4. According to George Verdman,
“Communication is purposive exchange
resulting in workable understanding and
agreement between the sender and receiver of
According to Robert Anderson,
“Communication is interchange of
thoughts, opinions or information, by speech
writing or signs.”
5. Information and understanding necessary
for group work.
The attitudes necessary for motivation, co-
operation, and job satisfaction.
Assistance in decision making because
taking decision needs information.
Co- operation through understanding.
Basis for co- ordination.
6. 1.Communication is important for nurse
to understand and exchange ideas to the
• 2.It reduces interpersonal conflicts.
3. Good communication helps the nurse
to modify her behaviour and at the same
time, influence the behaviour of those
with whom she deals.
• 4. Communication helps the nurse for
7. Communication should have conviction
It should be appropriate to the situation.
Communication should have objective and
Credibility is very important in
Communication should represent the
personality and individuality of the
9. SENDER – The sender is an individual or
group who wishes to convey the
message to another.
ENCODING- The message is given a
shape or structure which can convey
meaning to others.
CHANNEL – channel is the medium to
convey the message.
10. RECEIVER/ DECODING – Receiver is the
person or group who receives the message.
Decoding is receiving, interpreting and
understanding the message.
FEEDBACK- It is the message conveyed by the
receiver back to the sender, related to the
12. Intra personal communication
13. Intrapersonal communication occurs within
It is the way, people consider their thoughts
internally so that they can express
themselves appropriately to others.
18. Verbal communication means communicating
with the medium of spoken words.
It involves speaking, listening, reading and
19. To make a message clear nurses use effective
verbal communication technique such as:
Clarity and brevity
Clarity can be achieved by speaking slowly
and clearly. Using examples can make
explanation easier to understand. Brevity is
best achieved by using words that express an
idea simply, i.e. “Tell me what is your
Instead of using purely technical words use,
local words synonyms to technical words for
20. Denotative and connotative meaning
A denotative meaning is one shared by
individuals who use a common language that
is used to define a word so that it means the
same to everyone. The connotative meaning
of a word is the thoughts, feelings or ideals
that people have about the word
Verbal communication is successful when
expressed at an appropriate speed or pace.
21. Timing and relevance
Timing is critical to reception. For example if
the supervisor /manager is in bad mood, the
timing is wrong to ask for a raise. And
relevance is also important, i.e. that
communication is most likely to have an
impact when message pertain to an
individual interest and needs.
23. In oral communication, spoken words are
It includes face to face, telephonic
conversation, radio, television,internet.
it brings quick feedback
in face to face conversation, one can guess
whether he/she should trust what’s being
25. Non verbal communication
is exchange of information
without using the language
Some techniques are as
Posture and gait
27. GESTURE- gestures are the body movement
made by hands, arms, shoulders and legs.
E.g:- noding head, biting nails, maintaining eye
FACIAL EXPRESSION – facial expression reflects
thoughts, feelings and emotions of a person.
E.g:- smiling, wrinkled forehead.
28. TOUCH – touch is a tactile sensation. Touching
as a means of non verbal communication has
limited communication symbols to definitely
convey its meaning.
POSTURE AND GAIL- it is a symbol of
communication involuntarily express negative
and positive feelings.
SILENCE- silence is sharing information without
talking. Through the act of silence, a person
can listen attentively.
29. One way Two way
It is linear and
occurs in a
30. FORMAL INFORMAL
A formal channel of
by people in
authority in an
communication is an
32. COMMUNICATOR- the person’s ability to
speak, hear, see and comprehend stimuli
influences the communication process.
PERCEPTION- it is the view of events, i.e.
Each person’s sense, interpret and
understands the events differently.
ATTITUDE- it is the tendency to act in a
particular direction to a thing.
33. PERSONAL SPACE- personal space is the
distance between the people in interaction
with others. communication utters in
accordance with distances.
ENVIRONMENT- people usually communicate
most effectively in a comfortable
TERRITORY- territory is the drive to gain. It
provides the people with the sense of
identity, security and control.
34. ROLES AND RELATIONSHIP- The roles and the
relationship between sender and receiver
affect the communication process. Choice of
words, sentence and tone vary from role to
VALUES- these are standards which influence
EMOTIONS- emotions affects a person’s
ability to interpret the message.
37. Physical barriers in the process of
communication include NOISE and SPACE.
NOISE- noise performs an external disturbance
or unpleasant sounds in the physical
environment surrounding the act of
communication. E.g.:- noise from printing
SPACE- closed office doors, separate offices and
barrier screens in a working environment
prevent free interaction between persons.
38. Speaking unfamiliar language and use of
different expression, buzz words can cause
hindrance in understanding the message.
Use of difficult words and terms in writing
and speaking causes difficulty in getting to
the meaning of the message.
Use of incorrect words creates confusion in
understanding the meaning of the message.
39. SPACE –distance of space required between two
persons is culturally determined. E.g.:- a nurse
sitting close to a patient may give him a sense
of warmth and caring but a patient from
another culture may feel uncomfortable.
EYE CONTACT- direct eye contact is considered
impolite and sign of aggression in some cultures.
TOUCH – touch is also associated with age, sex
and personal relationship.
40. Perceptual barrier appear when the sender
and the receiver interpret the message
differently according to their own perceived
ideas and cause communication gap in the
message sent and message received.
41. WITHDRAWL- the person shows disinterest in
maintaining interpersonal contact with
NEGATIVE ATTITUDE- lack of faith and
mistrust between the sender and receiver of
Lack of confidence, inferiority complex and
fear factor prevent a person to take part in
42. Selection of wrong channel of communication
prevents reception and assimilation of the
43. Reduce the environmental factors which act
as communication barrier such as noise.
Language barrier can be reduced by using the
common language while interacting.
The message constructed should be clear,
simple and according to the needs.
If communication barrier is due to
physiological cause, then correct it. In case
of difficulty in hearing – use of hearing aids.
44. The channel of communication should be
appropriate and should be selected keeping
in view the content of the message.
Avoid muddled message.
45. Broad opening- these include open-ended
statements or questions. E.g.:- “what is
Giving recognition- it is a superficial level of
communication nut indicated attention and
care. E.g.:- “I notice you are wearing a new
dress. You look very nice.”
46. Giving leads – these are the verbal and non
verbal reinforces that indicates active
listening and convey interest to what clients
say. E.g.:- “go on.”
Offering self- it is a way of showing care and
concern. e.g.:- “i will sit with you until your
47. Accepting- accepting allows the client to
know that you are comprehending their
thoughts and feeling. E.g.:- “i can imagine
Clarifying- clarifying is useful when you are
not clear about client’s thoughts. E.g.:- “do
you mean you are in conflict with your
48. Focusing- it allows clients to stay with
specific issues and analyzing them without
jumping from topic to topic.
Reflection- it is understanding the feelings or
views of clients and reflecting them back.
49. Communication is interchange of thoughts,
opinions or information, by speech writing or
Main elements of communication are- sender,
encoding, channel, receiver, feedback.
Types of communication are-
Barriers of communication are as follows- Physical,
perceptual, interpersonal and language.
51. A man is seldom better than his conversation.