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Ahmed Said Negida
Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt
School of Medicine, Liverpool University, UK
Founder and ...
1. Structure of the research paper
2. Golden Rules of scientific writing
3. Common Errors in scientific writing with examp...
Session no.1
Structure of
Scientific Research
Paper
IMRaD
1. Introduction
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
1. Structure of research paper
Abstract
Text
Appendices
Referenc...
Manuscript text (IMRaD)
Exceptions
• Case report
• Case Series
• Literature Review
• View Point
• Editorial
• Letter to Ed...
• What we know
• What we do not know
(Gap of Knowledge)
• Aim of this work
INTRODUCTION
METHODS
1. Study design (How?)
2. Where?
3. When?
4. Population
5. Inclusion/Exclusion
6. Sampling
7. Sample size
8. Inter...
• Descriptive statistics
• Univariate analysis
• Bivariate analysis
• Multivariate analysis
• Figures, charts and captured...
DISCUSSION
• Interpretation of results
• Are results statistically significant?
• Are results clinically significant?
• Gi...
Session no.2
Rules of Scientific Writing
• Put actions in verbs
• Put characters in subjects
• Keep subjects near verbs
• Put new information last
• Use active voi...
• Use short sentences
• When starting the sentence, don't overdo using “But” or “And”. “But” has become
quite acceptable; ...
Rules for reporting numbers
• Numbers less than 10 are words.
• Number 10 or more are numbers.
• Words not numbers begin a...
• Use one space between a number and its unit.
• Report percentages to only one decimal place if the sample size is larger...
The decision to begin the treatment regimen requires certain prerequisites, one of the most
important is the determination...
Session no.3
Common Errors in
scientific writing
Avoid Long Phrases
Parallel Sentences
Omit Needless Words
Creating a flow between sentences
Avoid Repetition
Sneaky Plurals
Avoid Gender Specific Pronouns
Use because to mean "because"
Correct use of Verbs
TENSES
Introduction
 Present: to refer to present
evidence
 Past: to refer to previous studies,
aim and hypothesis
 It ...
Session no.4
Tips to make a world-
class research paper
.. Before it is too late ..
• Clear / Novel / Interesting .. Why?Research Question
• Study Design: Prospective or retrospe...
Follow the Standard Reporting Guidelines
Standard guidelines for reporting research studies have been
developed and underg...
http://www.equator-network.org/
Session no.5
How to write
a good abstract
ABSTRACT = ‫الملـخص‬
Conference Submission
Indexing in databases
Subscription Journals (non-OA)
For readers: Get quick ove...
• Identify the main issue of your paper
• Begin with the subject of your paper
• Accurate, unambiguous, specific, and comp...
Types of titles
ABSTRACT Structure
• Introduction
• Methods
• Results
• Conclusion
• Aim (Purpose)
• Methods
• Results
• Conclusion
• Cont...
ABSTRACT: Introduction
Sentence no 3
Aim of this study
Sentence no 2
A more specific sentence about the Factor/Agent
Sente...
ABSTRACT: Methods
The methods section of the abstract should describe the study
design, who was studied, what you measured...
ABSTRACT: Results
• Make sure you emphasize the main finding of the study.
• Concentrate on various aspects of that single...
ABSTRACT: Results
For example, suppose you find that hypertensive patients who take calcium
channel blockers are more like...
ABSTRACT: Results
ABSTRACT: Results
ABSTRACT: Conclusion
• Do not repeat the results in slightly different words, or make
superfluous declarations such as ‘‘T...
Fitting abstracts into space
Fitting abstracts into space
Fitting abstracts into space
Fitting abstracts into space
Last choice: Delete sentences
(irrelevant to conclusions or appear several times)
Writing
Abstract
It is your turn now!
Why Abstracts are rejected
1.Dull topic (not interesting or a lot of previous research)
2.Small Sample Size
3.All numbers,...
Sentences that invite rejection
There are two phrases that will almost always result
in your abstract being rejected: ‘‘Da...
What is different colleagues want to
present the same abstract?
