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Genetically modified crops and animals

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GMO and their effects in animals

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Genetically modified crops and animals

  1. 1. Conclusion
  2. 2. The first genetically engineered plant was produced in 1982, using an antibiotic resistant tobacco plant. The first field trials of genetically engineered plants occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered to be resistant to herbicides.
  3. 3. The area of agricultural land cultivated with genetically modified (GM) crops has expanded exponentially since their introduction in 1996. Only 20 years later, in 2016, a total area of 185.1 million hectares worldwide was cultivated with GM crops ((ISAAA, 2017).
  4. 4. Genetically modified crops are plants, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques to increase the production. GM crops have resistance against pests, herbicides and agents causing harm to plants. Most genetically modified plants are generated by the biolistic method (particle gun) or by Agro bacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation.
  5. 5. Insect resistance genes Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize Herbicide tolerance genes Roundup Ready (RR) soybean Bt crops have been genetically modified to express one or more Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis to protect the plant against insects of the order Lepidoptera. Roundup Ready (RR) crops contain a gene that confers tolerance to Roundup and other formulations based on glyphosate as active herbicidal ingredient.
  6. 6. Bt Maize Bt Cotton Bt Sugarcane Canola RR Soybean Bt Rice
  7. 7. We performed a structured literature search using different search engines. For the evaluation of the effects of GM crops fed to livestock on health parameters we only selected experimental studies in which a control group was included. Many of the published experimental studies evaluated performance parameters (e.g. average daily weight gain, body weight, feed conversion), or reproductive traits.
  8. 8. We reviewed 27 scientific publications from the period 2014-2019 that reported on experiments in which health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock were evaluated. We discussed the effects on health parameters when measured values were significantly different (P < 0.05) between GM-fed animals and control animals.
  9. 9. Countries Poland Italy USA South Korea China Germany Turkey Pakistan
  10. 10. GM Crop Animal Duration of Exp Observations References Bt Maize Pigs 196 day feeding trial No adverse effects on growth, performance and hematology Chen et al., 2016 Bt Maize Pigs Three generations Increase in liver weight and decrease in kidney weight. Increase liver enzymes Yalçin et al., 2018 Bt Rice Pigs 360 and 420 days No adverse effects on gut microbiota and organ function Liu et al., 2018
  11. 11. GM Crop Animal Duration of Exp Observations References Maize (MON 810) and RR soybean meal (MON 40-3- 2) Cattle bull 90 days No effects on weight gain and fatty-acid profile of intramuscular fat. Dierżuk et al., 2014 Maize (MON 810) and RR soybean meal (MON 40-3- 2) Cattle 305th days of lactation No significant effects on productivity, milk composition, blood metabolites profiles (Hormones) Dierżuk et al., 2015 GM soybean (MON40-3-2) Kids 90 days (60 days before kidding and 30 days after birth) Colostrum from GM fed groups showed significantly lower percentage of protein and fat, either serum or colostrum IgG. Birth weight significantly higher in non- GM fed group. Tudisco et al., 2015
  12. 12. GM Crop Animal Duration of Exp Observations Referenc es GM Maize & Soybean Broiler 32 days Feed intake and FCR were greater in broilers provided with non-GMO diet than that of the GMO group. Kim, 2019 GM Canola Broiler Starter, grower and finisher phase No effects on growth performance measures or organ and carcass yields. McNaug hton et al., 2014 GM Rice Broiler 42 days No adverse effects on the broiler intestinal microbiota Lili et al., 2017 GM Rice Broiler 42 days No effects on body weight and the immune organ indices. No significant pathological lesion in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius. LIU et al., 2016
  13. 13. Significant differences (P<0.05) in health parameters were most often observed when animals were fed Bt maize, although most effects measured were unlikely to be of biological significance and were within normal biological ranges. Health effects of Bt Maize were only observed in one experimental study with Pigs. Based on this literature review, we conclude that there is no clear evidence that feed composed of first generation GM crops has adverse effects on animal health.
  14. 14. References • Kim, I.H., 2019. Non-GMO and GMO (maize-soybean) diet effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass weight and meat quality of broiler chicken. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. • Lili, G., Deng, X., Minhong, Z., Changlong, S., Jinghai, F., Fuping, S., Fan, L., Jie, Z., 2017. High-throughput Sequencing-based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens Fed Genetically Modified Rice Expressing Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Chimeric Bacillus thuringiensis Protein. The Journal of Poultry Science 0170029. • LIU, R., ZHAO, G., ZHENG, M., Jie, L.I.U., ZHANG, J., Peng, L.I., LI, Q., FENG, J., ZHANG, M., Jie, W.E.N., 2016. Effect of feeding transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac rice on indices of immune function in broilers. Journal of integrative agriculture 15, 1355–1363. • McNaughton, J., Roberts, M., Rice, D., Smith, B., Hong, B., Delaney, B., Iiams, C., 2014. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing genetically modified canola meal from event DP-Ø73496-4, near-isogenic canola meal, or commercial canola meals. Poultry science 93, 1713–1723.
  15. 15. • Furgal-Dierżuk, I., Strzetelski, J., Kwiatek, K., Twardowska, M., Mazur, M., Sieradzki, Z., Kozaczyński, W., Reichert, M., 2014. The effect of genetically modified maize (MON 810) and soyabean meal (Roundup Ready) on rearing performance and transfer of transgenic DNA to calf tissues. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 23, 13–22. • Furgal-Dierżuk, I., Strzetelski, J., Twardowska, M., Kwiatek, K., Mazur, M., 2015. The effect of genetically modified feeds on productivity, milk composition, serum metabolite profiles and transfer of tDNA into milk of cows. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 663, 127. • Tudisco, R., Calabrò, S., Cutrignelli, M.I., Moniello, G., Grossi, M., Mastellone, V., Lombardi, P., Pero, M.E., Infascelli, F., 2015. Genetically modified soybean in a goat diet: Influence on kid performance. Small Ruminant Research 126, 67–74. • Yalçin, E., Acar, A., Seven, B., Taşli, B., Çavuşoğlu, K., 2018. Effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) maize on oxidative stress parameters in New Zealand rabbit. GLOBAL NEST JOURNAL 20, 173–176. • Chen, L., Sun, Z., Liu, Q., Zhong, R., Tan, S., Yang, X., Zhang, H., 2016. Long-term toxicity study on genetically modified corn with cry1Ac gene in a Wuzhishan miniature pig model. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96, 4207–4214. • Liu, Q., Wu, S., Li, M., Yang, W., Wang, Y., Wu, Y., Gao, H., Han, Y., Feng, S., Zeng, S., 2018a. Effects of long-term feeding with genetically modified Bt rice on the growth and reproductive performance in highly inbred Wuzhishan pigs. Food Control 90, 382–391.

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