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Advanced Garment Printing

Advancement in technology has paved the way for a much better garment printing. The art of direct printing on garment is simplified by the technology every day. You can already choose and create your own design for t-shirts and other garments regardless of how complex the design is.Every make a Confusion about printing, i try to make it clear.

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Advanced Garment Printing

  1. 1. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 1 | P a g e Introduction In the apparel industry, besides the artwork to be printed, the most important thing is the printing technique. There are several printing techniques, and each of them is suitable for a certain business strategy. Printing can also be defined as localized dyeing. Defined as the application of dye or pigment in a different pattern on the fabric and by subsequent after treatment of fixing the dye or pigment to get a particular design. Being a designer you may have multiple options to decide which printing techniques is most suitable for a specific design on the garment. Experienced designers choose printing method primarily on the basis final outcome as design sharpness, durability, brightness, texture and hand feel. Sometimes a printed fabric can be identified by looking at the back side of fabric where there is no design or color as face side. In cotton, dyes like vat, reactive are used. In manmade, dyes like disperse and cationic are used. As when a design comes for production, we need to consider many things to choose a particular printing method. Each printing method has advantages as well as disadvantages. [1] Advanced Garment Printing Advancement in technology has paved the way for a much better garment printing. The art of direct printing on garment is simplified by the technology every day. You can already choose and create your own design for t-shirts and other garments regardless of how complex the design is. In this assignment I discuses some advanced garment printing given below.  Digital Printing  Flock Printing  Flex Printing  High Density Printing  Foil Printing  Puff Printing  Cavier Bead Print  Glitter Printing  Metallic Print:  Burn Out Printing  Reflective print  Plastisol Print  Rubber Printing  Crack Printing  Spray Printing  Transfer Printing  Heat transfer printing  Heat Transfer Vinyl Printing  Floral Print Digital Printing Digital print directly transfer print onto the fabric by ink. In advanced technology develop no need a paper or film which is used previously to print digitally. New machine directly print fabric. Digital printing is the ideal printing technique for photos and colorful designs which have gradients. This printing technique does not last as long as flex and flock. The colors fade over time. In this form of
  2. 2. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 2 | P a g e printing micro-sized droplets of dye are placed onto the fabric through an inkjet print head. The print system software interprets the data supplied by academic Textile digital image file. The digital image file has the data to control the droplet output so that the image quality and color control may be achieved. This is the latest development in textile printing and is expanding very fast.[17] Digital Direct Printing  Print with computer-operated digital print, ideally suited for large-scale prints.  Colors are sprayed on and made durable with a hardener. The fabrics can still be felt when touching the design.  Results in a relaxed “vintage look”. The design looks a bit faded, don‟t expect brash colors.  Digital direct is not available for all of our products. Direct To Garment Printing (DTG) – While screen printing technique is considered to be traditional and known by everybody, direct to garment printing is fairly new. Because it is new, the printer is also very expensive, but the quality of the printed t-shirts is excellent. With the direct to garment printers, the design is printed directly on t-shirt or on the desired product (mouse pad, caps etc.).The art process allows unlimited colors and shades to be printed, thing that could not be possible with the screen printing. It is the perfect option for photo t-shirts and very detailed images. Direct to garment printing is considered to be the only professional option for low run orders. That means you can print one t- shirt or 100 without problems. The printing process in the case of DTG takes longer than in the case of screen printing and the big disadvantage is that the artwork can‟t be printed on dark t-shirts (with few exceptions). Also, that‟s the reason why the printer does not print the white color. The result is professional and designs are not felt on the garment.[21] Laser print  Suitable for printing of accessory fabrics such as bags, caps and hats.  The design is put on transparent transfer foil, and then cut out and pressed on the fabrics while applying great heat.  Smooth, slightly shiny print with brilliant print results that stay when hand-washing. Effects and Presences of Digital Printing There has been no greater effect on the print industry over recent years than the introduction of digital printing. As technologies have gone from strength to strength, it is fast becoming the go to medium for
  3. 3. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 3 | P a g e businesses throughout the country. Ideal for short and long runs, on-demand printing and time sensitive campaign runs, the flexibility afforded by printing digitally is a huge benefit to many - both in initial investment and return on investment.[3] In the best print companies, there are a number of techniques which can be used for digital printing. Methods include electro photography (using dry and liquid toner), laser imaging on photographic paper, thermal transfer (dye sublimation transfer and mass transfer) and most commonly, inkjet printing. Electro photography digital printing uses the application of liquid or dry toner onto photo receptive surfaces, upon which a charge is produced from a laser or similar light source. This transfers the toner either directly to paper or to paper through a blanket sheet, which is then fused to create the intended image.[3] The best quality images are produced using liquid toner, due to the extremely fine particles produced, to achieve photo-like quality products. With a high print speed and consistent results, it is the technique which many larger scale and fast moving companies employ to really deliver effective marketing and advertising. Laser imaging, also known as digital photo printing, uses lasers or other light forms to produce photo- realistic images on silver-halide photographic paper. It is one of the most popular techniques for wide- format photo production and is also increasingly used for digital-photo finishing. Able to deliver true colors, it acts as a very good advertising medium when stunning impact is required. Thermal transfer digital printing applies heat, using diffusion or sublimation, to a thin carrier film, transferring dye molecules or colored coating to a coated receiver sheet. The heat is typically emitted from a computer controlled laser array, though it can also use technology similar to that found in thermal fax machines. This method is very effective at producing high quality color prints. The most popular digital printing method in use today is inkjet, which uses small drops of ink produced by a computer controlled actuator. There are three common applications of inkjet technology; Piezo, Continuous-Flow and Thermal, each of which relates to different actuator set-ups, delivering unique results. Each application tends to combine dye-based or pigmented aqueous inks. The droplets released by the nozzles hit the surface to be printed on, which is typically paper, and produce minute dots. The image creation is controlled to form precise patterns which can be modified by professional print companies through the amending of droplet size, actuator speed, surface types. This allows for exceedingly high quality finishes to be achieved. Obtaining the best results with digital printing, no matter what technique is used, requires a professional approach, both in regards to design and execution. Some of the most effective marketing campaigns and print runs tend to use a combination of methods, depending on the final ambition.[3]
  4. 4. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 4 | P a g e It is the more advanced type of printing. This includes:-  Jet spray printing  Electrostatic printing  Photo printing  Differential printing Photo Printing M/C Direct printing on garment or Direct to garment printing has fewer processes and uses less chemicals than screen printing. The concept of direct to garment printing process basically includes the use of a DTG printer to lay down a water based ink with chemical binders on the garment such as a T-shirt. The ink was then cured to the T-shirt using a textile conveyor dryer or a heat press. Generally, the machine utilizes a 4- color ink process that mixes magenta, black, cyan, and yellow to create the desired colors in the design.
