2. By the end of the session you will be able to have better
1. Conveyor system and its working.
2. Parts and safety devices used in conveyor system.
3. Grades of belt.
4. Belt specification.
5. Joints in conveyor belt.
7. Maintenance of conveyor belt and system.
4. Belting system
Rubber belting constitutes a major outlet for rubber in industrial
application. Rubber belts can be generally divided into flat belt and 'V‘ belts.
The flat belts further split into conveyor and transmission belts.
Flat Belting ‘V’ Belting
Conveyor belts: It carries material at
low speeds and operates over
relatively large pulleys.
Transmission: It is used to
transfer power and operate over
relatively large pulleys.
"V" belts: It transmits power
between ‘V’ grooved pulleys.
5. BASICOBJECTIVESof conveyor belt:
Quick and precise pick-up of loads.
Quick and efficient transfer of load with planned time interval.
Transport of loads in planned quantity.
Safe transport without any damage.
Accuracy in delivering at the destination.
Automation with minimum human element.
Low initial and operational costs.
Simple and easy to maintain.
6. A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system. A belt conveyor system
consists of two or more pulleys, with an endless loop of carrying medium that rotates about
them. One or both of the pulleys are powered,
moving the belt and the material on the
belt forward. The powered pulley is called
the drive(head) pulley while the unpowered
pulley is called the driven(tail) pulley.
There are two main industrial classes of
belt conveyors; Those in general material
handling such as those moving boxes along
inside a factory and bulk material handling
such as those used to transport large
volumes of resources and agricultural
materials, salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden
7. – High Strength
– Low Self Weight
– High Wear Resistance
– Low Elastic & Permanent Elongation
– High Resistance To Ply Separation
– Low Water Absorption Capability
– Suitable Working Environment Condition
Requirement of belt which is to be used in belt conveyor
8. CONSTRUCTION OF CONVEYOR BELT
Conveyor belts generally are composed of three things.
(1) – Carcass
(2) – Skims
(3) – Covers
D = triple the size of the
largest chunk of the raw
This can eliminate the
problem of chocking.
CHOCKING: When the
chunks of material is
trapped inside the chute.
Pocking is used to clear the
chocking of the chute.
Skirt reduces the material spillage and sits 3mm to 5mm above the
It is mounted on the skirt plate, which is attached to the chute.
13. TYPES OF IDLER:
The main purpose of idlers is to provide the correct shaping, support and protection
of a belt conveyor, reduce motion resistance as well as support for transported
19. There are different types of
lagging are used in industries.
1. Plain rubber lagging
2. ‘V’ groove rubber lagging
3. Chequred cut rubber lagging
4. Ceramic rubber lagging
Lagging :- It is the process of covering a
pulley with rubber layer. It is being done
for following reasons.
• Protect pulley from wear and tear.
• Protect conveyor belt from wear and tear.
• Increase traction between belt and pulley.
20. Take-up pulley provides tension in the belt.
It is done with the help of take up weight or counter weight, which is
being pulled with the gravitational force of the earth.
21. Types of take – up:
VGTU (Vertical Gravity Take-up)
HGTU (Horizontal Gravity Take-up)
24. Without bend pulley the conveyor
system takes more space.
Head bend pulley
Tail bend pulley
With bend pulley
conveyor system takes
lesser space and also
help belt to give a
25. Angle of wrap = A.
Without snub pulley the angle of wrap
is less and the belt tends to slip.
Angle of wrap = A°
With the help of a snub pulley the angle
of wrap is increased and belt slips less.
26. Scraper cleans the belt as the
material continues to stick on the
surface of the belt.
39. SL. NO. GRADE TEMPERATURE DUTY MATERIAL USE
Abrasive material (Coal,
Dust, Scrape & etc.)
02 H.R 120˚C Heavy Duty Coke, Sinter, Lime Stone &
03 S.H.R 180˚C Extra Heavy Duty Coke, Sinter, Lime Stone &
04 U.H.R 220˚C Extra Heavy Duty Coke, Sinter, Lime Stone &
75˚C - 80˚C For Transporting Fine Coal, Oily Sheet Metal.
DIFFERENT GRADES OF BELTS
40. BELT SPECIFICATIONS
2000 4 10+6 M-24 CUT EDGE
TOP COVER 10MM, BOTTOM COVER 6MM
NUMBER OF PLY
2000KN Tensile Strength/m of Width
42. • DENOTES BELT’S FABRIC MATERIAL.
• EP - Polyester , Polymide
• NN – Nylon , Nylon
• PP – Polymide , Polymide
• NP – Nylon , Polymide
• Belt Rating is denoted by 400/3.
• 400 – Tensile strength.
• 3 – No. of Ply.
• Heavy Duty belt.
• GD – General duty
• FR – Fire Resistance
• Top cover and Bottom
Cover Thickness in mm.
• Belt Grade.
• Brand of belt.
(Phoenix, Northland, MRF, Forech Hilton,
Indus, Sempertrance India, Good Year, Wuxi China,
43. Find out the following details from the above belt specification:
• Brand - ____________________________.
• Grade - ____________________________.
• Belt rating - ________________________.
• Tensile strength -____________________.
• No. of Ply -_________________________.
• Top cover thickness -_________________.
• Ply visible -_________________________.
• Belt width -_________________________.
44. Conveyor belt joints:
Mechanical Fastening – less than 75% efficient & the whole process may take
There are 2 types of mechanical joint:
1. Mechanical fastening joint.
2. Alligator joint.
46. Cold Patching/ Cold Joint – 85% efficient, takes 4-6 hours depending on application. Cold
joint can only be done on a belt having max. 3 ply and having endless size of 75m.
57. For hydraulic pressure we can use either oil or water to
actuate the pistons.
With the help of mechanical pump oil can be used to actuate the piston but it may take long to cool
down the heater plates due to less heat dissipation.
Similarly water can be used with the help of a pump to actuate the piston, water can quickly
dissipate the heat and will take less time to cure. Hence decreasing the down time. (But water
pumps and containers are bulky to carry which makes it less mobile).
TEMPERATURE & CURRING TIME FOR HOT VULCANISING JOINT.
SL NO. BELT GRADE TEMPERATURE CURRING TIME
01 M-24 (SAR) 145˚C (+5/-5)˚ C PER MM= 3 MINT.
02 UHR 160˚C (+5/-5)˚C 60 MINT.
Check the temperature on the panel before dismantling the heater & collect
the sample for testing. Don’t dismantle the heater before the heater plate
temperature reaches 50˚C (+5/-5)˚C.