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African Open Science Platform pilot study and landscape findings

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Presented during the delivery phase meeting at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt on 2 Sept. 2019.

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African Open Science Platform pilot study and landscape findings

  1. 1. Pilot Study and Landscape Findings Himla Soodyall & Ina Smith Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) AOSP Delivery Phase Planning Workshop, Alexandria, Egypt 2 - 3 Sept. 2019
  2. 2. Part I: Pilot Study – Himla Soodyall
  3. 3. About AOSP • Outcome of ISC “Open Data in a Big Data World” • NRF/ASSAf agreement signed on 9 Feb. 2017 • October 2016 – October 2019 (3 years) • Fully funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) (SA Dept. of Science and Technology) • Directed by CODATA (ISC) • Managed by Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) • Through ASSAf hosting ISC Regional Office for Africa (ISC ROA)
  4. 4. Addressing the UN SDGs “… Africa’s common objectives and commitment to collective actions to develop and use science and technology for the socio- economic transformation of the continent and its integration into the world economy.” - Africa Consolidated Science and Technology Plan of Action (2005)
  5. 5. UNECA Africa Regional Forum “T[t]he creation of an African platform for research and innovation exchange will enable the dissemination of goal-relevant African research and innovation to governments and citizens. It could form the basis for linking researchers and innovators with the funding required to scale up their work. The proposed platform would showcase and share Africa’s efforts to develop goal-relevant research and innovation and could be coordinated with the Global Innovation Exchange.” – Dakar (2018)
  6. 6. STI Strategy of Africa 2024 8 Priorities for the African research community – will be requiring data, data sharing, openness (as open possible, as closed necessary) and collaboration: disease prevention & control; climate resilience (disaster risk); environmental protection (biosphere, hydrosphere); food and nutritional security; smart resilient cities; achieving sustainability goals; improved knowledge production; improved intra-Africa research collaboration.
  7. 7. South African White Paper on STI “As part of its commitment to African STI cooperation, South Africa will also work to advance the open science agenda elsewhere on the continent and within regional frameworks. The strategic role of the African Open Science Platform, hosted by the Academy of Science of South Africa, which promotes African- wide development and coordination of data policies, data training and data infrastructure, will be leveraged with the support of the DST and the National Research Foundation (NRF).” – SA White Paper on Science, Technology and Innovation (2018)
  8. 8. 7 Pilot Deliverables Established an African Open Data Forum Launched AOSP during SFSA 2016 Framework for incentives for sharing research data Framework for open data policies Framework for capacity building in research data Framework & roadmap for e-Infrastructure Landscape report on Open Data in Africa
  9. 9. Specific Highlights • National Open Data Fora established in: • Botswana: Draft White Paper on Open Research Data Strategy • Madagascar: National Data Roadmap & drafting of Open Data policy • Uganda: Draft Open Data policy • South Africa: SA-EU Open Science Policy Framework & Action Plan
  10. 10. African Open Data Forum • 44+ AOSP events attended by representatives from 37 African countries – funded many individuals • 66+ data-intensive research initiatives identified (incl. priority disciplines) • Registry of 1,900 individuals in OS, OD, STI, ICT, IPR, HE, Funders • AOSP School of Research Data Science – Ethiopia (2019) (with CODATA & RDA) • International, Continental, National • Website http://africanopenscience.org.za/ • Mailing list • Webinars • Desktop & Literature Studies
  11. 11. Stakeholder Consultation • AAS • AfDB • AU – NEPAD, PAP • AAU • ISC (CODATA, WDS, ROA) • African governments, research councils, universities • Centres of Excellence • NAS & NASAC • NRENs • RDA • SGCI • TWAS • UN • IAP • Etc
  12. 12. JISC (UK) NSF (US) (Europe) Compute ARDC (Australia) EOSC Canada
  13. 13. Building on & towards … Oct 2016 – Oct 2019 Oct 2019 -
  14. 14. Part II: Selected Landscape Study Findings – Ina Smith
  15. 15. https://flightaware.com/live/ Live view of airspace on 12 August 2019 – People on the move …
  16. 16. http://www.nature.com/news/data-sharing-make-outbreak- research-open-access-1.16966
  17. 17. Challenges regarding Health Data • Delay in sharing data collected • Gaps in data • Lack of adherence to international standards • Uncertainty about IP rights • Can data be trusted? • Patient consent? Privacy? Security? • Absence of patient consent • And more
  18. 18. 1. Artificial Intelligence (AI) 2. Internet of Things (IoT) 3. Robotics
  19. 19. Government Data • Strategy for the Harmonisation of Statistics in Africa (SHaSA) (ECA, AfDB, AU) • AFRISTAT • STATAFRIC (Pan-African Institute for Statistics) • Sunlight Foundation • Open Data Barometer • G20 Anti-Corruption Open Data Principles • Africa Data Consensus Roadmap
  20. 20. E.g. CIRAD, FAOSTAT, KAiNeT, RCMRD, CSIRSpace E.g. H3Africa, AHRI, APHRC, GHDx, MalariaGEN E.g. CGKP, SAEON, RESILIENCE ATLAS, WASCAL E.g. AfReMaS, IODE, ODINAFRICA, SAIAB E.g. GBIF,ReBioMa, ICRAF, CERSGIS, CGIAR, GLOSS, MASDAP, SERVIR, AMMA-CATCH, SASSCAL E.g. OHADA, DICAMES Research Data Initiatives (66+)
  21. 21. Square Kilometre Array African SKA Consortium Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia
  22. 22. “R3 million has been spent on catering and a further R4 million on transport in the area since construction began in 2012. One hundred and seven locals have been employed by the South African Astronomical Observatory between 2015 and 2017.”
