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  1. Anil Koirala M.Sc. Forestry Enroll No. 2/075 FoF, AFU Hetauda IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WETLAND BIRDS AND THEIR HABITAT
  2.  Introduction  Objective  Methodology  Finding and Discussion  Conclusion  Recommendation  References Outline of Presentation
  3. :•Wetlands are among the world’s most productive and diverse ecosystems & are susceptible to even minor changes in precipitation and temperature and may be degraded if no action is taken to counteract climate change impacts. (State of the bird, 2010). •Birds use wetlands for breeding depend on the physical and biological attributes of the wetland. Birds have daily and seasonal dependencies on wetlands for food and other life-support systems. (Stewart. R, 2007). •The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines climate change as “A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods” (UNFCCC,1992). Introduction
  4. • The climate is changing in Nepal, like elsewhere in the world. According to a recent study, Nepal’s temperature is rising by about 0.41ºC per decade (SAGUN, 2009). • For many water birds, fluctuations in water levels change bird- perched micro-habitats (Fragos, 2012) and directly affect the length of exposure and availability of food in these habitats (Kushlan,1978) • Climate change will often act in combination with major threats such as habitat loss , alien and invasive species, making their impacts considerably worst.
  5.  To understand the impact of climate change on wetland birds and its effect on their habitat. Objectives
  6. Secondary data  Different journals, literature, research articles, thesis reports  Websites, Newspapers and other related materials from different sources Methodology
  7.  Wetlands are among the most productive but threatened ecosystems on earth. Wetlands provide many benefits – environmental, economic and social –yet there is a limited assessment of these multiple values and therefore, have little attention in national accounts (Gautam, 2008).  Wetlands offer sanctuary to a wide variety of plants and animals including millions of both migratory and sedentary water flows.  It has been estimated that freshwater wetlands, through covering 1% of the earth surface hold 40% of the entire world’s species and 12% of all animal species (Schuyt, 2004). Finding and Discussion
  8.  The Ramsar Convention has recognized six major wetland types. They are Marine, Estuarine, Lacustrine, Riverine, Palustrine and Human-made wetlands (RCS, 2006).  Nepal’s wetlands covers 5% (7,435.63 area of the country and among them 10 wetlands are listed in Ramsar site (IUCN-N, 20016).  Although Nepal posses rather few wetlands, the ecological diversity of the wetlands is very great (Scott, 1998).  The highest number of water birds is often found in wetlands which have the greatest diversity of plant species and vegetation types, or where there is permanent water (Balla, 1994).  Birds that use wetlands for breeding depend on the physical and biological attributes of the wetland. Birds have daily and seasonal dependencies on wetlands for food and other life- support systems. (Stewart. R, 2007).
  9.  Climate change is one of the most serious challenges of this century. It is impacting people, animals, plants and natural environments–from the deepest ocean to the highest mountain (Shrestha et al., 1999).  The projected change in temperature above the base line average is 1.2 degree Celsius for 2030, 1.7 for 2050 and 3.0 degree Celsius for 2100 (OECD, 2003). Source: DoH&M  According to a recent study, Nepal’s temperature is rising by about 0.41ºC per decade (SAGUN, 2009)
  10.  “Climate change will often act in combination with major threats such as habitat loss and alien and invasive species, making their impacts considerably worse…” (Bird life, 2004).  Birds’ habitats will be altered through changes in sea level, fire regimes, vegetation and land use (IPCC, 2001).  Wetlands of Nepal are getting dry day by day due to the increment in the global temperature. The phenomenon seems more evident these days. It was studied on the basis of present water availability these days in the area compared to 15 years back (LFP, 2009).  Because some species are adversely affected by temperature increases as small as 1°C (Hilbert et al., 2004; Shoo et al., 2005), they face an uncertain future if they cannot shift their distribution to track their optimum climate envelope.