Dishonest behavior …
Session no.6
Scientific
Publication
Draft Manuscript Paper
Revision/Polishing Peer-review
Authors Journal
Publication
Conference
National
International
Journal
Peer-reviewed
Predatory
ABSTRACT
FULL TEXT
Vancouver guidelines for authorship
The (ICMJEs) stated that each author should have participated
sufficiently in the work...
Editors may ask authors to justify
authorship and state contributions
of each author.
Acknowledgment = ‫عرفان‬ ‫و‬ ‫شكر‬
 General support by a department head or an institution
 Technical help, laboratory w...
UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
Use double spacing
throughout the
manuscript
UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
Pages should have margins at least 25 mm and be numbered
UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
Follow the sequence of title page, abstract, keywords, text,
acknowledgements, references, tables, le...
UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
Title page should include
(title, short running title, funding,
authors, affiliation, correspondence)...
UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
Text (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion)
Introduction Methods Results Discussion
UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
Begin each section
on a new page
Each table should
be on a new page
UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
• Get permission to reproduce previously published materials.
• Enclose a transfer of copyright.
• Ke...
Session no.7
Flow of the
publication
process
Submitted
Check for Journal
requirements
Check for Quality + meeting
the Journal scope
Revise the manuscript
Author
Editor...
Notify the publishing editor
Put manuscript into Journal
template – For publication
Send to author to check for
errors dur...
Session no.6
Selecting
Suitable Journal
Four methods to select a Journal for publication
1- Asking an Expert co-worker/colleagues
2- Look at references of your ma...
Ask a colleague to have a look on the
quality of the manuscript, then list
relevant journals in three groups
Likely to acc...
1. Search PubMed using your keywords
2. Limit results to your publication type
3. Arrange results alphabetically
By visual...
What should you do after
selecting a Suitable Journal?
Instructions for Authors
Go to
Guidelines for Author
Instructions for Authors
Title Title length
Title page
Requirements?
Remove authors’ names?
Conflict of interest statement?
Length of manuscript?
N...
Manuscript TXT
Structure?
Length?
Font?
Spaces?
Numbering of pages?
Tables
Separated?
Within text?
In End of manuscript?
F...
References
Style?
Maximum number of references?
Additional
Conflict of interest form?
Conflict of interest statement?
Agre...
• Go to the Submission system
• Start submitting your manuscript
• Upload the files and manuscript details
! COVER LETTER?...
How to get recommended reviewers
- Go to PUBMED
- Search with Keywords
- Fine most relevant articles
- Select authors of t...
COVER LETTER
Correspondence details
Dear Editor,
We are sending you the manuscript entitled: ….
What have you done in this...
Peer-Review
Blinded Unblinded
One, Two, Three reviewers might evaluate your paper
ACCORDING TO JOURNAL POLICY
Peer-Review
Reviewers do NOT accept/reject manuscript
They Revise + Recommend a decision for the Editor
Reviewer states
- ...
Peer-Review
Authors have the right to “decline revision” if they believe
reviewer comments are not realistic/ will make un...
Is acceptable for publication
Is acceptable for publication following minor revisions
Is acceptable for publication follow...
Session no.8
How to address
reviewer
comments
It is NORMAL that your work be criticized by other peers in the field
Be Calm and Objective
Deconstruct each message into ...
Try to make the majority of changes requested
Try carefully to negotiate the radical points ??
Editors take it seriously!
Do NOT ignore any of the reviewer comments
- Make your responses VERY CLEAR and VERY SIMPLE. Why?
- It is time to get the editorial panel on your side ! And persuade...
Number Comment Location Amendment/ Response
1 xxx Page no . xx We added ….
2
You do not have to accept all changes
But you need to give reasons to
convince the editor that your situation
is reasonable
Always be POLITE
Even if the reviewer is not correct
Additional Notes
Summary of Important Terms
• Draft
• Manuscript
• Paper
• Article
• Author
• Co-author
• First Author
• Senior Author
• Co...
Importance of IRB approval
Protect Research Subjects
Protect Investigators
Protect your research idea (registry ID)
Essent...
How much does a study protocol
differs from the final manuscript
Protocol Research Paper
Scientific Rational +++ +
Aims an...
