoxide
  8. 8. Organo Magnesium The Grignard reaction, reported in 1900 by Victor Grignard (Nobel Prize, 1912) provides the synthetic chemist with one of the most powerful tools for connecting carbon moieties. Although 100 years have passed since Grignard published the preparation of ethereal solutions of organornagnesiurn halides, the actual mechanism for the formation of the reagents and their structures are still not completely understood. The overall reaction for the formation of Grignard reagents involves an insertion of magnesium into the carbon-halogen bond via an oxidative addition, thereby changing its oxidation state from Mg(0) to Mg(II). Schlenk equilibrium
  9. 9. Alkynyl Grignard reagents are obtained by deprotonation of 1-alkynes with ethylinagnesium bromide in THF. For the preparation of ethynylrnagnesium bromide (HC _CMgBr), a solution of ethylmagnesium bromide in THF is slowly added to a cooled solution of THF containing the acetylene. Limitations Of Grignard Reagents :- a) For thte preparation of Allyl & Benzyl Grignard reagennt always used Anthracene,d High stable species b) For the praparation of RMgF &RMgI Always use EtBr c) For the preparation of Alkenyl Grignard use Already synthesized RMgX. d) If any acidic groups present along with halo compounds that also decomposed RM
  10. 10. Organo Magnesium Flow Chart lApplications of RMgX
  11. 11. Flow Chart ll Organo Magnesium Applications of RMgX
  12. 12. Cram’s rule In 1952, Donald I. Cram (1919-2001, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1987) and his cowork- er Fathy A. Abd Elhafez presented an experimental rule for the diastereoface- differentiating reaction of ketones having a chiral center at the vicinal carbon with metal hydride complexes or with organometallic reagents Cram's rule states that ketones (A; L, M, and S are large, medium, and small groups, respectively) with a chiral center The nucleophile of the reagent Y--M' then attacks the carbonyl carbon at the less hindered diastereoface.
  13. 13. In contrast to the polar nature of C-Li and C-MgX bonds, the C-Zn bond is highly covalent and hence less reactive,allowing the preparation of functionalized derivatives. Utilization of organozinc reagents in organic synthesis has mainly in preparation and utilization of compounds in organic syntheses (Reformatsky reaction), cyclopropanation (Simmons-Smith reaction),and transmetalations with transition metals Can not opens epoxide Organo Zinc
  14. 14. The Reformatsky reaction involves condensation of a-haloester with aldehydes or ketones in presence of zinc enolates to give the corsesponding beta hydroxy esters. The zinc enolates are generated by addition of an a-haloester in THF,DME, Et-O in benzene or toluene to an activated zinc, such as a Zn-Cu couple or zinc obtained by reduction of zinc halides with potassium . An example of a Reformatsky condensation using Rieke zinc is shown below. Principal Examples
  15. 15. Mechanism l. Generation Of Zinc Enolate Using Alpha Halo Ester With Zn ll. Attack of Enolate on the Carbonyl Carbon(Aldehyde/Ketone)) Enantioselective addition of organozinc reagents to carbonyl cornpounds furnishes chiral alcohols
  16. 16. In 1958, Simmons and Smith reported that treatment of a zinc-copper couple with diiodomethane (CH2I2) in ether produces a reagent that adds to alkenes to form cyclopropanes. Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation Or Simmons & Smith Reaction The cyclopropanation reaction of simple alkenes appears to proceed via stereospecific syn-addition of a Zn-carbenoid (carbene-like species) to the double bond without the involvement of a free carbene
  17. 17. The synthetic utility of the reaction stems from the following characteristics 1) Stereospecificity 2) Tolerance of a variety of f~lnctional groups, such as Cl, Br, OH, OR, CO,R, C=O, and CN 3) The syn-directing effect of hydroxyl and ether functions 4)Chemoselectivity-zinc carbenoids are electrophilic and react chemoselectively with the more nucleophilic double bond in dienes and polyenes If any Chelating group is present i.e.OH,OR,NH2 then Cycloproponation prefer on the same side of that group
  18. 18. Organo Copper Organocopper complexes (RCu) Lower-order cuprates (R2CuLi, also known as Gilmanreagents Lower-order cyanocuprates (RCu(CN)Li) Higher-order cyanocuprates (R2Cu(CN)Li2) Mechanism and Stereochemistry Substitution Reactions
  19. 19. Conjugate Addition Reactions Enantioselective Variants
  20. 20. Epoxide opening with organocuprates is highly selective for the less hindered position

×