  23. 23. SKA SA Managing Director Rob Adam said, “We have electricians being trained, boilermakers, fitters and turners and people splashing the fibre that carries the signal from the satellites through the computers, that fibre is being splashed by people from the local community.”
  24. 24. H3ABioNet
  25. 25. Global Biodiversity Information Facility
  26. 26. https://www.slideshare.net/AfricanOpenSciencePl/developments-in- connected-regional-sadc-cyberinfrastructure-to-support-data-sharing- open-sciencetshiamo-motshegwa-81412672 SADC e-Infrastructure Strategy In support of SADC Strategic Plan on STI R&D, Innovation, Industrialisation pillar of Digital SADC 2027 initiative
  27. 27. OSActivities/Initiatives 200 OA DOAJ-listed journals 174 IRs registered on OpenDOAR 34 OA policies on ROARMAP 24 data repositories registered on re3data, while study identified 66+ 1 data repository assigned CoreTrustSeal
  28. 28. BUT …
  29. 29. African Investment in Science, ICT • Low levels of organisation and funding of many science systems in Africa - UNECA 2018 Sustainable Development Report • Kenya & SA closest to AUs target of investing 1% of annual GDP in R&D (Kenya & SA invest 0.8%) • R&D expenditure of 24 African countries unknown
  30. 30. Political Willingness National Academies of Science [26] National Young Academies of Science [18] R&D spending between 0.5%-0.8% of GDP [12] African Science Granting Councils [15] Incentives & recognition for sharing research data [2] Ministries of Science/Technology/Innovation [25] National Open Data policy & policy initiatives [5]
  31. 31. Challenges on Continent
  32. 32. Level 4 Formal NREN with services Burundi, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Sudan, Tanzania, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria, Senegal, Morocco, Tunisia Level 5 REN-REN links established Uganda Level 6 NREN offers REN-specific advanced services Algeria, Egypt, Kenya, SA, Zambia (since 2019) 18 National Research Education Network (NREN) Status
  33. 33. GÉANT – AfricaConnect 2 https://www.geant.org/News_and_Events/Pages/Mapping-the-global-RandE-community.aspx AfricaConnect 3 – end 2019 (aligned with Digital4Development Strategy) Priorities of the Digital4Development (D4D) strategy
  34. 34. Connected Countries  ASREN - Algeria, Egypt, Lybia, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia (4 connected; 2 not yet connected)  WACREN - Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo (3 connected; 11 not yet connected)  UbuntuNet Alliance - Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe (10 connected; 6 not yet connected) 17 connected; 19 not connected
  35. 35. AfricanICTLandscape
  36. 36. Sub-marine Cables reaching Africa up to 2018 https://manypossibilities.net/african- undersea-cables/
  37. 37. “It was revealed last month [April 2019] that the tech giant plans to launch a network of more than 3,000 low Earth orbit satellites to provide high-speed broadband connectivity to "unserved and underserved communities around the world".