  5. 5. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 5 | P a g e Direct to garment printing has fewer processes and uses less chemicals than screen printing. This serves as the perfect choice for full color printing since there is no additional charge asked for the amount of colors needed to complete the design. Flock Printing Flocking is the process of depositing many small fiber particles (called flock) onto a surface. It can also refer to the texture produced by the process, or to any material used primarily for its flocked surface. Flocking of an article can be performed for the purpose of increasing its value in terms of the tactile sensation, aesthetics, color and appearance. It can also be performed for functional reasons including insulation, slip-or-grip friction, and low reflectivity. Besides the application of velvety coatings to surfaces and objects there exist various flocking techniques as a means of color and product design. They range from screen printing to modern digital printing in order to refine for instance fabric, clothes or books by multicolor patterns. Presently, the exploration of the flock phenomenon can be seen in the fine arts.[6]These types of printing technique consist of the application of flock (very short fiber) to the surface of a fabric by means of an adhesive. The flock may be contained in the adhesive paste, may be dusted onto it, or applied electrostatically to hold it erect. This is used to print various small designs onto the fabric, such as dots and figures, especially on light-weight or sheer fabric. Flocking is defined as the application of fine particles to adhesive coated surfaces. Nowadays, this is usually done by the application of a high-voltage electric field. In a flocking machine the "flock" is given a negative charge whilst the substrate is earthed. Flock material flies vertically onto the substrate attaching to previously applied glue. A number of different substrates can be flocked including; textiles, fabric, woven fabric, paper, PVC, sponge, toys, automotive plastic.
  6. 6. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 6 | P a g e A diagram of flocking texture The majority of flocking done worldwide uses finely cut natural or synthetic fibers. A flocked finish imparts a decorative and/or functional characteristic to the surface. The variety of materials that are applied to numerous surfaces through different flocking methods create a wide range of end products. The flocking process is used on items ranging from retail consumer goods to products with high technology military applications. Elegant appearance A flock print has a velvety, fuzzy surface. The foil (0.5 mm) is somewhat thicker than flex, which causes the design to appear slightly elevated from the apparel and results in the plush feel. The colors have a soft glow to them.[6] The Flocking Process The process of flocking is fairly simple and easy. First a suitable adhesive is applied to the surface to be flocked. The flock is then applied, penetrating the surface of the adhesive to create the desired velvet finish. Electrostatic flock applicators charge the flock particles which are then attracted to the grounded surface that is to be flocked. Unlike puffer or blown application methods which merely sprinkle a flock layer onto the surface, electrostatic application ensures that the fibres all end up standing at right angles to the surface resulting in a velvet finish. Electrostatic flocking is used extensibly in the automotive industry for coating window rubbers, glove boxes, coin boxes, door cards, consoles, and dashboards. Rally cars usually have their dashes flocked to reduce reflections and to provide an as new finished to a modified dash. Flocking is proving successful in a number of artistic ventures including the decoration of jewellery, ceramics and pottery. Using suitable adhesives flock can be applied to an endless range of materials including plastic, metal, wood, rubber and fiber glass. Detailed Insight Consumers are always looking for something different and unusual. Suppliers seek the same thing - a special item or product that will increase their market share or generate new business. An example of this might be the recent popularity of mixed media garments in the marketplace. Developing
  7. 7. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 7 | P a g e something different is always a top priority, then, and is the driving force behind the recent resurgence of printer interest in learning about flocking. Flocking for decoration is not new, of course; similar methods were used in the Middle Ages to attach fibre dust to sticky surfaces. It was in the 1970s, however, with the advent of improved technologies and adhesives, that flocking became a popular decoration method. Then, in the 1980s and early 1990s the popularity of flocking faded away and few printers used the process. Even so, while flocking is not the most widely used decorating process, nor is it a well known decorating technique, the average person is aware of its velvet or suede feel. Over the last several years, however, inquiries about the process have begun to increase, and flocking is once again in demand as a decorating method. Even though flocking may not be most decorators' first choice process at present, it is used widely in many industrial applications. Flocked surfaces reduce water condensation, act as good thermal insulators, and have been used in the automotive industry for years for such items as glove compartment boxes, door mouldings and window trim. [2] Flocking In short, the flocking process involves applying short monofilament fibres, usually nylon or rayon, directly on to a substrate that has been previously coated with an adhesive. The diameter of the individual flock strand is only a few thousandths of a centimetre, and ranges in length from 0.25 - 5 mm. Adhesives that capture the fibres must have the same flexibility and resistance to wear as the substrate. The process uses special equipment that electrically charges the flock particles causing them to stand-up. The fibres are then propelled and anchored into the adhesive at right angles to the substrate. The application is both durable and permanent. Flock can be applied to glass, metal, plastic, paper or textiles. Flock design applications are also found on many items such as garments, greeting cards, trophies, promotional items, toys and book covers. Application Methods Decorative flocking is accomplished by using one of four application methods: electrostatic, beater bar/gravity, spraying and transfers. The electrostatic method is perhaps the most viable flocking method, especially for the printer doing more than an occasional flocking job. Flocking material can also be sprayed using an air compressor, reservoir, and spray gun similar to spraying paint. The resulting finish using this method is similar to a thin felt coating, as most of the fibres will be lying down in the adhesive. It is primarily used when large areas require flocking. It is an untidy process, because some of the flocking fibres become airborne. Flocking is also applied by printing an adhesive on to a substrate, and then rapidly vibrating the substrate mechanically, while the flock fibres are dispensed over the surface.
  8. 8. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 8 | P a g e Flock application by the vibration method. Flock application by the electrostatic method. The vibration promotes the density of fibres, which is critical to good fibre coating, and causes the flocking fibres to adhere to the adhesive and pack into a layer. This process is called a beater bar or gravity flocking system and is basically a mechanical process. With this process the flocking fibres are randomly adhered to the surface of the substrate, and each fibre adheres to the adhesive at a different depth, creating an irregular flocked surface. Since the fibres adhere to the surface of the adhesive, rather than penetrate or imbed in it, some fibre shedding occurs. Loose flocking fibres generated during production also have a tendency to migrate, so many of these systems are installed in a separate area to prevent fibre contamination of the shop. The most successful method to ensure a good dense coverage is a combination of electrostatic flock application with the use of beater bars to help increase the density of the coating. Flock Fibres Flock can be made from natural or synthetic materials such as cotton, rayon, nylon and polyester. There are two types of flock - milled and cut. Milled flock is produced from cotton or synthetic textile waste material. Because of the manufacturing process, milled flock is not uniform in length, and can vary from fine (0~ - 0.5 mm) to coarse (0.4 - 1.1 mm). Cut flock is produced only from monofilament synthetic materials. The cutting process produces a very uniform length of flock. Lengths can be obtained from 0.3 - 5.0 mm and 1.7-22 dtex in diameter. (One dtex is the measurement of a fibre that weigh; one gram per 10,000 meters of length.) The fineness of the flock, length of fibres and adhesive coating density determine the softness of the flocking. It should be noted however, that fine or short flock is difficult to work with, since it has a tendency to ball-up during processing. Milled cotton flock has the advantage of being the lowest in cost and the softest, but has the least abrasion and wear resistance. Rayon is a little bit better on wear resistance and nylon is the best. For cut flock, rayon is the least expensive with the least wear resistance. Cut nylon is the best grade of flock and produces a good feel, but is also the most expensive. Cut polyester is basically used for industrial applications such as automobile window seals, glove compartments, and roofing. Besides cutting or milling, flock manufacturing includes several other steps. After cutting, the flock is cleaned of oils that accumulated during processing. It is vat dyed to any number of colours, and then chemically treated to enable the
