BUSINESS MODELS, INTÉGRATION, 
EXTERNALISATION : 
QUEL EST L’IMPACT DE 
L’IMPRESSION 3D? 
Prof. Thierry Rayna 
Dr Ludmila ...
About the speakers… 
Prof. Thierry Rayna 
Professeur d’Économie 
Novancia Business School Paris 
Imperial College London 
...
3D Printing & Additive 
Manufacturing Research Group 
© Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherw...
Axes de recherche 
Business Models 
Écosystèmes d’innovation 
Stratégies 
Études de marché et prévisions 
Gestion de la Pr...
Plan 
L’impression 3D 
L’impact de l’impression 3D sur les business models 
Des business models adaptatifs avec l’impressi...
L’IMPRESSION 3D 
© Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed unde...
Technologie 
$20K $1K $500 
$200K 
Polymères 
…$100… 
Cellules 
Alliages Sucre 
Chocolat 
Plastic 
Céramique 
1980 … 2000 ...
De nombreuses technologies 
Stereolithography (SLA) 
Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM...
Arbre ou forêt ? 
Technologie 
© Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is...
Arbre ou forêt ? 
SLA FDM LOM SLS LDT EBF3 
© Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted,...
De nombreux matériaux 
Plastique 
Alliages 
Céramique 
Bois 
Sucre 
Chocolat 
Sel 
Cellules 
Molécules 
… 
© Rayna & Striu...
© Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under 
http://creativ...
Une adoption ‘additive’ 
Adoption 
Outillage rapide 
Fabrication à domicile 
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 
2050 
Pro...
Prototypage rapide 
Usage historique 
Toujours d’importance critique 
De nouveaux matériaux + haute qualité 
Prototype ple...
Simulated overmoulding 
© Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licens...
Actual colour and moving parts 
© Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work i...
Subtly blended colours 
Final product realism 
© Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise not...
Outillage rapide 
Deuxième usage historique 
Depuis la disponibilité de polymères résistants à la chaleur 
But: production...
ExOne Sand Printing Method: 
Time: 8 weeks 
Cost: $18,200 
Traditional Method: 
Pattern-based sand casting 
Time: 51 weeks...
,WLVDOVRXVHIXOWRWDNHDORRNDWWKHIROORZLQJFRVWEHQH¿WDQDOVLVWRXQGHUVWDQGKRZWKHXVHRILQMHFWLRQPROGLQJZLWKD3RO-HW 
PROGFRPSDUHVWR...
Source: Stratasys 
$VFDQEHVHHQLQWKHH[DPSOHVDERYHWKHWLPHVDYLQJVZHUHKLJKOVLJQL¿FDQWUDQJLQJEHWZHHQDIHZGDVDQGVHYHUDOZHHNV 
$GG...
Production (numérique) 
directe 
Baisse des coûts et hausse de la qualité permettent 
d’imprimer des produits pour l’utili...
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under 
http://creative...
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under 
http://creative...
Fabrication à domicile (ou 
locale) 
Stade d’évolution ultime 
Basé sur les imprimantes domestiques ou des 
prestataires l...
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under 
http://creative...
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under 
http://creative...
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under 
http://creative...
L’IMPACT DE 
L’IMPRESSION 3D SUR 
LES BUSINESS MODELS 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherw...
Business Model Components 
Value Proposition 
Product offering 
Service offering 
Pricing model 
Value Capture 
Revenue mo...
Éléments clés 
Personnalisation de masse / Mass customisation 
‘Innovation utilisateur’ / User innovation 
Crowdsourcing 
...
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under 
http://creative...
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under 
http://creative...
DES BUSINESS MODELS 
ADAPTATIFS 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work i...
Des Business Models agiles 
Related market Own market New market 
Design 
Manufacturing 
Distribution 
Downstream Upstream...
3D Printing = Pay As You Go! 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is l...
Prototypage rapide de 
business models 
Faible investissement 
Technologie extensible 
Possibilité de tester de multiples ...
INTÉGRATION, 
EXTERNALISATION? 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwise noted, this work is...
Effet de l’impression 3D 
Effet global 
Prototypage Rapide 
Outillage Rapide 
Production directe 
Fabrication à domicile 
...
INTÉGRATION, 
EXTERNALISATION 
Considérations économiques 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where ot...
Coût p.u. 
Production directe Production de masse 
Units 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where oth...
Production directe Production de masse 
Small Large 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except where otherwis...
Production directe Production de masse 
Small Large 
Outillage rapide 
+ 
Production de masse 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. So...
Production directe Production de masse 
(Petites séries) (Grandes séries) 
Small Large 
(Séries moyennes) 
Outillage rapid...
Unités 
Production la plus 
économique ? 
Plateforme 
3D en ligne 
Contrat 
direct 
Internalisa 
tion 
© Rayna  Striukova ...
Séries 
Production la plus 
économique ? 
Plateforme 
3D en ligne Internalisation 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights re...
Nombre 
de séries 
Nombre 
d’unités 
Internalisation 
Contrat direct 
(externalisation) 
Plateforme 
3D 
Enligne 
© Thierr...
