Respiratory Fernando

16 475 vues

Publié le

Respiratory system anatomy and gas exchange.

Publié dans : Formation, Santé & Médecine
  • Soyez le premier à commenter

Respiratory Fernando

  1. 1. Respiratory System
  2. 2. Human Respiratory System
  3. 3. <ul><li>Passageway for respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors for smell </li></ul><ul><li>Filters incoming air to filter larger foreign material </li></ul><ul><li>Warms incoming air </li></ul>Upper Respiratory Tract Functions
  4. 4. <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx : maintains an open airway, routes food and air appropriately, assists in sound production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trachea : transports air to and from lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchi : branch into lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs : transport air to alveoli for gas exchange </li></ul></ul>Lower Respiratory Tract
  5. 7. The lungs have helpers <ul><li>The ribs protect the lungs and help us breathe. </li></ul><ul><li>Another helper is the diaphragm . </li></ul>
  6. 8. Breathing in: inhaling - inspiration <ul><li>Several things happen when we breathe in. </li></ul><ul><li>The ribs move up and out. </li></ul><ul><li>The diaphragm moves downward, away from the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The space inside the chest becomes larger. </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs fill with air and expand. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Breathing out: exhaling - expiration <ul><li>Several things happen when we breathe in. </li></ul><ul><li>The ribs move down and in. </li></ul><ul><li>The diaphragm moves upward, toward the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The space inside the chest becomes smaller. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Respiratory Cycle Figure 10.9
  9. 11. Alveoli 1. Oxygen is collected in each Alveoli (‘grape’). Passes through a very thin layer of membrane (like skin of the grape) collected by the capillaries. 2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is also dropped off at the alveoli. Two very important things happen at the Alveoli:
  10. 12. Gas Exchange Between the Blood and Alveoli Figure 10.8A
  11. 14. Breathing and respiration <ul><li>Respiration is the process used in all living things for gaining energy. Energy is needed for keeping the vital organs working and generally staying alive. It is also needed for moving muscles. Keeping a constant body temperature is important to. Cell division, reproduction and other important processes in the body all need energy to work. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing : </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing in >>> Inspiration Diaphragm lowers and the ribs raise to increase the volume of the thorax. The pressure decreases so air is drawn into the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing out >>> Expiration Diaphragm raises and ribs lower which decreases the volume of the thorax. The pressure increases and air is forced out of the lungs </li></ul>
  12. 15. Anaerobic respiration <ul><li>When a person is doing very heavy exercise and the blood cannot supply enough oxygen another sort of respiration occurs. This converts glucose into energy without the need for oxygen and is known as anaerobic respiration . The reaction is: </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose -> Energy released + lactic acid Anaerobic respiration releases less energy than aerobic respiration . Unfortunately the insufficient blood supply that leads to anaerobic respiration also means that the lactic acid builds up in the muscles. High lactic acid concentrations are painful and felt as cramp . When exercise stops, the blood supply is able to provide enough oxygen to convert the lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water but this takes time and the muscle pain may continue after exercise until the lactic acid has been converted. </li></ul>
  13. 16. Aerobic respiration <ul><li>Respiration is the process in which the chemical bonds of energy-rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic respiration uses oxygen to oxidise glucose and produce energy. The equation for the oxidation of glucose is: </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy released </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + water + Energy released </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals and plants use aerobic respiration as a primary source of energy. </li></ul>http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/GCSE_Science/Breathing_and_Respiration
  14. 17. <ul><li>Reduced air flow: asthma, emphysema, bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Infections: pneumonia, tuberculosis, botulism </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Congestive heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis </li></ul>Disorders of Respiratory System
  15. 19. Cancer of the bronchus has spread into the lungs (29)
  16. 20. A blue colouration occurs when blood circulation is poor such as heart failure, shock and exposure to cold environments.(30)
  17. 21. Stomach ulcers (dark brown)- alcohol and smoking are factors. The stomach is cut open. (50)
  18. 22. Damaged toes due to poor blood circulation- will lead to amputation (32)
  19. 23. Amputated fingers- often as a result of damage to blood vessels due to smoking (33)
  20. 24. Lungs: The picture on the left is of emphysema (large air sacs) and the picture on the right is of normal lung.(27) emphysema normal lung
  21. 27. Science Words
  22. 28. The main organs of the respiratory system. LUNGS
  23. 29. <ul><li>diaphragm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a sheet of muscle under the lungs </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. <ul><li>inhaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taking air in </li></ul></ul>
  25. 31. <ul><li>exhaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>letting air out </li></ul></ul>

×