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
How to write and Publish Research
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How to write and Publish Research

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How to write and publish research - a one day workshop held by Ahmed Negida on 20/07/2016 for undergraduate and postgraduate researchers.

Publié dans : Sciences

How to write and Publish Research

  1. 1. Ahmed Said Negida Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt School of Medicine, Liverpool University, UK Founder and Chairman of Medical Research Group of Egypt How to write and publish research An interactive, extensive, one-day workshop
  2. 2. 1. Structure of the research paper 2. Golden Rules of scientific writing 3. Common Errors in scientific writing with examples 4. Tips to make a world-class research paper 5. How to write a conference abstract 6. How to select a suitable journal 7. Flow of the publication process 8. How to address reviewers' comments Learning Objectives
  3. 3. Session no.1 Structure of Scientific Research Paper
  4. 4. IMRaD 1. Introduction 2. Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 1. Structure of research paper Abstract Text Appendices References
  5. 5. Manuscript text (IMRaD) Exceptions • Case report • Case Series • Literature Review • View Point • Editorial • Letter to Editor INTRODUCTION METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION
  6. 6. • What we know • What we do not know (Gap of Knowledge) • Aim of this work INTRODUCTION
  7. 7. METHODS 1. Study design (How?) 2. Where? 3. When? 4. Population 5. Inclusion/Exclusion 6. Sampling 7. Sample size 8. Intervention/Condition being observed 9. Outcome measurement 10. Data collection 11. Data entry 12. Statistical analysis
  8. 8. • Descriptive statistics • Univariate analysis • Bivariate analysis • Multivariate analysis • Figures, charts and captured images RESULTS
  9. 9. DISCUSSION • Interpretation of results • Are results statistically significant? • Are results clinically significant? • Give possible justifications (why drug X was better than drug Y?) • What did previous studies concluded about this topic? • Is your study in accordance with previous studies? • If not, justify this contradiction • Study strength points • Study limitations • Generalizability • Implications for clinical practice • Implications for future researchers • Final conclusion
  10. 10. Session no.2 Rules of Scientific Writing
  11. 11. • Put actions in verbs • Put characters in subjects • Keep subjects near verbs • Put new information last • Use active voice • Make sure the first and last sentences of a paragraph match • Omit needless words • Prefer simple words • Use simple subjects
  12. 12. • Use short sentences • When starting the sentence, don't overdo using “But” or “And”. “But” has become quite acceptable; 'And' less so. • Always try to put the words that relate to one another as close together as possible. • Use common, everyday words rather than obscure or complex words.
  13. 13. Rules for reporting numbers • Numbers less than 10 are words. • Number 10 or more are numbers. • Words not numbers begin a sentence. • Be consistent in lists of numbers. • Numbers less than 1 begins with a zero. • Do not use a space between numbers and its percent sign.
  14. 14. • Use one space between a number and its unit. • Report percentages to only one decimal place if the sample size is larger than 100. • Do not use decimal places if the sample size is less than 100. • Do not use percentage if the sample size is less than 20. • Do not imply greater precision than your measurement instrument. • For ranges use "to" or a comma but not "-" to avoid confusion with the minus sign and use the same number of decimal places as the summary statistic. • Rules for data numbers do not apply to citations to the literature.
  15. 15. The decision to begin the treatment regimen requires certain prerequisites, one of the most important is the determination of liver fibrosis stage by pathological examination of a liver tissue sample which remain the gold standard to evaluate the stage of liver fibrosis (3,4). Determining the stage of live fibrosis is a prerequisite to start the treatment regimen. Till the moment, pathological examination of a liver tissue is the gold standard method to determine the stage of fibrosis.