  9. 9. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 9 | P a g e fibres to accept an electrical charge. Since the fibres are all dielectric, a certain amount of conductivity must be present for electrostatic flocking process to occur. When the process is complete the fibres are spin dried and then oven dried to a specific moisture content. Note that flocking fibres are never totally dried, since moisture content adds to their conductivity. Finally, the flock is packaged in moisture proof bags that maintain proper humidity. [2] Adhesives A wide variety of flock adhesives are available, both single part and two-part catalysed systems. Adhesives are generally water or solvent based. Some are air drying, others temperature or catalyst curing. Adhesives are usually applied by brush, roller, spray or screen printing. Screen Print of Adhesives Many of the adhesives have the consistency of plastisol ink. Care should be exercised to select a stencil emulsion or film that is compatible with the adhesive to be printed. Proper application of the adhesive is the most important part of the process. A very heavy deposit of adhesive is required, but at the same time the adhesive should not be 'squeegeed' through the substrate. Care should also be exercised not to apply a thin coating. Less adhesive does not give proper adhesion characteristics for the fibres, which will result in low wear resistance. In order to achieve the proper deposit of adhesive, the screen should be made from a 24 to 43 threads/cm (60 to 110 threads/inch) monofilament mesh. Tension should be at 20 N/cm. Extra face coats of emulsion on the print side of the screen may be required for mesh counts greater than 36 threads / cm (96 threads/in). Printing should be off-contact, using a 65 durometer ball- nose squeegee. If you experience difficulty getting the proper coverage, do not thin the adhesive to make it more printable. This will only create a thinner deposit by allowing the adhesive to soak into the substrate. A better solution is to slow the squeegee stroke down to allow the adhesive time to flow through the screen and on to the substrate. The flock adhesion can be tested by subjecting the substrate to the standard textile wash test. If the flocking fibres come loose or fall off, the adhesive may be too thin or the adhesive was improperly cured. If the adhesive is properly applied, then the curing temperatures should be adjusted until the substrate passes the wash test. This is the only safe way to ensure proper curing of the adhesive. Electrostatic Flocking of Textiles Electrostatic flocking equipment for T shirt and other textiles is available in three configurations: an automatic carousel for multicolour flocking, a single station flocking unit that usually attaches to one station of a garment press, or a portable hand-held unit for lower volumes. The cost of the equipment varies from hundreds or a few thousand pounds for hand-held units to tens or hundreds of thousands of pounds for automatic multicolour systems. All of the equipment operates using the same basic procedure, and is explained by a law of physics stating that opposing electrical charges attract each other. In flocking, the electrical charge is generated by the use of two electrodes: a high voltage, direct current grid connected to a power generator, and a grounded substrate. An electrostatic charge is generated that propels the fibres at a high velocity on to the adhesive coated substrate. This causes the flocking fibres to penetrate and imbed in the adhesive at right angles to the substrate. This forms a high density uniform flock coating or layer. Controlling the
  10. 10. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 10 | P a g e electrical field by increasing or decreasing either the applied voltage or the distance between the electrodes and the substrate controls the speed and thickness of the flocking. Multicolour flocking equipment has one print station for applying the adhesive and multiple stations for applying the flock. It uses a flat metal screen that is coated with an emulsion and exposed with each of the design elements, the same as it would be for screen printing. The flock is placed on the metal screen, which acts as the high voltage electrode, and a rotating brush precisely dispenses the flocking material. When the screen is lowered to the proximity of the adhesive coated substrate, the flocking fibres are propelled into the adhesive, as determined by the stencil on the metal screen. Since the electrostatic field strength is controlled, and because the metal screen and the adhesive-coated substrate are brought close together, the flocking material is prevented from attaching to the adhesive except where the stencil is located, regardless of the size of the adhesive coated substrate. Hand held units the hand held units are comprised of a metal plate, a generator and a flocking head. The metal plate must be grounded, and it can be placed where convenient. It is the equivalent of the platen on a textile press. The generator creates the electrostatic charge, and is wired to a canister that contains the loose fibres. A metal screen is mounted halfway inside the canister opening. The open end of the canister is then passed over the adhesive coated substrate, drawing flock fibres from the canister through the screen. The electrostatic charge propels the fibres toward the grounded metal plate. The adhesive coated substrate intercepts the fibres and flocking occurs. The substrate is then cured in a conventional dryer, and the loose fibres are removed by shaking, vacuuming or by using compressed air. Operation of these units requires a degree of skill to obtain the desired results. If the flocking head is held too far from the substrate poor coverage of flocking fibres will occur. The operator must also hold the unit perpendicular to the substrate to prevent the flocking fibres from imbedding in the adhesive at an angle other than perpendicular to the substrate. Hand held units are also messier than automatic systems and leave behind more fibres. Curing the flocking is also an area that needs to be investigated. Since few screen printers use water- based adhesives, they may not have the proper curing equipment. Water-based adhesives require the use of dryers that have multiple independent heating zones with changeable air flow rates. Even plastisol and catalysed adhesive may require additional time to fully cure. The Environment Having a controlled atmosphere for flocking operations is generally regarded as another essential ingredient for success. Ideally, the flocking area should have a relative humidity of 60% and a temperature of 20C (68F). A small variation in temperature or a change in the percentage of relative humidity can result in a 3 to 4 factor change in the conductivity or electrical sensitivity of the flock and the substrate. These changes will have an adverse affect on the process, and will result in flock balling, reduced adhesion and density of the flocking, and an excessive use of flock. Flocking fibres are very sensitive to humidity and temperature conditions. When a new batch of flock fibres is opened, the fibres will give off or receive moisture based on the surrounding environment. Less than 30% relative humidity in the production area will lead to fibres that won't accept a charge. Relative humidity in excess of 65% causes the flock to stick together and flow poorly through the metal screen or plate. For best results the flocking operation should be located in an atmospheric controlled room. As stated earlier, in the adhesives section, to ensure that your flocked designs have received a proper cure, sample prints should be subjected to the standard textile wash test. [2]
  11. 11. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 11 | P a g e Flocking is a value-added alternative decorating method for achieving that unusual look. It only costs slightly more than producing a standard screen print, and in conjunction with textiles, it is certainly less expensive than embroidery. Also with the advanced state of adhesive technology nearly any material can be flocked, making it easy to add new products to your textile production capabilities. Wallpaper, greeting cards, mouse pads, book and album covers, and posters can all be flock printed. The successful use of electrostatic flocking depends on tight control over the process and the environment. Detailed production records should be kept, so the process can be repeated. Retention of production samples is also an important factor for repeat jobs, product reliability, and quality control information. While the process requires the use of special equipment, with practice a quality product can be produced. [2] The foil (0.5 mm) is somewhat thicker than flex, which causes the design to appear slightly elevated from the apparel and results in the plush feel. The colors have a soft glow to them. Flex Printing Flex is a printing technique where the design is cut from a colored foil and then pressed onto the shirt under high heat. A polyurethane material that has a smooth finish effect. It is heat pressed at over 350 degrees until the material permanently adheres to the fibers of the garment. It is available in dozens of colors that include specialty surfaces as metallic, neon, glitter and glow-in-the-dark. [1]
  12. 12. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 12 | P a g e High Density Printing This is one of the recent developments in printing which gives thick prints on the surface of garments.Achieved by either giving more number of coats or by using thickener indirect films used for making the screens.[18] This type of printing apply by screen. Rubber or plastic sold is used as a paste. Screen applies many times on a same design. If it may be thick around 5-6mm then apply high density sticker. High Density is a popular special effect that rises straight up off the shirt and has a hard rubbery feel with sharp edges. A High density print has slight glossy finish. To get these effects about 20% of the puff base is taken which is then mix with colored inks to make it 100%. The base is Vinylidene chloride based polymer and the inks are Acrylic co-polymers. Then it is printed in 5-8 rounds depending upon height required on normal screen ( 2 flood/ 2 strokes). After those 3 rounds of printing is given with 150 micron film screen and then 2 rounds with 220 micron capillary film screen depending upon the height. [16] High Density Ink High Density is a popular special effect ink that when printed, rises straight up off the shirt and has a hard rubbery feel with sharp edges. A High density print has slight glossy finish. Suede is a milky coloured additive that is added to Plastisol. With suede additive you can make any colour of Plastisol have „suede‟ feel. Generally 50% suede additive to your normal Plastisol.Suede is a special effect ink similar to high density ink except with soft leather like feel.[18] Suede ink can be either printed high for a 3-D effect or printed normally for a more subtle felt like feel.
