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Warp and weft
a frame or machine for interlacing at right angles two or more
sets of threads or yarns to form a cloth
Stripe warp from the back of the
Three basic weaves
Herringbone: a variation of a twill
Basket Weave: a variation of plain
Ottoman or repp weave
• Joseph Jacquard invented in 1801, Lyon
• Device that simplifies the process of
manufacturing complex textile patterns.
• Each design has a set of punch cards
• First key punch system
• Binary system forerunner of computers
is a reversible, flat, fabric with a satin weave in both the pattern and the
A damask fabric with various colored stripes in
the warp used in upholstery, drapery.
Stiff fabric with high relief. Warp satin in the figure.
Brocade is a supplementary weft technique, that is, the
ornamental brocading is produced by a supplementary, non-
structural, weft in addition to the standard weft that holds the
warp threads together.
The design is created by supplementary warp threads brought
up on the face of the fabric, leaving loose yarns on the back.
Lisere face and back
Can be confused with a brocade. Yarns that make the design are
also part of the structure of the fabric.
• A firm, heavy, stiff,
jacquard fabric made
with a multi colored
a double-cloth fabric woven to create a three-
dimensional design with a puckered or quilted look.
Face to face method for solid
a fabric with a thick, soft pile formed of loops of the
warp thread either cut at the outer end or left uncut.
Cut and uncut velvet
All cut velvet
• Nap, pile lays down in one direction
• Pile can be interlaced in the form of a V or W
and V is superior because more compact.
• Wears from the back to the face
• Frieze, short, fine, tight loop
• Chenille and flocking mock velvet
Sheers, Casement, Lace, Madras
Leno (triaxial weave)
open weave used for casements, which achieves extra stability
by twisting the warp yarns around each other and inserting the
Cloth alternating leno and plain weave
A fine open fabric, typically one of cotton or silk, made
by looping, twisting, or knitting thread in patterns.
sheer fabric with a leno weave ground and a
supplementary yarn to create pattern.
• 54” wide on average but can range from 48” up. Window fabrics can be
• Sold by the running yard. D&D code. Each wholesaler has a different
minimum size order.
• A piece or bolt of fabric averages 55 yards depending on the weight of the
• The repeat size and repeat configuration contributed to the amount of
• Work with your upholsterer to determine quantities and how you want
the pattern engineered on the furniture or window treatment.
• Thread count is the number of yarns per square inch. In other words the
number of warp thread per inch and weft threads per inch added up.
Bolts of fabric
Determining Warp and Weft
• If labeled, label is usually in the warp direction
• Typically stripes run in the warp direction
• Typically more threads per inch in the warp
• Typically fabric has less give when pulled in
the warp direction
• Typically novelty yarns are in the weft
Determine back and face
• Printed and embroidery fabrics are a topical
• Face weaves are tighter, shorter floats
• Back weaves are looser, longer floats
• Design looks fuzzy on the back
• Often fabrics are warped face, more threads
• This is a trade name
• HP created for interiors market
• Made to look and feel like suede
• It is made by needle punching fibers into a felt
• Washable with soap and water and will not
crock, pill or fray.
• Like fabric 54” wide and sold by the yard
a knitted fabric
• Has grain
– Full grain is natural
– Top grain has undergone minor corrections
– Split leather in only the center of the hide without
• Sold by the square foot
• Weaving is the interlacing of yarns at right angles to each
• Warp yarns run vertically through the loom and are held
under tension and systematically raised allowing the weft
yarn to be inserted horizontally.
• A loom is a frame or machine for interlacing at right angles
two or more sets of threads or yarns to form a cloth.
• Know the different ways to determine the warp and weft of a
• Dobby looms weave simple fabrics and jacquard looms weave
large complex designs.
• What is a selvage?
• Know how to determine the front and back of a fabric.
• The type and size of the design repeat adds to the amount of fabrics
needed for a project.
• What is the grain of a fabric?
• A railroaded fabric is one in which the design is oriented sideways to save
yardage when upholstering.
• Know what thread count means.
• How is leather sold?
• Fabric pricing. 5/10 code verses retail.
• The most common fabric width is 54” and fabrics are sold by the running
• You use sheers, casements and madras on windows or beds to filter light,
create privacy and/or insulate a room.
• How does a leno weave differ from other weaves?
• Why is it important to determine the nap of a velvet before using it for
drapery or upholstery?
• What are nonwovens and name five examples that are used in interiors.