  16. 16. Session no.3 Common Errors in scientific writing
  17. 17. Avoid Long Phrases
  18. 18. Parallel Sentences
  19. 19. Omit Needless Words
  20. 20. Creating a flow between sentences
  21. 21. Avoid Repetition
  22. 22. Sneaky Plurals
  23. 23. Avoid Gender Specific Pronouns
  24. 24. Use because to mean "because"
  25. 25. Correct use of Verbs
  26. 26. TENSES Introduction  Present: to refer to present evidence  Past: to refer to previous studies, aim and hypothesis  It is known that ….  Therefore, we investigated … Methods  Past  Patients were recruited, … Results  Past for results  Present for referring to tables or figures  We found that…  Figure x shows.. Discussion  Present to answer the research question  Present to discuss the literature  Past to discuss the results  Our findings suggest..  Evidence from previous studies shows…  We found that …
  27. 27. Session no.4 Tips to make a world- class research paper
  28. 28. .. Before it is too late .. • Clear / Novel / Interesting .. Why?Research Question • Study Design: Prospective or retrospective? • Sample Size? Sampling method? Randomization? • Outcome measure – standard? Design • Errors in implementation? Non-response? Loss of follow up?Implementation • Correct English Language use • Well-structured, clear, manuscript Writing
  29. 29. Follow the Standard Reporting Guidelines Standard guidelines for reporting research studies have been developed and undergo acronyms such as CONSORT, MOOSE, QUOROM, STRAD, STROBE and PRISMA. Highly ranking journals in addition to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJEs) recommends standard reporting of research studies according to these guidelines. When you start writing
  30. 30. http://www.equator-network.org/
  31. 31. Session no.5 How to write a good abstract
  32. 32. ABSTRACT = ‫الملـخص‬ Conference Submission Indexing in databases Subscription Journals (non-OA) For readers: Get quick overview Why is abstract important?
  33. 33. • Identify the main issue of your paper • Begin with the subject of your paper • Accurate, unambiguous, specific, and complete • Do not contain abbreviations • Attract readers Criteria of a good title
  34. 34. Types of titles
  35. 35. ABSTRACT Structure • Introduction • Methods • Results • Conclusion • Aim (Purpose) • Methods • Results • Conclusion • Context • Evidence Aquatisation • Results • Conclusion NOT structured (one single paragraph)
  36. 36. ABSTRACT: Introduction Sentence no 3 Aim of this study Sentence no 2 A more specific sentence about the Factor/Agent Sentence no 1 About the General Topic/Disease/Condition
  37. 37. ABSTRACT: Methods The methods section of the abstract should describe the study design, who was studied, what you measured, and how you analyzed the data. If it matters, you should mention where the subjects came from and how they were selected. Specify the number of subjects, by group if appropriate. All important measurement techniques should be described. You can leave out obvious methods (‘‘Subjects were asked their age and sex’’), as well as intricate details, unless they absolutely matter.
  38. 38. ABSTRACT: Results • Make sure you emphasize the main finding of the study. • Concentrate on various aspects of that single result, such as the effects of adjusting for potential confounders, of using alternative definitions, or of looking for dose-response effects. • It is better to be profound/deep than broad-based. • Do not just present P values, F statistics, or regression coefficients. Make sure your effect size is clear. • State your key results in words, followed by the numbers.
  39. 39. ABSTRACT: Results For example, suppose you find that hypertensive patients who take calcium channel blockers are more likely to have strokes. It is more important to present your results by type of calcium channel blocker (long-acting vs. short-acting) and by type of stroke (ischemic vs. hemorrhagic), and to show that patients taking other antihypertensive medications did not have an increased risk, than to present extraneous data with small P values such as the finding that ‘‘patients who took diuretic medications had more gallstones (P<0.01).’’ For example: ‘‘Patients treated with Gentamycin were nearly twice as likely to require dialysis as those treated with other aminoglycosides (20% vs. 11%; RR=1.9; 95% CI=1.3 – 2.8).’’
  40. 40. ABSTRACT: Results
  41. 41. ABSTRACT: Results
  42. 42. ABSTRACT: Conclusion • Do not repeat the results in slightly different words, or make superfluous declarations such as ‘‘These results may have clinical importance,’’ ‘‘Our results should be confirmed by other investigators,’’ ‘‘Our findings support our hypothesis,’’ or ‘‘Further research is needed.’’ • Make a reasonable statement about the implications of your results. • If the results have, or may have, clinical meaning, then say how. • If another study is needed, then state what sort of study it should be.
  43. 43. Fitting abstracts into space
  44. 44. Fitting abstracts into space
  45. 45. Fitting abstracts into space
  46. 46. Fitting abstracts into space Last choice: Delete sentences (irrelevant to conclusions or appear several times)
  47. 47. Writing Abstract It is your turn now!