  13. 13. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 13 | P a g e A finished sueade print has a matte finish and is very soft to the touch. High Density and Suede are clear bases that can be added to any print color. (example blue-"High Density" grey "Suede" Suede is a special effect ink similar to high density ink except with a soft leather like feel. Suede ink can be either printed high for a 3-D effect or printed normally for a more subtle felt like feel. A finished sueade print has a matte finish and is very soft to the touch. High Density and Suede are clear bases that can be added to any print color. (example blue-"High Density" grey "Suede" Suede ink was derived from puff ink. The process for printing is similar, but suede ink results with with a raised fuzzy nap reminiscent of suede leather Suede leather is made from the underside of the skin, primarily lamb, although goat, pig, calf and deer are commonly used
  14. 14. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 14 | P a g e One of the original specialty affects in the world of screen printing. Puff ink is a plastisol that has been modified with the addition of a heat reactive foaming agent. The ink expands when exposed to high temperature heat as the garment is cured. High Density v/s Rubber Puff Printing High density screen printing at first glance seems to be some sort of high-quality puff print. Actually, the high density inks are not puff inks at all. They are a high viscosity ink designed to easily flow through your screen mesh while holding a very sharp edge with durability fasteners towards World Standards.[20] Foil Printing Foil printing is to print some pattern with the foil on the fabric for shiny effect. There are two kind of foil printing method. This printing method is based on the use of metallic foil paper of aluminium or copper one. Foil is applied by adhesive. The print fixation method is similar to transfer printing. This print method is popular amongst youngsters. In the first method, the pattern is printed by a foil/transfer adhesive on the fabric, and then pressed with foil paper by hot steel roller. The pressure is generally 5-6 bars on printed portion and at 190 degree Celcius on fusing machine for 8-12 seconds. [1]
  15. 15. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 15 | P a g e FOIL Foil is actually a heat press application, but can be applied on press for certain affects. Foil adheres to plastisol inks or a clear foil adhesive. Available in silver, gold, bronze, red, and blue. There are some awesome iridescent foils affects available too - just check with your sales rep.[1]To get the gold /silver stamp, a foil layer is affixed to a certain material by a heating process. It isn‟t too complicated of a process and getting the files ready are quite similar to uv-spot printing. See my guide on preparing files for print as a reference and talk with your printer about how to supply the files. Foil printing normally requires vector images and/or outlined fonts of what you want to have stamped.[5] In foil printing, the quality of the adhesive is very important. Generally it is made up of acrylic co- polymer with water as diluents. Cheaper qualities show very poor stretch, loss of softness and smoothness after five washes and look very unlike the original print. The foil should not stick to cured inks under pressure. Normally a matting agent is added to avoid sticking.[1] In the second method, printing is done on the foil paper first, and then foil is pressed on the fabric with hot steel roller or iron. Foil paper is called the stamping foil paper. Actually it is not the paper but the detachable foil film on the plastic base. Generally it is PET film of 15 micron thickness, available in widths of 640 or 1500mm Recipe: It is a simple recipe; this recipe can be charged on the depth of the color and types of dyes use. Foil paste-90% Fixer-10% Sequence of foil printing Fabric preparation Fabric plaited on the table Foil gun/ Foil paste apply by screen Dry slightly in air temp. /hand dryer
  16. 16. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 16 | P a g e Apply foil paper on the fabric Heat applies by heat press m/c (150c for 5 sec.) Cooling for 4 sec Foil paper removed by hand Delivery So, print your fabric by foil printing process and produce various attractive designs. Foil Stamping Foil stamping is a specialty printing process that uses heat, pressure, metal dies and foil film. The foil comes in rolls in a wide assortment of colors, finishes, and optical effects.[4] The Printing Process Foil stamping is somewhat similar to letterpress and engraving, in that the color is applied to paper with pressure. As a result, the foil process leaves a slightly raised impression on the paper. The dies are heated and then stamped with enough pressure to seal a thin layer of foil to the paper. Metallic foils have a shiny, lustrous finish. With thermography, lithography and letterpress, metallics can fall flat and don‟t have much in the way of shimmer.[4] Puff Printing Puff print is another common print in the fashion industry. Sometimes it called emboss print also. It is almost similar to the rubber print we can make this print in any color. In puff print rubber and puff chemical used combined. Mainly buyer asked this print on this print on knitted T-shirt. The printing process is same as other serene print. One of the original specialties affects in the world of screen printing. Puff ink is a plastisol that has been modified with the addition of a heat reactive foaming
  17. 17. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 17 | P a g e agent. The ink expands when exposed to high temperature heat as the garment is cured.[8] An additive to Plastisol inks which raises the print off the garment, creating a 3D feel. In this method when the paste is printed and dries it look like normal printing garments but once it is cured the prints gets raised from the surface of fabric. [18] Printing process:  Like as other print we make the print screen at first.  We make rubber color as manual.  Mix an Emboss or Foaming paste with the following color.  Then print on the garments with following color mixer like as a normal rubber print.  Then we dry the print area by using heat. This the turning point of the print. Because after getting the heat the print becomes puffed. Normally we dry the print area with dryer for small print. If the print area is larger than we heat press the print with curing machine. I advice all to use heat press machine instead of hand dryer. It will make the puffed evenly, before heat press please adjusts the temperature and pressure of curing machine to get the correct output. Less heat will give you a less puffed print.[7] Cost of the print Though, the exact idea regarding the price of the print, need to contact factory with a print art work. It may be one and half times more costly than rubber print. Caution: During a heat press please be careful regarding the color of body fabric because the excessive heat can affect on the color of body fabric.[7]
  18. 18. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 18 | P a g e Puff Additive Jacquard Puff Additive is used to increase the relief of prints on paper, fabric and other surfaces. Simply mix a little of the additive into your Jacquard Screen Ink (up to 20%), print as usual and then apply heat to your print. The microspheres in the Puff Additive expand with heat, giving you a raised print only after heating. Once puffed, the print is washfast and dry cleanable.[9] Fabric/Fiber/Surfaces natural or synthetic fabric and paper, vinyl, metal and leather Sizes 4 fl oz/118 ml (Item JSI1300) 8 fl oz/.24 L (Item JSI2300) 16 fl oz/.47 L (Item JSI3300) 1 qt/.95 L (Item JSIQ300) 1 gal/3.79 L (Item JSI4300) Easy Process Instructions Use: Add to Jacquard Screen Ink (JSI) up to 20% by weight. Mix thoroughly. Pot life of mixture is indefinite. Apply heat to print and ink will puff in all directions. For use on paper, fabric, and other surfaces. Finish: Puff Additive has a matte finish and will affect the semi-gloss finish of JSI in proportion to the amount added.