Piste de réflexions 
LE CONCEPT 
D’INTÉGRATION EST-IL 
OBSOLÈTE ? 
© Rayna  Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. 
Except ...
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[3DPrintShow Paris 2014] Business Models, intégration, externalisation : Quel est l’impact de l’impression 3D ?

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Bien plus qu’une simple technologie de production, l’impression 3D permet de reconfigurer rapidement et radicalement la chaîne de valeur de l’entreprise et de la rendre ainsi agile, « lean », dynamique et efficiente.
Lors de cette présentation, nous examinerons tout d’abord l’impact des technologies d’impression 3D sur les « business models », et, en particulier, en quoi création de valeur, la distribution de valeur et la capture de valeur sont affectées par ces nouvelles technologies. Nous montrerons ensuite comment l’impression 3D rend possible l’adoption de « business models » innovants, dynamiques et reconfigurables. Bien plus encore, l’impression 3D permet d’appliquer le paradigme de « prototypage rapide » aux « business models » mêmes. Enfin, nous aborderons la question de l’intégration verticale. L’impression 3D entraine-t-elle une plus grande intégration ou, au contraire, une plus grande externalisation ? Dans quels cas vaut-il mieux intégrer les processus d’impression 3D ? Dans quels cas vaut-il mieux les externaliser ? Quels sont les facteurs à prendre en compte ? Quelles solutions existent ?

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[3DPrintShow Paris 2014] Business Models, intégration, externalisation : Quel est l’impact de l’impression 3D ?

  1. 1. BUSINESS MODELS, INTÉGRATION, EXTERNALISATION : QUEL EST L’IMPACT DE L’IMPRESSION 3D? Prof. Thierry Rayna Dr Ludmila Striukova 3DPrintShow Paris 2014 © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  2. 2. About the speakers… Prof. Thierry Rayna Professeur d’Économie Novancia Business School Paris Imperial College London e-mail : trayna@novancia.fr Twitter : @ThierryRayna Dr Ludmila Striukova Maître de Conférence en Management Department of Management Science & Innovation University College London e-mail : l.striukova@ucl.ac.uk © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  3. 3. 3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing Research Group © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  4. 4. Axes de recherche Business Models Écosystèmes d’innovation Stratégies Études de marché et prévisions Gestion de la Propriété Intellectuelle Impact économique et prospective Politiques publiques © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  5. 5. Plan L’impression 3D L’impact de l’impression 3D sur les business models Des business models adaptatifs avec l’impression 3D Repenser la capture de valeur © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  6. 6. L’IMPRESSION 3D © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  7. 7. Technologie $20K $1K $500 $200K Polymères …$100… Cellules Alliages Sucre Chocolat Plastic Céramique 1980 … 2000 … 2010 … 2020 … Coût © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  8. 8. De nombreuses technologies Stereolithography (SLA) Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Laser Deposition Technology (LDT) Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) … © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  9. 9. Arbre ou forêt ? Technologie © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  10. 10. Arbre ou forêt ? SLA FDM LOM SLS LDT EBF3 © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  11. 11. De nombreux matériaux Plastique Alliages Céramique Bois Sucre Chocolat Sel Cellules Molécules … © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  12. 12. © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  13. 13. Une adoption ‘additive’ Adoption Outillage rapide Fabrication à domicile 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Prototypage rapide Production directe © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  14. 14. Prototypage rapide Usage historique Toujours d’importance critique De nouveaux matériaux + haute qualité Prototype pleinement fonctionnels Gain de temps © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  15. 15. Simulated overmoulding © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  16. 16. Actual colour and moving parts © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  17. 17. Subtly blended colours Final product realism © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  18. 18. Outillage rapide Deuxième usage historique Depuis la disponibilité de polymères résistants à la chaleur But: production rapide de moules destinés à la production de masse Avantages: Moins cher ($100s vs $1000s) Plus rapide (quelques heures au lieu de semaines/mois) © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  19. 19. ExOne Sand Printing Method: Time: 8 weeks Cost: $18,200 Traditional Method: Pattern-based sand casting Time: 51 weeks Cost: $29,562 Specifications: Customer: Naval Undersea Warfare Center – Keyport Batch Size: 4 ExOne Additive Manufacturing Case Study: Sand US Navy Reverse Engineer Compressor Pump Castings with 43 Week Reduction in Lead Time and 40% Cost Savings “The OEM quoted $29,562 each plus 51 weeks lead time.” Customer Challenge: Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) – Keyport learned of the need for vacuum cone castings used on Ohio-class submarines. There were none in their supply system. The OEM quoted $29,562 each plus 51 weeks lead time. The Solution: The final castings were delivered to NUWC Keyport in 8 weeks for a cost of only $18,200 each. NUWC Keyport reverse engineered the castings in order to create CAD files, which were used to print a sand mold package with the ExOne digital part materialization process. ExOne’s Competitive Advantage: Additive manufacturing offers significantly shorter lead times and reduced component cost. About ExOne: ExOne additive manufacturing technology uses three-dimensional printing to create complex molds and cores directly from Plus rapide et moins cher © Rayna & Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  20. 