Audio visual materials are produced, distributed and used as planned
components of educational programs. It helps the process of learning that
is motivation, classification and stimulation. It makes dynamic learning
experience more concrete realistic and clarity.
It provides significant gains in thinking and reasoning.
3. DEFINITION OF AUDIO-VISUALAIDS
Audio visual aids are those sensory objects or images which
initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning.
Audio visual aids are anything by means of which learning
process may be encouraged or carried on through the sense of
hearing or sense of sight.
-Goods, Dictionary of education
Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make
the learning experience more concrete, more realistic and
-Kinder S. James
4. CLASSIFICATION OF AV AIDS
Non Projected Aids
Non- Projected Aids -
Non projected visuals are those aids which are used without any
projection. So they translate abstract ideas into a more realistic
Projected Aids -
Projected visual aids are pictures shown upon a screen by the use of
a certain type of machines.
5. TYPES OF PROJECTED AV AIDS
Power Point Presentation
6. VALUES OF PROJECTED AV AIDS
Best motivators: - they are the best motivators the student work
with more interest and zeal. They are more attentive.
Clear image: - These images are formed when we see, hear,
touch, taste smell as our experiences are direct, concrete and more
or less permanent. Learning through the senses becomes the most
natural and consequently the easiest.
Variety: - Audio visual aids provides variety and give different
tools in the hand of the teacher like models, transparencies etc.
7. Helpful in attracting attention: - Attention is the true factors in any
process of teaching and learning.
Saving of energy and time :- A good deal of energy and time of both
the teacher and the students can be saved on account of the use of aids
as most of the concepts and phenomena may be easily clarified ,
understood and assimilated through their use.
8. Antidote to disease of verbal instructions -: They help to
reduce verbalism. They help in giving clear concept and thus help
to bring accuracy in learning.
Spread of education on mass scale -: It helps in providing
education to the people who living in the remote areas. They also
help in promoting adult education.
Helpful in attracting attention: - Attention is the true factors in
any process of teaching and learning.
9. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROJECTED AV
They should be meaningful and purposeful
They should be accurate in every aspects
They should be simple
They should be cheap
They should be up to date
They should be easily portable
10. They should be according to the mental level of students
They should be motivate the learners
They should be large enough to be properly seen by the students
for whom they are meant
They should be improvised
11. FUNCTIONS OF PROJECTED AIDS
They supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and hence,
reduce meaningless word response of students.
They have high degree of interest for students.
They make learning more permanent.
They offer a reality of experience which stimulates self-activity
part of pupil.
12. Develop continuity of thought; this is especially true of motion
They provide experience not easily obtained through other
materials and contribute to the efficiency, depth, and variety of
13. NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF PROJECTED
Motivate student’s mental and physical activity.
Help to bring the change in the atmosphere of the class.
Help to develop scientific attitude and get training in scientific
Large number of students can taught at a time.
14. Most convenient, easy and natural way of learning.
Make learning effective and durable
Helps pupil to have clear conception of ideas, information, facts
16. OPAQUE PROJECTOR
The opaque projector is a device which displays opaque materials
by shining a bright lamp onto the object from above. A system of
mirrors, prisms and/or imaging lenses is used to focus an image
of the material onto a viewing screen. Because they must project
the reflected light.
17. Opaque projectors are typically used to project images of book
pages, drawings, specimens etc.
Care must be taken that the materials are not damaged by the heat
generated by the light source.
18. PRECAUTIONS THAT SHOULD BE TAKEN FOR
AN OPAQUE PROJECTOR
Protected from breakage
Away from moisture
Preferably kept in a cool room
Switched of when not in use
A slide is a still transparency of 70mm, 35mm or 6mm size which
is optically enlarged and projected on a screen as a real image
3 KINDS OF SLIDES CAN BE MADE
Etched glass slides
20. OVER HEAD PROJECTOR
The overhead projector (OHP) is mostly used in all audiovisual
aids .It projects transparencies with brilliant screen images
suitable for use in a lighted room. The teacher can write or draw
diagrams on the transparency while he teaches; these are
projected simultaneously on the screen by the OHP.
21. An overhead projector consists of a metal box with a 1000 watt
bulb and a concave reflector, a condenser lens illuminate the
transparency placed on the glass sheet on the top of the box.
There is a vertical rod by the slide of the box which carries an
objective convex lens parallel to the transparency and a plane
mirror to reflect the image on the screen.
22. The movement of the objective lens and mirror focuses the image
properly on the screen.
There is also a small cooling fan on the overhead projector to
blow out the excess heat produced by the bulb.
23. USING AN OVERHEAD PROJECTOR
Place the OHP on a stable table with the objective lens facing the
Put the cord plug into a power wall socket. Switch on the blower
first and then the bulb
Place the transparency on the glass top.
Move the objective lens and mirror assemble up and down to get
the image in the focus on the screen.
Explain about the material on the transparency sitting behind the
OHP with a small pointer.
24. OHP Transparencies Instructions
Use of standard size of acetate sheet measuring 21.5 cm x 30 cm.
OHP markers are also available in two types: temporary and permanent.
The best colors to write on transparences are black, blue and green.
There should be not more than 6 words in each line and not more than 8
lines in one sheet.
A sheet with printed, written or drawn material is placed on the
platform of the projector and a large image is projected on the screen.
25. The projected is used from rear to the front of the room with the
teacher standing or sitting beside the projector, facing the student.
Avoid copying information from a printed book or journal page.
Such pages present too much information for students to take in
and the print is usually too small for them to see easily.