  19. 19. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 19 | P a g e Opacity: Puff Additive becomes opaque upon expansion and will opacify JSI in proportion to the amount added. Mesh Count: 80-305/inch (32T-122T cm) or according to ink specifications. JSI is recommended with mesh counts 80-160/inch (32T-64T cm). Drying/Curing: While print is wet, heat the entire ink deposit to 275˚F/135˚C using a hot air gun or oven to puff. Do not overheat. For best results, allow ink to air cure 72 hours once puffed before washing. Cleanup: Cleans up with water or mild detergent. Caution: Always test this product for washability and durability prior to production.[9] Cavier Bead Print: Glue is printed in the shape of the design, to which small plastic beads are then applied. Works well with solid block areas creating an interesting tactile surface.[18] Glitter Printing Glitter is a unique, clear digital print and cut material for full-color printing that adds the bold look of sparkly glitter. Glitters add on the garment with paste and fixed by heat on a specific area. This is a clear material with flakes of glitter built in. Glitter is excellent for small designs and detailed logos and is compatible for use with Eco-Solvent, Solvent, Latex, and thermo resin (Gerber Edge) inks.[10] Metallic flakes are suspended in the ink base to create this sparkle effect. Usually available in gold or silver but can be mixed to make most colours.[18]
  20. 20. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 20 | P a g e After pre-treatment of the fabric, printing operation is done on the table. Printing glitter paste is applied on the fabric by the screen printing process. After printing curing is done at high temperature. Curing is done slowly. Recipe: This is a simple printing recipe. It will be changed according to the shade of the delivery printed goods. Rubber paste-70% Fixer-2% Glitter-28% Sequence of Glitter printing process on Textile materials: By the following way glitter printing is done on the knitted or woven fabric Fabric pre-treatment Table preparation Fabric plaited on the table Glitter paste apply by screen Hanging for 15 mins for dry Curing 160c (speed 3m/min) Delivery There are many glitter manufacturing companies which provide glitter. Glitter describes an assortment of small, flat, reflective particles. Glitter reflect light at different angles, causing the surface to sparkle or shimmer. Glitter is like confetti or sequins, only smaller. Since prehistoric times, glitter has been made and used as decoration, from many different materials including stones such as malachite, galena, mica, insects, and glass. Modern glitter is usually manufactured from plastic.
  21. 21. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 21 | P a g e Glitter printing enables the fabric to show glittering granules on the fabric. For this Glitter powder is used. Glitter Powder is generally PET with size of 1/8" to 1/256". It is cut into square and hexagon shape. It is available in metallic, rainbow, laser and iridescent colors. Generally it comes in 25 kg bag. A typical glitter power substance is heat resistant to 170 degree celcius and is acid and alkaline proof. The picture of the glitter powder is as given below: To print, first glitter paste is prepared. Glitter powder is added in the Glitter ink, under stirring slowly to avoid lumb formation. Glitter ink is made of acrylic co-polymer. Then it is screen printed using Bull nose squeegee. The mesh size should not be more than 20 T.[11] Metallic Print: • Gives metallic look. • Similar to glitter, but smaller particles suspended in the ink. • Smooth in texture when compared to glitter. [18]
  22. 22. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 22 | P a g e Burn Out Printing: Cotton and other cellulosic fibers are destroyed by strong mineral acids or their acid salts. This procedure is sometimes referred to as “Burn Out”. A cotton / polyester blended fabric can be printed with a print paste containing the burn out chemicals, and after fixation, the cotton portion is destroyed and only the polyester remains. This allows a patterned lacey design to be imparted to the fabric. It also is possible to incorporate a disperse dye in the burn out paste and dye the polyester during the burn out phase. This process is very corrosive and requires special screens and special care in handling. Table below contains the “Burn Out” print paste formula. Burn Out Print Paste Formula Chemical Amount, g/kg Details Thickener 48 Guar gum Ethanol 50 Emulsifying agent 20 Humectant 100 Glycerin Anionic Wetter 20 Aluminum Sulfate 85 Creates mineral acid Water Bulk Water to total volume Total 1000 1. PC or CVC fabric. 2. Paste + Any acid liverating salt (like Nacl,Na2 so4) 3. Steaming 4. Washing (Roubasting wash) 5. Burnout print complete Only print technicians will understand the above 5 points . Step by Step Printing Process of Burn out Print: 1st Step: Develop the print design and screen with the buyer provided artwork. 2nd St ep: Knit the fabric with the yarn of following composition a) 60% polyester 40% cotton OR b) 40% polyester 60% cotton Or similar like that. 3rd Step: After complete the kitting of fabric send the gray or scouring fabric to printing factory. 4th Step: Perform the print on this fabric. Here, the cotton part will be destroyed by the acid but polyester portion will be remain same. 5th Step: Then we will dye and finished the fabric as per our require color. [1]
  23. 23. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 23 | P a g e Cotton Portion had blue where as polyester is having no color. So, during burn out cotton burns down leaving only polyester portion resultantly only white shade on burnt region and a wonderful pattern appears. The technology uses cotton/polyester blended fabric where cotton portion from the blended fabric is burned leaving behind the polyester portion only, according to the desired designs by means of rotary printing machine and thus providing the fabric a textured look. Chemicals of Burn out Printing  Synthrapol  Sodium bisulfate  Guar gum
  24. 24. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 24 | P a g e  PRO Dye Activator or Soda Ash  Glycerin & Water Chemicals other than Sodium Bisulfate were also tested for this experiment. e.g. 1. Sulfuric acid Full Black Effect (No Burning) 2. Sodium Hydrosulfite (No Burning) 3. Sodium Bisulfite (No Burning) Procedure • Scour the fabric by machine washing in HOT 140oF (60oC) water, or by hand in a pot on the stove with (2 gm) PRO Dye Activator and (2.5 ml) Synthrapol per pound of fabric (454 gm, or 3 to 4 yards cotton muslin, or 8 yards 8mm China Silk, or 3 Medium T-shirts, or 1 sweatshirt). Rinse thoroughly. This step does not add the dye fixative to the fabric; it prepares the fabric for dyeing by removing any dirt, oil or sizing. • Mix the thickener paste a few hours, or even the day before use it. In a large plastic or stainless steel bowl, measure 2 cups (500 ml) of room temperature 75o to 95oF (24o to 35oC) water. In a separate dry container measure a 1/3 cup (50 gm) of guar gum. Using a blender or hand mixer, starts blending just the water, then gradually add the guar gum. Continue blending until well mixed. Allow to stand several hours or overnight for a smooth paste. • Make the burn-out paste just before you are ready to use it. Measure cup plus 2 Tbl (220 ml) of 100oF (38oC) water and dissolve cup (200 gm) of sodium bisulfate in the water. Remember to always add the acid to the water, as a safety precaution. Once the sodium bisulfate is dissolved, add a cup (80 ml) of glycerin and the thickener paste made in step 2. Mix thoroughly using your blender or hand mixer. Discard the burn out paste after three days. • Prepare a padded surface to print on. If we do not have a padded print table, we can create a padded surface by laying down a terry cloth towel on your work table and taping it in place with masking tape. Cover the terry cloth towel with plastic or a canvas drop cloth. Then secure your fabric with masking tape on the plastic, or with T-pins on the canvas drop cloth. • Apply the burn-out paste to the fabric. Screen print, stencil, or apply the burn-out paste freehand, with foam or bristle brush. Make sure the burn-out paste penetrates through to the back of the fabric. The best paste penetration is achieved by screen printing, followed by stenciling, and then freehand applications. When working on silk/rayon velvet, it is best to print on the back side of the fabric rather than the pile. It is important to sample your method of application before working on large projects, to make sure the fabric will burn-out successfully. • Allow the fabric to air dry thoroughly. We can also speed up the drying by using a hair dryer. • Carefully remove the burned out (carbonized) areas of your fabric by one of the methods listed below. This part can be messy, so work outside if possible and always wear a cartridge respirator to avoid inhaling the small fibers.  Gently hands wash the fabric.  Gently brush off the burned out fiber by hand.  Use a small hand held vacuum. • Wash thoroughly with warm 110oF (44oC) water by hand or machine wash on gentle cycle with tsp (2.5ml) Synthrapol per pound (454 gm) of fabric. Rinse thoroughly and hang to dry.