  11.  The report finds that: ( WWF, Nature Australia,2006) 1) climate change now affects bird species’ behavior, ranges and population dynamics; 2) some bird species are already experiencing strong negative impacts from climate change; and 3) in future, subject to greenhouse gas emissions levels and climatic response, climate change will put large numbers bird species at risk of extinction, with estimates of extinction rates varying from 2 to 72 per cent, depending on the region, climate scenario and potential for birds to shift to new habitat.
  12.  This research entitled “Impact of Climate Change on Wetland Birds and their Habitat” deeds : 1. To explore the perception of wetland dependent people around the Jagadishpur Lake about the impacts on wetland dependent birds (migratory as well the residential) and 2.To find out change in the characteristics of wetland bird’s habitat due to climate change over last 30 years.  Meteorological data of last 30 years were used to calculate the trend of Temperature, Precipitation and Drought.  PRA tools and techniques were used to explore experience of local people about the impact of Climate Changes and. A case study from Jagadishpur Reservoir, Kapilvastu District, Nepal (Subedi, M., 2018)
  13. Finding of the case study  The finding of this research revealed that the temperature has been increased at the rate of and 0.41 degree celsius per decade.  The precipitation pattern is also fluctuating which directly affects the aquatic & terrestrial life as well has strong negative impacts on the wetland dependent birds.  Local indicators of climate change were such as high temperature, scarcity of water, loss of local species and spread of invasive species (Water hyacinth), reduction in bird species and numbers as well other negative impacts on birds, increment in diseases and pests are the major impacts observed by local people.  The migration trend of birds has found changed, some birds are extinct and some are in danger of extinction, overall habitat for birds has found adversely affected by the change in seasonal calendar.
  14.  According to meteorological data there is increase in temperature by 0.41°C/decade and rainfall trend is severely fluctuating.  The habitat is greatly affected by the climate change with decrease in food availability, water resources, cover area, and the space for different activities for birds are also minimized by various invasive species in the lake area.  Climatic impacts were observed contributing to loss of bird species of waterfowl, permanent, as well the migratory and declining productivity, change in range ,distribution, extinction of some bird species, rapid encroachment by alien and invasive species such as Eichhornia crassipes, Mikania micrantha , water hyacinth etc have strong impact on the bird species at the lake . Conclusion
  15.  The invasive plant species in the wetland areas should be periodically removed. Lake should be demarcated and buffer zone area should be assigned and eco-zoning of lake should be done to maintain the habitat of various animals. Eco-tourism should be promoted in the area to increase income generating activities of the local dwellers. The people should be well educate regarding the importance of lake area for bird species and their role in nature as well the biodiversity conservation Recommendation
  16.  Birdlife International, 20012. Threatened Birds of Asia. Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK.  DOAD, 1992. National fisheries development plan 1992/1993. Fisheries development division, Department of Agriculture development, HMGN, Kathmandu Nepal.  Gautam, D., 2008. Status and biodiversity of Phewa Lake, ponds and associated wetlands of Pokhara Sub-metropolitan. A B.Sc. Forestry Research Thesis, Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal.  IPCC, 2007. Fourth Assessment Report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Secretariat. Geneva Switzerland.  LFP, 2009. Impact of Climate Change on Forest and Livelihoods: Issues and Options for Nepal.  Organization of economic co-operation development (OECD), 2003. Development and climate change in Nepal: focus on Water Resources and hydropowers. Head of Publications Service, OECD, 2 rue André Pascal, 75775 Paris, Cedex 16, France.  Sherestha, A.B., Wake, C.P., Mayewski, P.A. and Dibb, J.E., 1999. Maximum temperature trends in Himalayan and its vicinity: An analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971-1974.Journel of climate 12,2775-2787.  Stewart, R.E., 2007. Jr. National Biological Service, 2007 United States Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2425  Subedi, M., 2018. Impact of climate change on wetland birds and their habitat (A Case study of Jagadishpur Reservoir in Kapilvastu District). A Project paper submitted for the partial fulfilment of BSc. in Forestry degree, TU,IOF, Hetauda Nepal.  WWF,2006. Bird Species and Climate Change, Nature Australia. References
  17. Any Suggestions, Queries and Constructive Comments are Heartily Welcome…. Thank You for your patience !!