  38. 38. https://www.businessinsider.co.za/google-is-building-a-powerful-new- internet-cable-from-europe-to-south-africa-2019-6
  39. 39. e-Infrastructure Challenges Connectivity & Bandwidth • Selected governments have low awareness of value of NREN – Foley (2016) • Many NRENs not operational, low/no budgets • Commercial public ISPs a threat to NRENs, while NRENs do far more than just being an ISP • Private ISPs with monopolies (Central, West Africa) close down access to cable landing stations – not allowing other competitors into market, keeping costs high
  40. 40. • Power outages on continent interrupting Internet service delivery, interrupting science • Cloud services require high-speed Internet access/broadband - very expensive • Medium-scale server infrastructures only; not trusted; infrastructure not funded (H3ABioNet) • Small number of computer workstations, outdated/software outdated
  41. 41. e-Infrastructure Status & Challenges Data Management (Curation) • Only one trusted registered data repository on continent (CoreTrustSeal) • Lack of centralised, secure data storage • Data repositories not registered with Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) • Data management plans not the norm, due to lack of policies/funder requirements
  42. 42. • Few repositories use proper data repository software or science gateways, tailor-made for purpose, adhering to international best practise regarding persistent identifiers, metadata, licensing, IPR, data citation, archiving, and back-up of data • Some instances - low awareness of free and open source software (FOSS) to collaborate and share data
  43. 43. • Institutional metric & funding systems rely heavily on publishing in high impact factor publications • Data sharing not acknowledged for promotional purposes/performance appraisal – lack of incentives • Researchers want to exhaust publication possibilities before sharing data • Trust – ‘parachute’ research prevent sharing – in past African researchers were often excluded and not acknowledged for contributions to international research Research Cultures Impacting on Data Sharing
  44. 44. • Lack of proper infrastructure makes collaboration and data sharing impossible • Already lack of support for publishing research papers (African researchers fund own publication costs – even more so for data sharing)
  45. 45. African Research Policy/ Legislation Framework • EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has increased awareness on risks of personal data in digital world • 17 African countries have adopted data protection legislation • Protection of Personal Information Act (POPIA) in SA • AU Convention on Cyber-security and Personal Data Protection signed by 14 African member countries; ratified by 5 African countries
  46. 46. • Open data policies where data are regarded as “assets” e.g. Botswana International University of Science and Technology (BIUST), Makerere University (Uganda) • Policies to: • Discourage “helicopter research” • Allow for recognition and partnership opportunities for African researchers • Protect researchers – what to share, what not
  47. 47. • Progress re Open Data/Open Science Policies • Botswana – Draft White Paper on Open Research Data Strategy • Madagascar – Lobbying for Open Data policy • South Africa – White Paper on STI • Uganda – Draft Open Data Policy • Policies not aligned, harmonised (STI, IP, HE, ICT, Research) • IP protection undeveloped, ineffective, expensive, unenforced
  48. 48. • African Observatory of Science and Technology Indicators (AOSTI) • Established in 2011 (AU) to help African countries build capacity for STI policy activities and initiatives • AOSTI Report: Assessment of Scientific Production in the African Union (2005 – 2010) • Recommended “creating open and free access publication outlets for Africa, with improved review committees” – AU AOSTI (2014) • Challenge of high article publication & subscription fees Build on …
  49. 49. Harmonisation of Policies • E.g. ICT: HIPSSA (Harmonization of ICT Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa – Access to Submarine Cables in West Africa – Assessment Report) • Regulation of telecom sector in collaboration with WATRA • E.g. Food Security: Delayed harmonisation of policies for encouraging the transfer of seeds across East and Southern Africa is hampering trade and increased agricultural growth
  50. 50. Capacity Building Initiatives • NRENs providing training e.g. KENET (Kenya), CHPC (SA) – network management, blockchain, programming, data processing etc. • Training through funded projects e.g. H3ABioNet bioinformatics training & GBIF Biodiversity for Development Programme • University & short courses e.g. dLAB (University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)) • Online Open Science courses e.g. Open Science MOOC, Coursera, FOSTER, MANTRA, AIMS
  51. 51. • The Carpentries – trained 19 instructors from Africa, presented 110 workshops in Africa, trained 1,577 delegates from Africa • CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science (Rwanda, 2018) – AOSP sponsored 3 participants • AOSP School of Research Data Science in collaboration with CODATA & RDA (Ethiopia, 2019) – 20+ participants
  52. 52. Similar to EOSC …. "We are not building the future EOSC [AOSP] from scratch, but will be starting from what members of the community worked in the last years: inclusiveness is going to be critical, especially in regions whose voice has not been heard enough so far." - Cathrin Stöver, Chief Collaboration Officer, GÉANT
  53. 53. Key to Future AOSP • Collaboration among countries, institutions, projects, researchers – sharing resources; free flow of data, research, knowledge • Trust relationships, openness, transparency – trusting others for having your best interest at heart, and not because of the profits they can make from your research • Researcher driven – needs addressed & bring infrastructure to data • Keep momentum, strong leadership, build on knowledge (also tacit) collected through project
  54. 54. Thank you! AOSP Advisory Council AOSP Technical Advisory Board AOSP Community International Science Community SA Dept. of Science & Technology (now Dept. of Science & Innovation), National Research Foundation (NRF) Stakeholders engaged with, especially in developing the landscape study & frameworks
  55. 55. Bibliography Academy of Science of South Africa (2019), African Open Science Platform - Landscape Study. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/assaf.2019/0047 Under embargo until 30 September 2019

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