  25. 25. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 25 | P a g e * Curing time and temperature are needed to be pre tested (Lab Trial), some time while using light blends, Polyester portion also get damaged. So, consequently no good print. One can choose one of these temperatures and times 1. 160C @ 5Min 2. 180C @ 2Min 3. 200C @ 1Min Some important points regarding the Burnout print 1. Burnout print is not possible on 100% cotton fabric. Clothes should be PC or CVC 2. 60% polyester 40% cotton is the best composition for Burnout print. 3. Process loss is very high. More than 35% 4. Single jersey construction is the best construction for Burnout print. 5. If you need the finished fabric with 120 to 130 GSM then you should knit the fabric with 160 to 170 GSM. 6. Burnout print is not only expensive but also lucrative with nice feelings. Reflective print: In this printing highly reflective ink is used for printing, when exposed to light it reflect. Reflective Ink Reflective ink is made up of a clear base combined with thousands of tiny aluminum coated glass beads. These beads are highly reflective when exposed to light. The ink has a muted grey color when printed and a bright silver/white color when reflecting. Because the ink color is so muted we recommend that all the reflective ink used in a design be either outlined or surrounded by other print colors to improve. Adding reflective ink to your design is a relatively inexpensive way to make sure that your shirts will stand out from the crowd.[1] Composition TiO2-BaO-SiO2 Refractive Index 1.93+-0.01nd Size range 20-105um(can be provided by request) Color siliver
  26. 26. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 26 | P a g e Plastisol Print Plastisol is a thermoplastic, it will remelt if it comes in contact with anything hot enough. For that reason, plastisol prints cannot be ironed. If an iron touches a print, it will smear the ink Plastisol ink is a PVC (Some inks are Phalide Free) based system that essentially contains no solvent at all. Along with UV ink used in graphic screen printing, it is referred to as a 100% solid ink system. Plastisol is a thermoplastic ink in that it is necessary to heat the printed ink film to a temperature high enough to cause the molecules of PVC resin and plasticizer to cross-link and thereby solidify, or cure. The temperature at which most plastisol for textile printing cures at is in the range of 300 °F to 330°F.[1] • Relatively new breed of ink and printing with the benefits of Plastisol but without the main toxic components - soft feeling print. • Suitable for kids wear.[18] Good colour opacity onto dark garments and clear graphic detail with, as the name suggests, a more plasticized texture. Plastisol inks require heat (approx. 150°C) to cure the print. Due to excess phthalate in PVC, this is banned for Children‟s wear.[18] Plasticharge Ink Plasticharge is a hybrid of Discharge and plastisol ink. In Plasticharge printing a discharge solution is mixed 50/50 with traditional plastisol inks. The principal behind plasticharge printing is that when printing, the discharge portion of the ink will remove the garment color while at the same time the plastisol ink will lay down a thin deposit of new color. This type of printing like discharge should be washed before being worn. The finished print is very light and soft to the touch. [1]
  27. 27. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 27 | P a g e Rubber Printing The Rubber Printing System is the first ink jet printer in the world to successfully print with co-curable inks on uncured tire components and rubber products. This specialized printer fully automates the marking process, streamlining the production process and eliminating marking mistakes.[19] Rubber printing is done of the important printing process. After apparel manufacturing printing is done on the surface of the fabric. Recipe: Rubber-60% Clear-38% Fixer-2% Process flow chart of rubber printing: Rubber printing is done as the flowing way in a printing unit. Table preparation Fabric plaited on the table Rubber printing paste apply with the help of screen Hanging the fabric for 15 min
  28. 28. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 28 | P a g e Curing at 150c(speed 5 m/min) Hanging the fabric for 30 min Curing at 150c(speed 5 m/min) Delivery Crack Printing: Crack printing is a printing method to produce attractive design on the fabric surface. Here rubber is used as the printing paste. It is near similar as rubber printing process but additional crack paste is used before applying rubber printing paste by the screen printer on the cotton fabric. In crack print when pull the print, it seem like crack, but rubber print when pull it may seem crack effect. Ecocrack White & Clear. Suitable for crack effect silkscreen prints on polyester-cotton blend and cotton fabric, these are Eco-friendly water based that are soft auto-crack inks. Further, this white/clear provides an auto crack finish with elasticity, wash fastness, smoothness, excellent softness and hand feel. Printing recipe: Rubber-98% Fixer-2% Add crack paste/clear Process flow chart of crack printing: Following sequence is the crack printing Table preparation Fabric plaited on the table Crack paste / clear apply with the help of screen Dry in air temp or hand dryer m/c(slight)
  29. 29. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 29 | P a g e Printing paste apply with the help of screen Curing at 190c( be it speed 2 m/min) Delivery Crack printing can be produced on the surface on T-shirt and other finished knit fabric and woven fabric. Water based ready paste giving effect with mud crack appearance on knitted/ stretchy fabric giving very soft hand feel & colour fastners towards world class standards & world class eco system. [20] Spray Printing This is one kind of printing which give white effect on a specific area of garments. All type of textile & garments are suitable for spray printing. White pigment paste is used for this type of printing. This spray can be water based colours, metallic glitters like gold & silver. These are designed and developed using superior quality material giving very soft hand feel & colour fastness towards world class standards & world class ECO system.[20]
  30. 30. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 30 | P a g e Transfer Printing Transfer printing is the term used to describe textile and related printing processes in which the design is first printed on to a flexible nontextile substrate and later transferred by a separate process to a textile. It may be asked why this devious route should be chosen instead of directly printing the fabric. The reasons are largely commercial but, on occasion, technical as well and are based on the following considerations. 1. Designs may be printed and stored on a relatively cheap and nonbulky substrate such as paper, and printed on to the more expensive textile with rapid response to sales demand. 2. The production of short-run repeat orders is much easier by transfer processes than it is by direct printing. 3. The design may be applied to the textile with relatively low skill input and low reject rates. 4. Stock volume and storage costs are lower when designs are held on paper rather than on printed textiles. 5. Certain designs and effects can be produced only by the use of transfers (particularly on garments or garment panels). 6. Many complex designs can be produced more easily and accurately on paper than on textiles. 7. Most transfer-printing processes enable textile printing to be carried out using simple, relatively inexpensive equipment with modest space requirements, without effluent production or any need for washing-off. Against these advantages may be set the relative lack of flexibility inherent in transfer printing: no single transfer-printing method is universally applicable to a wide range of textile fibres. While a printer with a conventional rotary-screen printing set-up can proceed to print cotton, polyester, blends and so forth without doing a great deal beyond changing the printing ink used, the transfer printer hoping to have the same flexibility would need to have available a range of equipment suited to the variety of systems that have to be used for different dyes and substrates using transfer technology. [12] Transfer Printing Process