20. ,WLVDOVRXVHIXOWRWDNHDORRNDWWKHIROORZLQJFRVWEHQH¿WDQDOVLVWRXQGHUVWDQGKRZWKHXVHRILQMHFWLRQPROGLQJZLWKD3RO-HW PROGFRPSDUHVWRLQMHFWLRQPROGLQJZLWKDQDOXPLQXPPROG $OXPLQXP 'LJLWDO$%6 RVW /HDG7LPH RVW /HDG7LPH RPSRQHQWV Fan rotor made of POM 7 days GD • 2EMHWRQQH[ • JU5*' • JU5*' • JUVXSSRUW Set of six (6) ice cream spoons made from PP GDV KRXUV • 2EMHWRQQH[ • JU5*' • JU5*' • JUVXSSRUW Digital ABS mold for producing threaded cap GDV KRXUV • 2EMHWRQQH[ • JU5*' • JU5*' • JUVXSSRUW )LJXUHRVW%HQH¿W$QDOVLVLQ7HUPVRIRQVWUXFWLRQ7LPHDQGRVWFRPSDULVRQZLWKDOXPLQXPPROGV
  21. 21. Source: Stratasys $VFDQEHVHHQLQWKHH[DPSOHVDERYHWKHWLPHVDYLQJVZHUHKLJKOVLJQL¿FDQWUDQJLQJEHWZHHQDIHZGDVDQGVHYHUDOZHHNV $GGLWLRQDOOWKHFRVWWRSURGXFHWKHPROGVZDVJHQHUDOO© Rayna Striukova FKHDSHU 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ FIeLD TeSTING
  22. 22. Production (numérique) directe Baisse des coûts et hausse de la qualité permettent d’imprimer des produits pour l’utilisateur final Permet la personnalisation de masse Actuellement, concerne principalement les pièces de rechange et quelques niches © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  23. 23. © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  24. 24. © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  25. 25. Fabrication à domicile (ou locale) Stade d’évolution ultime Basé sur les imprimantes domestiques ou des prestataires locaux (‘print shops’) Impression 3D à la maison est aujourd’hui un hobby Coût trop élevé et qualité faible De plus en plus de prestataires locaux (ASDA, La Poste, etc.) © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  26. 26. © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  27. 27. © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  28. 28. © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  29. 29. L’IMPACT DE L’IMPRESSION 3D SUR LES BUSINESS MODELS © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  30. 30. Business Model Components Value Proposition Product offering Service offering Pricing model Value Capture Revenue model Cost structure Profit allocation Value Delivery Distribution Channels Target market segments Value Communication Communication channels Ethos and story Value Creation Core competencies Key resources Governance Complementary assets Value networks Rapid prototyping Rapid Tooling Direct manufacturing +/- +/- +/- Home fabrication +/- +/- © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  31. 31. Éléments clés Personnalisation de masse / Mass customisation ‘Innovation utilisateur’ / User innovation Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing + Mass customisation = ‘Crowdcustomisation’ Marchés de niche Monétisation de la ‘longue traîne’ © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  32. 32. © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  33. 33. © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  34. 34. DES BUSINESS MODELS ADAPTATIFS © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  35. 35. Des Business Models agiles Related market Own market New market Design Manufacturing Distribution Downstream Upstream Sideways © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  36. 36. 3D Printing = Pay As You Go! © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  37. 37. Prototypage rapide de business models Faible investissement Technologie extensible Possibilité de tester de multiples Business Models à faible coût « Plus ça rate, plus on a de chances que ça marche » © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  38. 38. INTÉGRATION, EXTERNALISATION? © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  39. 39. Effet de l’impression 3D Effet global Prototypage Rapide Outillage Rapide Production directe Fabrication à domicile Plus grande intégration Plus grande intégration Ambigu Plus grande externalisation © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  40. 40. INTÉGRATION, EXTERNALISATION Considérations économiques © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  41. 41. Coût p.u. Production directe Production de masse Units © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  42. 42. Production directe Production de masse Small Large © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  43. 43. Production directe Production de masse Small Large Outillage rapide + Production de masse © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  44. 44. Production directe Production de masse (Petites séries) (Grandes séries) Small Large (Séries moyennes) Outillage rapide + Production de masse © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  45. 45. Unités Production la plus économique ? Plateforme 3D en ligne Contrat direct Internalisa tion © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  46. 46. Séries Production la plus économique ? Plateforme 3D en ligne Internalisation © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  47. 47. Nombre de séries Nombre d’unités Internalisation Contrat direct (externalisation) Plateforme 3D Enligne © Thierry Rayna 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this worked is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  48. 48. Piste de réflexions LE CONCEPT D’INTÉGRATION EST-IL OBSOLÈTE ? © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  49. 49. QUESTIONS? trayna@novancia.fr l.striukova@ucl.ac.uk @ThierryRayna © Rayna Striukova 2014. Some rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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