  48. 48. Why Abstracts are rejected 1.Dull topic (not interesting or a lot of previous research) 2.Small Sample Size 3.All numbers, No talk 4.All talk, No numbers 5.Too short 6.Too many abbreviations and too much data 7.Sentences that invite rejection 8.Many P values; Less focus on effect sizes 9.Overuse of Respectively
  49. 49. Sentences that invite rejection There are two phrases that will almost always result in your abstract being rejected: ‘‘Data will be presented’’ and ‘‘Results will be discussed.’’ Never include either of these phrases in an abstract unless you have been invited to make a presentation at the meeting and were asked to submit an abstract for the audience’s benefit.
  50. 50. What is different colleagues want to present the same abstract? Dishonest behavior …
  51. 51. Session no.6 Scientific Publication
  52. 52. Draft Manuscript Paper Revision/Polishing Peer-review Authors Journal
  53. 53. Publication Conference National International Journal Peer-reviewed Predatory ABSTRACT FULL TEXT
  54. 54. Vancouver guidelines for authorship The (ICMJEs) stated that each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take full responsibility of the content. Substantial contributions Drafting the article and revising it critically Final approval of the version to be published.
  55. 55. Editors may ask authors to justify authorship and state contributions of each author.
  56. 56. Acknowledgment = ‫عرفان‬ ‫و‬ ‫شكر‬  General support by a department head or an institution  Technical help, laboratory work, and data collection  Input of students, trainees, and research assistants  Provision of clinical details of patients  Statistical, graphics, or library support  Critical review of the drafts  Financial support from granting bodies, drug companies etc.  Financial interests that may pose a conflict of interest
  57. 57. UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS Use double spacing throughout the manuscript
  58. 58. UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS Pages should have margins at least 25 mm and be numbered
  59. 59. UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS Follow the sequence of title page, abstract, keywords, text, acknowledgements, references, tables, legends to figures. Title page Abstract And Keywords Text Acknowledgement Conflict of interest Funding References Tables Figures’ Legends
  60. 60. UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS Title page should include (title, short running title, funding, authors, affiliation, correspondence) Title Short running title Authors Affiliation Correspondence
  61. 61. UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS Text (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) Introduction Methods Results Discussion
  62. 62. UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS Begin each section on a new page Each table should be on a new page
  63. 63. UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS • Get permission to reproduce previously published materials. • Enclose a transfer of copyright. • Keep an exact copy of everything submitted.
  64. 64. Session no.7 Flow of the publication process
  65. 65. Submitted Check for Journal requirements Check for Quality + meeting the Journal scope Revise the manuscript Author Editor Assistant Editor in Chief Reviewer(s) COMMENTS Take Decision Send Decision email FLOW OF THE PUBLICATION PROCESS (Brief summary)
  66. 66. Notify the publishing editor Put manuscript into Journal template – For publication Send to author to check for errors during processing Editor Assistant Publication Editor Author Author comments/Revisions After Acceptance of your manuscript Uncorrected proof
  67. 67. Session no.6 Selecting Suitable Journal
  68. 68. Four methods to select a Journal for publication 1- Asking an Expert co-worker/colleagues 2- Look at references of your manuscript 3- Search PubMed using your keywords 4- Using Journal Finder tool at Elsevier and BMC
  69. 69. Ask a colleague to have a look on the quality of the manuscript, then list relevant journals in three groups Likely to accept (>60%) Realistic Possibility (10%-60%) Less Likely (<10%) If you are in a hurry, submit to a journal from (Likely to accept >60%) category. Otherwise, submit to journals of Realistic Possibility.
  70. 70. 1. Search PubMed using your keywords 2. Limit results to your publication type 3. Arrange results alphabetically By visual inspection, you can identify the most frequent journals (the most relevant) If there are so much results, export them to excel file and present the frequency of journals graphically. Select the most relevant ones.
  71. 71. What should you do after selecting a Suitable Journal?