  31. 31. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 31 | P a g e In addition factors such as stock costs, response time and so on do not always apply and unlike dyers, most printers are able to operate without steaming or washing by using pigment-printing methods. Thus a balance exists which not only permits but even requires the coexistence of direct and transfer printing. The relative importance of the two methods consequently varies with fluctuations of the market, fashion and fibre preference. A great many methods of producing textile transfer prints have been described in the literature. Many of them exist only in patent specifications but several have been developed to production potential. They may be summarised most conveniently as below. [12] Sublimation Transfer This method depends on the use of a volatile dye in the printed design. When the paper is heated the dye is preferentially adsorbed from the vapour phase by the textile material with which the heated paper is held in contact. This is commercially the most important of the transfer-printing methods. Melt Transfer This method has been used since the 19th century to transfer embroidery designs to fabric. The design is printed on paper using a waxy ink, and a hot iron applied to its reverse face presses the paper against the fabric. The ink melts on to the fabric in contact with it. This was the basis of the first commercially successful transfer process, known as Star printing, developed in Italy in the late 1940s. It is used in the so-called „hot-split‟ transfer papers extensively used today in garment decoration. Film Release This method is similar to melt transfer with the difference that the design is held in an ink layer which is transferred completely to the textile from a release paper using heat and pressure. Adhesion forces are developed between the film and the textile which are stronger than those between the film and the paper. The method has been developed for the printing of both continuous web and garment panel units, but is used almost exclusively for the latter purpose. In commercial importance it is comparable with sublimation transfer printing. [12] Wet Transfer Water-soluble dyes are incorporated into a printing ink which is used to produce a design on paper. The design is transferred to a moistened textile using carefully regulated contact pressure. The dye transfers by diffusion through the aqueous medium. The method is not used to any significant extent at the present time. These different methods are considered separately in this chapter since they introduce different scientific and technical factors, and their use is best discussed in the context of the rather different commercial environments. [12] Feature of Transfer Printing • It is a indirect method of printing in which dyes are transferred from paper to a thermoplastic fabric under controlled conditions of temperature, time and pressure. • The image is first engraved on a copper plate. • Then pigment is applied on these plates. • The image is then transferred to a piece of paper, with a layer of glue applied.
  32. 32. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 32 | P a g e • This is then placed on the fabric and heat and pressure applied which fixes the print onto fabric. [1] Transfer Printing Advantages 1. Operation is simple and no expensive m/c is required. 2. No after treatment of fabric required 3. Print on fabric is of excellent quality Disadvantages 1. Process applicable to synthetic fabric like polyester. 2. Color range is limited. 3. Cost of printed paper high. 4. Not economical for small orders. Process of transfer printing Advantage of High density printing inkjet transfer paper 1. Washable 2. Good touch feeling OEKO-TEX standard 100 High Density 3D print heat transfer printing on T shirt shoes label print with OEKO-TEX STANDARD 100 2,Film thickness: 0.07-0.09mm 3,Peeling way: hot or cool peeling 4,Transfer temperature:140-160centigrade,
  33. 33. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 33 | P a g e 5,Transfer time: 10-12s, 6,Transfer press: 5-6kg 7,Glue fitness: fine 8,Suit for cotton, blend textile, such as underwear cloth, swim suit, physical beauty suit, advertising shirt,shoes' tongue 9. Delivery time 1) 5-8 days for samples 2) 5-10 days for production according to the quantity. Heat transfer printing Heat printing, also known as heat transfer printing, is the process of applying heat-applied materials to various items (i.e., substrates) with a heat press. Heat-applied materials contain a heat-sensitive adhesive on one side; when heat is applied by a heat press to the material, the material adheres to the substrate to which it is being applied. The end result is a decorated garment. [14] Heat transfer paper Transfer papers require the artwork to be printed in reverse. This is due to the mirroring effect when you lay the transfer paper down with the printed side facing the shirt. If you were to print it normally and place the printed side down onto the shirt the design would be backwards. Most heat transfer papers will be made for laser or ink jet printers and will fall under two categories regardless if they are professional grade or not. They will either be a cold or hot peel. This simply means that the backing will be peeled either while hot or cold.[15] Heat printing opportunity Decorating with a heat press is an easy, cost-effective way to enter the garment decoration industry. It provides the opportunity to personalize a wide variety of items. It all starts with a heat press. Three key components to consider when decorating with a heat press are: time, temperature, and pressure. Every heat transfer material has its own heat printing instructions.  Time: The amount of time, in seconds, that heat must be applied to the design/garment.  Temperature: The optimal degree at which the design will adhere to the garment.  Pressure: The amount of downward force needed when heat applying.[14] Step of Heat Transfer Process  T-Shirts  Team uniforms  Bags  Fan wear  Corporate  Small businesses  Clubs  Schools  Fashion
  34. 34. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 34 | P a g e The process of heat transfer printing begins with the printing of a design which can be as simple as a single color print or as complex as a full color image. The image is printed using a modified Oki color laser printer and the print medium used is a special range of transfer papers that are specifically designed for use with the Oki laser printer. Once the design has been printed, it is applied to the garment using one of our swing away heat transfer presses. It is also possible to create a simple single color design that is cut out using a cutter plotter such as the Graphtec model shown on this page. Once cut, the design has any unnecessary areas of the plotted design removed and then applied to the garment using the heat press. This type of transfer is commonly used for personalizing sports shirts and safety clothing. Using our transfer system, you can now create a truly professional finish with a minimal capital outlay, but still have access to a high quality British built swing away heat transfer press, Japanese cutter plotter (and bespoke software) and color laser printer. The heat press that we supply is equipped with a swing-away head to make loading and unloading t shirts easy. When selecting a heat press to start out in the exciting business of t shirt printing, it is important to consider a few factors, the most important of which are mentioned in the following three paragraphs.  The first step of the process is to get the picture that you would like. We will put it in our computers and touch-up the image.
