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Material Management in Hospital

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A brief description of material management in a Hospital

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Material Management in Hospital

  1. 1. Material Management in Hospital Col Zulfiquer Ahmed Amin M Phil, MPH, PGD (Health Economics), MBBS Armed Forces Medical Institute (AFMI)
  2. 2. Definition: Material Management is the coordinated function responsible to plan for, acquire, store, move and control materials to provide customer service in accordance with organizational goals.
  3. 3. Aim of Material Management Right material, in right quantities, at right time, at right price, from right sources, at a least cost.
  4. 4. What is 'Inventory' Inventory is the raw materials, work-in-process products and finished goods that are considered to be the portion of a business's assets that are ready or will be ready for sale.
  5. 5. Material Management Goal 1. Optimum materials acquisition 2. Optimum inventory turnover rate 3. Good vendor relationship 4. Material cost control 5. Effective issue and distribution 6. Elimination of losses and pilferage
  6. 6. Recurrent Expenditures of Hospital For delivery of effective healthcare services, it is necessary that- Right material at right time at right place in right quantity should be made available to perform the assigned activities in an effective and efficient manner Recurring expenditure of a hospital: 60%- On salary of employees 30-35%- O materials 5-7%- On non-material resources.
  7. 7. Economy of Material Management
  8. 8. Material management process 1. Demand forecasting and planning 2. Purchasing 3. Receipt inspection and stores 4. Inventory control 5. Issue and distribution 6. Disposal and condemnation 7. Minimizing losses and pilferage
  9. 9. Element of Material Management
  10. 10. Forecasting and Estimating Demand
  11. 11. Methods of Forecasting Demand
  12. 12. Naive Forecasting (Last Period Demand) -Naïve forecasting assumes that demand in the next time period will be the same as demand in the last time period. -For example, if a retailer sells 600 pairs of booths in February, the naïve forecast would be for demand of 600 pairs of boots in March. -This approach rules out all the types of fluctuation – trends, seasonality, random variation and cycles.
  13. 13. -3-Month Moving Average = (M1+M2+M3) / 3 -A three month moving average, for instance, takes the average demand per month for the three preceding months and updates the calculation each month. -Instead of using the most recent period to forecast demand for the next period, a moving average uses the average demand from a series of preceding periods to forecast the next period’s demand. -The moving average mitigates the effects of random variations. Moving Average Forecasting
  14. 14. Standardization of Demand Standardization is grouping together items of similar specification, use or application to enable hospital to chose one out of the many similar options. It ensures: - Non-duplication of inventory - Variety reduction - Economical purchase cost - Efficient use of materials
  15. 15. Procurement
  16. 16. Methods of Procurement 2 methods of purchasing: 1. Centralized: All purchases are made centrally. 2. De-centralized: User departments purchase according to their needs.
  17. 17. Advantages of Centralized Purchasing • Lower purchasing cost • Quantity discounts • Lower inventory cost • Better management control
  18. 18. Purchasing Procedure • Drawing up specification • Inviting quotations • Preparing comparative statement • Shortlisting • Issuing purchase order
  19. 19. INVENTORY CONTROL It means stocking adequate number and kind of stores, so that the materials are available whenever required and wherever required. Scientific inventory control results in optimal balance
  20. 20. Functions of Inventory Control: -It may be more economical to purchase an item on demand than to maintain an inventory. -At the same time , a certain minimum amount of each item must be held to minimize the chances of total stock-out. -Inventory control helps in maintaining an optimum level of the idle resource at a least possible cost.
  21. 21. Management and Control of Inventories • ABC Analysis • VED Analysis • SDE Analysis • HML Analysis • FSN Analysis • Ordering Cost • Inventory Carrying Cost • Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) • Lead Time • Safety Stock • Reorder Level • Stock Turnover
  22. 22. ABC (Always Better Control) Analysis Classifi cation % of items % of value Controls A 10 70 High level, low safety stocks, frequent physical verification, minimum Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), close schedule control and review. B 20 20 Control not as tight as “A”, but more than for “C”. C 70 10 Inexpensive items purchased in large quantities, at lesser interval, minimize clerical effort to control, large safety stock -This is based on cost criteria. -It helps to exercise selective control when confronted with large number of items It rationalizes the number of orders, number of items & reduce the inventory.