26. Effective Use OF Transparencies
The OHP and screen should be positioned in such a way that every
student in class can see every part of the projected image with ease.
The fan switched if provided, should not be switched of unit the light
source cools down.
The main plug and switch should not be turned off soon after using the
One should not transport while is lamp is still hot.
Pointed objects such in pencils placed to transparency at the platform
are recommended for pointing. Pointer should not roll down.
A filmstrip is a continues strip of film consisting of individual
frames or pictures arranged in a sequence usually with a specific
title .In other words , filmstrips are a sequence of transparent still
pictures with individual frames on a 35 mm film . A tape-recorded
narration can be synchronized with a film strip. Each strip
contains between 12 and 18 or more pictures .
28. Types of Filmstrips
Discussion filmstrips: It is a continuous strip of film consisting of
individual frames arranged in a sequence usually with explanatory
Sound slide film: It is similar to a discussion filmstrip but instead of
explanatory titles or spoken discussion, the recorded explanation is
audible and is synchronized with the pictures.
29. POWER POINT PRESENTATION
The software was designed as convenient way to display
graphical information that would support the speaker and
supplement the presentation. The slides themselves were never
meant to be the 'star of the show’. Power point can be an effective
tool to present material in a classroom and encourage student
learning. PowerPoint, when effectively planned and used, can
30. DESIGNING THE POWERPOINT
Visual impaired may not be able to fully access a PowerPoint
presentation, especially those with graphics and images.
If Teacher must make sure the classroom is equipped with that the
laptop proper cables, drivers, and other means to display your
presentation the way you have intended.
31. SLIDE CONTENT
Remember rule of six. Six lines in slide and six word in each line.
Avoid text dense
Use brief points instead of to long sentences or paragraphs
Relate PowerPoint material to course objectives to reinforce their
32. NUMBER OF SLIDES
As a rule of thumb , plan to show one slide per minute to account
for discussion and time and for student to absorb the material
Reduce redundant or text heavy sentences or bullets to ensure a
more professional appearance.
33. EMPHASIZING CONTENT
Use of a light background with dark typeface or a dark
background with a light typeface is easy to read in a large room.
Consider using different color slide backgrounds to change the
pace of the presentation ( or when you shift to new major slide)
34. FONT SIZE
Ensure the typeface is large enough to read from anywhere in the
room: titles and headings should be not less than 32 - 36 for
The subtext will be not less than 28 - 32.
35. CLIPART AND GRAPHICS
Photographs can be effectively used to add realism.
Use clip art and graphics only when it supports the content.
36. ANIMATION AND SOUND
Add motion, sound, or music only when necessary
Excessive movement within or between slides can interface with
the message can be annoying. Avoid or use only simple screen
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium for transmitting
and receiving, moving images that can be monochrome (black &
white) or colored with accompanying sound. Television is a very
commonly and widely used medium for sharing and
dissemination information between large groups. It is also very
popular and widely viewed in different strata of the society
because of its specific feature, the combination of audio and
visual technology. In India, television is being used for imparting
distance education through the educational programs.
38. LCD PROJECTOR
An LCD projector is a type of video projector for displaying
videos, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface.
It is a modern equivalent of the slide projector or overhead
projector. When connected to the computer will enable to project
computer generated images onto a display screen.
39. Important factors that warrant careful consideration are projector
brightness, portability, bulb life, the environment that the
projector is going to be operated, the cost, resolution, contrast,
ratio and networking connectivity of the projector, and how
secure it is when in place.
40. ADVANTAGES OF PROJECTED AIDS
Provides greater enjoyment in learning
Stimulate more rapid learning
Increase retention : larger percentage and longer retention
Enlarges or reduces actual size of objects
Brings distant past and the present into the classroom
41. The mental reaction of the pupils to audio-visual experience is
both intellectual and emotional
They make a lasting impression on the minds of the learner
"ONE PICTURE IS WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS”
THEY MAKE LEARNING
42. DISADVANTAGES OF PROJECTED AIDS
Needed a dark room
It’s easier to lose focus
requires a well-designed presentation or material
participants might pay more attention to the graphics than the
Sequence cannot be changed
Not suitable for all type of educational materials.
Projected aids are very useful for teaching process , these are
great tools to catch the attention of audience , it is important to
use variety of teaching methods for students with varying
preferences and an AV aid should also not distract a student from
44. ABSTRACT -
IMPACT OF VISUAL AIDS IN ENHANCING THE LEARNING PROCESS CASE
RESEARCH SETTING: District Dera Ghazi Khan
Ghulam Shabiralyani , Khuram Shezad Hassan , Naqvi Hamad, Nadeem Iqbal
GC UNIVERSITY, FAISALABAD, PUNJAB PAKISTAN, POLICY AND STRATEGIC
PLANNING UNIT, HEALTH DEPARTMENT PUNJAB, PAKISTAN, GHAZI UNIVERSITY
DERA GHAZI KHAN , PUNJAB PAKISTAN , 2015
The research explore the teachers opinions on the uses of visual aids (e.g. pictures,
animation, videos, projectors and films) as a motivational tool in enhancing students
attention in reading literally text. To accomplish the aim of the research, the close ended
questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The targeted population for this research
was the staff and students of the public and private educational institutions of District Dera
Ghazi khan. In this research the primary data was used for gathering information. The
collected data is analysed through the Statistical Analyisis in Social Science SPSS software
and also data was represented in the percentage distribution of pie, line, and bar graphs. The
analysis of the data indicated the majority of the teachers and students and had positive
perceptions of the use of visual aids.
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