  35. 35. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 35 | P a g e  We then print this from our high quality printers on commercial heat transfer paper. Although this is similar to iron-on paper that you can get at a retail store, it is NOT. The commercial paper we use will last much longer, and will not peel, fade, or bleed.  Each image is hand cut. We commonly add a small border around an image to aid in durability.  The image is accurately positioned on the product using lasers to ensure straightness. Then it goes to the Heat Press. A Heat Press is like a really big iron that can evenly put down hundreds of pounds of pressure, while accurately controlling temperatures.  The commercial paper that the image is printed on melts into the fibers of the clothing, making it a part of the item without disturbing the image.  Using the Heat Transfer method we are able to print in as many colors as you would like and on any color fabric. The colors come out bright and bold. [13]
  36. 36. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 36 | P a g e Heat Press Transfer Printing – is probably the best choice for a small business, and we are not talking here about starting a clothing line. The heat press transfer technique consists on printing a transparent ink with the use of a computer on a special piece of paper ( Inkjet transfer paper). Full color images and of a very high quality can be printed, then applied to the cotton garment and pressed in the heat press. The usual temperature is 180 degrees for 10 – 30 seconds. With the heat transfer, you can print complex designs, with many colors. The advantage is that the colors don‟t require to be applied separately. The heat press transfer is ideal for creating fast customized t-shirts. The bad thing is that the colored picture can be applied only on light t-shirts, because the colors in the design might be affected by the t-shirt color. Even that it‟s fast and easy to print a t-shirt with the heat press transfer, the feel on transfer is heavy, and it cracks easily.[21] Heat Transfer Vinyl Printing – is the perfect option for t-shirt lettering, for small t-shirt orders, for name of bands, clubs, football player and so on. It requires a machine (vinyl cutter) to cut out designs on special color sheets of vinyl. The cut vinyl is applied onto the garment using a heat press.[21] Floral Print It has the print of varieties of flower either in bunch or single spotted, huge or small , combination of leaves and other adding‟s. Color combination is very important. It is done digitally. [1]
  37. 37. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 37 | P a g e COST, M.O.Q of the Various Types of Prints[18] Print Type Cost of Print in Rs. M.O.Q Curing / Fusing Suitability for Children Durability Rating Sticker Print 1 2500 Fusing No 1.5 Plastisole Print 1.5 1000 Fusing No 2.5 Pigment Print 2 1000 Curing Yes 3 Non-Pvc Print 2.5 1000 Curing Yes 2.5 Distressed (Kadi) Print 2.5 1000 Curing Yes 2.5 Foil Print 3.5 500 Fusing Yes 2 Gel Print 3 1000 Curing Yes 3 Discharge Print 3 500 Curing Yes 3 Glitter Print 3.5 1000 Curing Yes 2 Sugar Print 5 1000 Curing No 2 Metallic Print 4 1000 Curing No 2 High Density Print (6 Coats) 5 500 Curing Yes 3.5 Puff Print 3.5 1000 Curing Yes 3 Flock Print 5 1000 Curing Yes 2.5 Silicone Print 8 500 Curing Yes 4.5 Organic Print 6.5 1000 Curing Yes 3 Bits Printing 4 2000 Fusing No 2
  38. 38. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 38 | P a g e COST, M.O.Q Analysis for Various Types of Prints[18] COST & M.O.Q Analysis for Various[18]
  39. 39. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 39 | P a g e Printing Defects • Improper alignment: – Causes: Improper setting of two different screens of different colour • Colour spread: – Causes: Less viscosity of print paste is less. Base fabric not fixed properly. • Improper mixing of print paste: – Causes: As the name itself implies the print paste ingredients are not mixed properly leading to some yellowing or stain marks on print. • Scrimps: – Causes: The print is done on folded fabric. • Smear – Causes: Printing is done on seams which will be of different thickness leading in spreading and blurring. • Difference in texture – Causes: Improper fusing • Improper colour matching – Causes: If printed colour is not matching with standard. • Stick in – Causes: Some dust and lint which get chock in screen holes leads in improper design. • Doubling or blurring – Causes: Improper fixing of base fabric or screen. • Lint or thread marks – Causes: Any loose threads come in print area will lead to thread marks on print. • Colour stains – Causes: Improper handling of material. • Glue streak – Causes: The gum which used to stick garment and/or the gel which is printed on fabric (for foil, flock etc.) strikes out of fabric through back side. • Low sharpness – Causes: Improper mesh selection , damaged screen. • Coloured/White spots – Causes: Improper screen preparation. • Distorted print – Causes: printing of second coat before drying 1st coat. In general 1-3% of defective pieces in bulk order is allowed, but since the defect occurrence is very less its always less than the limit.[18]
  40. 40. Advanced Garment Printing Engr.Azmir Latif, M.Engr.(Textile) 40 | P a g e Conclusion Textile printing is the most versatile and important of the methods used for introducing color and design to textile fabrics. We may print as a fabric form or apparel form. Now apparel printing is become very popular. Nowadays print is a very important thing for this textile sector. Print makes clothes attractive. We can‟t imagine a dress or clothes without print. Printing sector is also expanding and changing every day with the fashion trend. We are discovering new technique and qualities of print day by day. Print technology is growing up with the Clothes industry. 99% fashion clothes are now must have any print on it. Printing is the production of all active designs with well defined bound arises made by the artistic arrangement of a motif is one or more colors. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. Digital printing, the most advanced technology in printing is an emerging new technique. Digital printing in simple terms is the process of creating prints generated and designed from a computer, as opposed to analog printing, which requires printing screens .Among the various approaches for digital printing including electro photography, inkjet has gained a very significant place in the field of innovative printing techniques. Except digital printing there are so many advanced garment printing recently developed which is describe above. Glitter print or foil print is also possible when t-shirt printing and this uses special inks that are more expensive and slightly trickier to perfect. We may apply print on different panel of a garment. So we can say printing is considered analytically it is a process of bringing together a design idea, one or more colorants, and a textile substrate (usually a fabric), using a technique for applying the colorants with some precision. In this report I know about the different types of garment printing and also gain a clear concept about modern printing technique. Reference: 1. http://www.21613078-textile-printing-kushal-130920152256-phpapp02 2. http://www.flocking.biz/process.html 3. http://www.digitalcitymarketing.com/ 4. https://www.boxcarpress.com/designing-for-foil-stamping/ 5. https://www.bellafigura.com/customize/printing-methods/ 6. https://www.spreadshirt.com/help-c1328/ 7. http://www.apparel-merchandising.com/2012/09/puff-print.html 8. http://www.cfpromo.com/puff-printing.htm 9. http://www.transferexpress.com/puff-screen-printed-transfers 10. https://www.siserna.com/colorprint-glitter 11. http://mytextilenotes.blogspot.com/2010/09/what-is-glitter-printing.html 12. http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/03/transfer-printing-process.html#ixzz3X16hnQTU 13. http://www.localheroclothing.com/heattransfer.html 14. http://www.stahls.com/learn-basics-heat-printing 15. http://www.catspitproductionsllc.com/screen-printing-heat-transfer-articles.html 16. http://mytextilenotes.blogspot.com/2010/09/what-is-high-density-printing.html 17. http://www.teonline.com/knowledge-centre/printing.html 18. http://www. garmentprinting-120202065211-phpapp02 19. http://www.stratasys.com/materials/polyjet/rubber-like 20. http://www.indiamart.com/classic-prints/textile-t-shirt-printing-services.html 21. http://blog.tshirt-factory.com/apparel-printing-techniques.html#.VS09lsglzDc