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Fabric construction


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Fabric construction

  1. 1. Fabric Construction
  2. 2. Warp and weft
  3. 3. Egyptian
  4. 4. loom: a frame or machine for interlacing at right angles two or more sets of threads or yarns to form a cloth
  5. 5. Dobby loom
  6. 6. Stripe warp from the back of the loom
  7. 7. Three basic weaves • Plain • Twill • Satin
  8. 8. Twill
  9. 9. Twill Plaid
  10. 10. Satin Weave Satin fabric
  11. 11. Herringbone: a variation of a twill weave
  12. 12. Basket Weave: a variation of plain weave
  13. 13. Ottoman or repp weave
  14. 14. Jacquard
  15. 15. Jacquard • Joseph Jacquard invented in 1801, Lyon France • Device that simplifies the process of manufacturing complex textile patterns. • Each design has a set of punch cards • First key punch system • Binary system forerunner of computers
  16. 16. Lyon
  17. 17. Jacquard cards
  18. 18. Jacquard http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-zqT7tPmVAo&feature=related
  19. 19. Inspection
  20. 20. Damask is a reversible, flat, fabric with a satin weave in both the pattern and the ground.
  21. 21. Damask designs
  22. 22. Damask construction
  23. 23. Imberline A damask fabric with various colored stripes in the warp used in upholstery, drapery.
  24. 24. Brocatelle Stiff fabric with high relief. Warp satin in the figure.
  25. 25. Brocatelle
  26. 26. Brocade is a supplementary weft technique, that is, the ornamental brocading is produced by a supplementary, non- structural, weft in addition to the standard weft that holds the warp threads together.
  27. 27. Lisere The design is created by supplementary warp threads brought up on the face of the fabric, leaving loose yarns on the back.
  28. 28. Lisere face and back
  29. 29. Lampas Can be confused with a brocade. Yarns that make the design are also part of the structure of the fabric.
  30. 30. Misc Jacquard
  31. 31. Tapestry
  32. 32. Tapestry • A firm, heavy, stiff, jacquard fabric made with a multi colored warp
  33. 33. Matelasse/Pique a double-cloth fabric woven to create a three- dimensional design with a puckered or quilted look.
  34. 34. Jim Thompson
  35. 35. Donghia
  36. 36. Velvet
  37. 37. Face to face method for solid colored velvet
  38. 38. a fabric with a thick, soft pile formed of loops of the warp thread either cut at the outer end or left uncut.
  39. 39. Panne Velvet
  40. 40. Panne Velvet
  41. 41. Cut and uncut velvet
  42. 42. All cut velvet
  43. 43. Velvet facts • Nap, pile lays down in one direction • Pile can be interlaced in the form of a V or W and V is superior because more compact. • Wears from the back to the face • Frieze, short, fine, tight loop • Chenille and flocking mock velvet
  44. 44. Sheers, Casement, Lace, Madras
  45. 45. Sheers
  46. 46. Casement
  47. 47. Creation Baumann
  48. 48. Leno (triaxial weave) open weave used for casements, which achieves extra stability by twisting the warp yarns around each other and inserting the weft.
  49. 49. Cloth alternating leno and plain weave
  50. 50. Lace A fine open fabric, typically one of cotton or silk, made by looping, twisting, or knitting thread in patterns.
  51. 51. Madras sheer fabric with a leno weave ground and a supplementary yarn to create pattern.
  52. 52. Woven facts • 54” wide on average but can range from 48” up. Window fabrics can be 108” • Sold by the running yard. D&D code. Each wholesaler has a different minimum size order. • A piece or bolt of fabric averages 55 yards depending on the weight of the fabric • The repeat size and repeat configuration contributed to the amount of waste. • Work with your upholsterer to determine quantities and how you want the pattern engineered on the furniture or window treatment. • Thread count is the number of yarns per square inch. In other words the number of warp thread per inch and weft threads per inch added up.
  53. 53. Bolts of fabric
  54. 54. Grain
  55. 55. Woven selvage
  56. 56. Railroaded
  57. 57. Determining Warp and Weft • If labeled, label is usually in the warp direction • Typically stripes run in the warp direction • Typically more threads per inch in the warp direction • Typically fabric has less give when pulled in the warp direction • Typically novelty yarns are in the weft direction
  58. 58. Determine back and face • Printed and embroidery fabrics are a topical treatment • Face weaves are tighter, shorter floats • Back weaves are looser, longer floats • Design looks fuzzy on the back • Often fabrics are warped face, more threads per inch
  59. 59. Nonwovens • Ultrasuede • Leather • Knits • Felt • Vinyl
  60. 60. Ultrasuede • This is a trade name • HP created for interiors market • Made to look and feel like suede • It is made by needle punching fibers into a felt backing. • Washable with soap and water and will not crock, pill or fray. • Like fabric 54” wide and sold by the yard
  61. 61. Fake Fur a knitted fabric
  62. 62. Leather
  63. 63. leather
  64. 64. Leather facts • Has grain – Full grain is natural – Top grain has undergone minor corrections – Split leather in only the center of the hide without markings
  65. 65. Hide • Sold by the square foot
  66. 66. Felt
  67. 67. Vinyl
  68. 68. Joseph Noble
  69. 69. Review • Weaving is the interlacing of yarns at right angles to each other. • Warp yarns run vertically through the loom and are held under tension and systematically raised allowing the weft yarn to be inserted horizontally. • A loom is a frame or machine for interlacing at right angles two or more sets of threads or yarns to form a cloth. • Know the different ways to determine the warp and weft of a fabric. • Dobby looms weave simple fabrics and jacquard looms weave large complex designs. • What is a selvage? • Know how to determine the front and back of a fabric.
  70. 70. • The type and size of the design repeat adds to the amount of fabrics needed for a project. • What is the grain of a fabric? • A railroaded fabric is one in which the design is oriented sideways to save yardage when upholstering. • Know what thread count means. • How is leather sold? • Fabric pricing. 5/10 code verses retail. • The most common fabric width is 54” and fabrics are sold by the running yard. • You use sheers, casements and madras on windows or beds to filter light, create privacy and/or insulate a room. • How does a leno weave differ from other weaves? • Why is it important to determine the nap of a velvet before using it for drapery or upholstery? • What are nonwovens and name five examples that are used in interiors.