  23. 23. ‘A’ ITEMS -Small in number, but consume large amount of resources. Importance: Tight control Rigid estimate of requirements Strict & closer watch Low safety stocks Managed by top management
  24. 24. ‘B’ ITEM Intermediate Characteristic: Moderate control Purchase based on rigid requirements Reasonably strict watch & control Moderate safety stocks Managed by middle level management
  25. 25. ‘C’ ITEMS Larger in number, but consume lesser amount of resources Importance: Ordinary control measures Purchase based on usage estimates High safety stocks ABC analysis does not stress on items those are less costly but may be vital
  26. 26. VED analysis Based on critical value & shortage cost of an item. Vital:- Those items , the absence or shortage of which, even for a short period can seriously hamper the work of the hospital Essential:- Those items , the absence or shortage of which cannot be tolerated for more than a day or so. Desirable:- Those items , which are definitely needed, but the work can continue even without them foe a substantial period of time. Obviously “V” items will require sufficient safety stock than the other two.
  27. 27. ABC and VED Classification Matrix
  28. 28. Selective Inventory Control
  29. 29. Economic Order Quantity • Ordering cost: – Salaries and wages of involved persons – Postal, telex, telephone and other similar bills – Advertisements – Stationary – Entertaining the vendors/suppliers – Travel of store personnel • Inventory carrying cost: – Cost of storage – Salary and wages of store personnel – Insurance – Stationary, forms, paperwork, – Loss of interest money deadlocked in inventory – Deterioration and obsolescence – Losses due to pilferage
  30. 30. EOQ formula Total annual cost (TC) = Purchase cost (RP) + Order cost (RC/Q) + Holding cost(QH/2) Where, R= annual demand in units P= purchase cost of an item C= ordering cost per order H= holding cost per unit per year Q= lot size or order quantity in units H CR Q 2 
  31. 31. Example: United Hospital purchases 1,600 pairs (R) of surgical gloves each year at a unit cost (P) of Tk. 15.00. the order cost (C) is Tk. 100.00 per order, and the holding cost (H) per unit per year is computed at Tk. 8.00. The EOQ (Q) will be: H CR Q 2  = = 200 units 8 16001002   The total annual cost = RP+HQ = (1600x15) + (8x200) = Tk. 25,600.00  The number of orders to place in one year when the lead time is 2 weeks = 8 200 1600  Q R R= Annual demand in units P= Purchase cost of an item C= Ordering cost per order H= Holding cost per unit per year Q= Lot size or order quantity in units
  32. 32. Factors which influence Order Quantities Lead Time: Minimum Stock Holding: – High value items should have very low stock – Low value items can have high quantum of minimum stock – Medium value items fall in between – In case of short life items, the quantity held can be very small. – Shelf life effects the minimum stock holding of an item to a great degree. Safety Buffer Stock: – Is the quantity of stores that one must set apart as an insurance against the variations in demand and procurement period, for unforeseen reasons, and to avoid stock-out. – It is calculated by multiplying the difference between maximum and average consumption rate per day/week/month with the lead time for the item. It is the level at which fresh supply should normally arrive.
  33. 33. Receipt and Inspection
  34. 34. Storage Method
  35. 35. Storage First-In, First-Out. (FIFO)
  36. 36. Issue and Distribution
  37. 37. Minimizing Loss and Pilferage Lost, stolen, and misplaced equipment is creating significant financial losses for hospitals while increasing costs for patients and threatening the level of care they receive. Hospitals are susceptible to a huge amount of theft by a large number of people. In USA: Patient theft alone costs hospitals at least $52 million-a-year
  38. 38. To reduce loss and pilferage 1. Access to all stores should be limited. 2. Locking and unlocking of stores and handling of keys should be strictly controlled. 3. Intensive vigilance to prevent frauds involving purchasing personnel and collusion with vendors. 4. Limiting or controlling following mal-practices: -Control of commission under the table, specially for emergency purchase -Inflating prices -Accepting sub-standard goods -Making fraudulent payments 5. Developing system of internal audit 6. Strict policies and procedures guiding purchase, receipt, storage and distribution 7. Proper monitoring

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