  72. 72. Instructions for Authors Go to Guidelines for Author
  73. 73. Instructions for Authors
  74. 74. Title Title length Title page Requirements? Remove authors’ names? Conflict of interest statement? Length of manuscript? Number of tables? Number of figures? Source of Funding Abstract page Structured? One paragraph? Maximum words? Keywords?
  75. 75. Manuscript TXT Structure? Length? Font? Spaces? Numbering of pages? Tables Separated? Within text? In End of manuscript? Figures File type? Legends? In text? Or Separate? Or both?
  76. 76. References Style? Maximum number of references? Additional Conflict of interest form? Conflict of interest statement? Agreement on publication form? Copyright transfer form Acknowledgement? Authors contributions?
  77. 77. • Go to the Submission system • Start submitting your manuscript • Upload the files and manuscript details ! COVER LETTER? Recommend Reviewer?
  78. 78. How to get recommended reviewers - Go to PUBMED - Search with Keywords - Fine most relevant articles - Select authors of these articles - Get their information email/affiliation Usually the Journal editor select one of the recommended reviewers and one additional reviewer from the Journal database
  79. 79. COVER LETTER Correspondence details Dear Editor, We are sending you the manuscript entitled: …. What have you done in this paper? Strength points Key conclusions • All authors meet ICMJE criteria and agree on this publication. • This work has not been published before (in whole or in part). • This paper is not being considered elsewhere. Check our examples
  80. 80. Peer-Review Blinded Unblinded One, Two, Three reviewers might evaluate your paper ACCORDING TO JOURNAL POLICY
  81. 81. Peer-Review Reviewers do NOT accept/reject manuscript They Revise + Recommend a decision for the Editor Reviewer states - Strength points - Week points - Methodological limitations? - Statistical errors? - Scientific writing errors?
  82. 82. Peer-Review Authors have the right to “decline revision” if they believe reviewer comments are not realistic/ will make undesirable substantial changes in the results? Conclusions? - Weak points in the methodology >> Usually your paper will be rejected - Weak points in writing? Can be corrected? Can be revised? A figure to improve/add? Additional analysis to consider? Checking manuscript language? >> Acceptance after Revision
  83. 83. Is acceptable for publication Is acceptable for publication following minor revisions Is acceptable for publication following major revision May be reconsidered for publication following major revisions May be considered for publication as a letter or a short report Is unacceptable for publication EDITORIAL DECISIONS
  84. 84. Session no.8 How to address reviewer comments
  85. 85. It is NORMAL that your work be criticized by other peers in the field Be Calm and Objective Deconstruct each message into individual items that you can handle and respond to
  86. 86. Try to make the majority of changes requested Try carefully to negotiate the radical points ??
  87. 87. Editors take it seriously! Do NOT ignore any of the reviewer comments
  88. 88. - Make your responses VERY CLEAR and VERY SIMPLE. Why? - It is time to get the editorial panel on your side ! And persuade them with your work ! So, simplify it .. - Take a positive attitude ! -> Why? - Try to make a table for responses .. - This will help you organize your thoughts and responses!
  89. 89. Number Comment Location Amendment/ Response 1 xxx Page no . xx We added …. 2
  90. 90. You do not have to accept all changes But you need to give reasons to convince the editor that your situation is reasonable
  91. 91. Always be POLITE Even if the reviewer is not correct
  92. 92. Additional Notes
  93. 93. Summary of Important Terms • Draft • Manuscript • Paper • Article • Author • Co-author • First Author • Senior Author • Corresponding Author • Referee/Reviewer • Editor • Editorial Office • Reference • Citation • Impact Factor • H-Index • Reference • In Press (Online First) • Issue • Volume • Copyright transfer • Conflict of interest • Funder • Sponsor • Reprint • Peer-review • Predatory • Retraction of publication • Article Processing Charges • Publication fee • Open Access Journal • Non-OA Journal • Indexing • Digital Object Identifier
  94. 94. Importance of IRB approval Protect Research Subjects Protect Investigators Protect your research idea (registry ID) Essential for International Publication
  95. 95. How much does a study protocol differs from the final manuscript Protocol Research Paper Scientific Rational +++ + Aims and objectives +++ + Ethics “How you protected research subjects” +++ + Timeline/Budget +++ - Results - +

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