Masonry is generally a highly durable formMasonry is generally a highly durable form
of construction. However, the materialsof construction. However, the materials
used, the quality of the mortar andused, the quality of the mortar and
workmanship, and the pattern in which theworkmanship, and the pattern in which the
units are assembled can significantly affectunits are assembled can significantly affect
the durability of the over all masonrythe durability of the over all masonry
Masonry units, such asMasonry units, such as brick, tile, stone,brick, tile, stone,
glass brick or concrete blockglass brick or concrete block generallygenerally
conform to the requirements specified inconform to the requirements specified in
the 2003the 2003 International Building CodeInternational Building Code ((IBCIBC))
Section 2103.Section 2103.
4. Masonry - Primary Uses TodayMasonry - Primary Uses Today
Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)
Foundation WallsFoundation Walls
Structural Support Walls (low rise)Structural Support Walls (low rise)
Backup Walls for Exterior FacingBackup Walls for Exterior Facing
Brick & StoneBrick & Stone
Facing Materials - VeneersFacing Materials - Veneers
Decorative WallsDecorative Walls
MasonryMasonry is the building of structures from individualis the building of structures from individual
units laid in and bound together byunits laid in and bound together by mortarmortar; the term; the term
masonrymasonry can also refer to the units themselves. Thecan also refer to the units themselves. The
common materials of masonry construction arecommon materials of masonry construction are
Cast StoneCast Stone
Concrete BlockConcrete Block
Glass blockGlass block
Stucco, and Tile.Stucco, and Tile.
Masonry is commonlyMasonry is commonly used for the walls ofused for the walls of
buildings, retaining walls and monuments.buildings, retaining walls and monuments.
Brick and concreteBrick and concrete block are the most commonblock are the most common
types of masonry in use in industrialized nationstypes of masonry in use in industrialized nations
and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer.and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer.
Concrete blocks, especially those with hollowConcrete blocks, especially those with hollow
cores, offer various possibilities in masonrycores, offer various possibilities in masonry
construction. They generally provide greatconstruction. They generally provide great
compressive strength, and are best suited tocompressive strength, and are best suited to
structures with light transverse loading when thestructures with light transverse loading when the
cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of thecores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the
cores with concrete or concrete with steelcores with concrete or concrete with steel
reinforcement (typically rebar) offers muchreinforcement (typically rebar) offers much
greater tensile and lateral strength to structuresgreater tensile and lateral strength to structures
7. Brick masonry is construction in whichBrick masonry is construction in which
uniform units (“bricks”), small enough to beuniform units (“bricks”), small enough to be
placed with one hand, are laid in coursesplaced with one hand, are laid in courses
with mortar joints to form walls. Bricks arewith mortar joints to form walls. Bricks are
kiln baked from various clay and shalekiln baked from various clay and shale
mixtures. The chemical and physicalmixtures. The chemical and physical
characteristics of the ingredients varycharacteristics of the ingredients vary
considerably. These characteristics and theconsiderably. These characteristics and the
kiln temperatures combine to produce brickkiln temperatures combine to produce brick
in a variety of colors and harnesses.in a variety of colors and harnesses.
8. Technical terms used in masonryTechnical terms used in masonry
Brick which is laid with its length
perpendicular to the face of the wall.
Full brick which is laid with its length
parallel to the face of the wall.
Portion of brick cut in such a manner that
one long face remains uncut.
Brick is cut in such a way that the width of its
end is half of full brick.
Brick is half as wide as a full brick.
11. Half Bat
Portion of brick cut half across the
It is similar to king closer with the only
difference that the whole length of he
brick is bevelled.
Mortar is a pasty material formed by the addition of water to
a mixture composed of an aggregate (sand) and a
binding material (cement or lime) which may be
handled with a trowel. The mortar units the individual
bricks together. Generally, following types of mortar are
o Mud mortar
o Cement mortar
o Lime mortar
o Cement lime mortar
Mud mortar is used for the temporary construction.
Cement mortar is used for permanent structures. In
order to select a suitable type of mortar for a given
construction, we must know the type of desired finish,
the magnitude and nature of super-imposed load, the
effect of weathering agencies and the importance of
15. Brick’s BondingBrick’s Bonding
1. Stretcher Bond1. Stretcher Bond
2. English Bond2. English Bond
3. Flemish Bond3. Flemish Bond
4. Raking Bond4. Raking Bond
5. English Garden Wall Bond5. English Garden Wall Bond
6. Common / American Bond6. Common / American Bond
7. Flemish Garden Wall Bond7. Flemish Garden Wall Bond
8. Running Bond8. Running Bond
9. Herringbone Bond9. Herringbone Bond
16. Header BondHeader Bond
A masonry bond consisting of header
courses exclusively. Header bond was
sometimes used to help make a building
look bigger. Civic buildings and the odd
town-house can be found in Header bond
17. Stretcher Bond
Easiest Bond To Lay & Minimizes The Amount Of Cutting
Required Originally Used For Single Brick Walls, Now
Called 1/2 Brick Walls It Became The Obvious Choice For
Cavity Walls As Less Cutting Was Required.
18. English Bond
Alternative courses of headers and stretchers; one
header placed centrally above each stretcher.
This is a very strong bond when the wall is 1 brick
One of the strongest brickwork bond patterns.
19. Flemish Bond
Alternate bricks are placed as header and stretcher
in every course. Each header is
placed centrally between the stretcher immediately
above and bellow.
20. Raking Bond
Herringbone and diagonal bonds can be effective
within an exposed framed construction, or contained
within restraining brick courses.
21. English Garden Wall Bond
An alternative version of English bond with
header courses being inserted at every fourth or
sixth course. This is a correspondingly weaker
bond. Suitable for free standing wall.
25. Herringbone and diagonal bonds can beHerringbone and diagonal bonds can be
effective within an exposed framedeffective within an exposed framed
construction, or contained withinconstruction, or contained within
restraining brick courses.restraining brick courses.
Racking BondRacking Bond