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Japan 1

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FA 210 Art of the World
Several lectures' worth of information - early Japanese culture, Japanese ceramics, Zen Buddhism, Samurai, the Edo period Ukiyo-e woodcuts

Publié dans : Art & Photos
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Japan 1

  1. 1. Japan Jomon  culture   (ca.  8000  –  300   BCE)   Neolithic   Earthenware   bowl  w/ sculptural  rim    
  2. 2. Jomon Dogu – female figurines
  3. 3. “Prominence romanticism to" the Jomon people...”
  4. 4. Haniwa – burial figures
  5. 5. Sueki or Sue Ware
  6. 6. Heian period (794 – 1185 AD) •  Top,  Sansai  ware  (3  color   glazes)   •  BoDom,  Sanage  ceremonial   jar,  800  -­‐900  AD  
  7. 7. Temple Garden, Heian, Tenriu-ji Kyoto
  8. 8. Heian Period Gardens, 794 – 1185 AD •  Reflect  Buddhist  beliefs  (but  not  Zen)   •  Replicate  Japanese  natural  landscapes   •  Ponds  and  islands  are  central  features   •  Deciduous  trees  preferred  due  to  their  ever-­‐ changing  nature,  reflecQng  impermanence.   •  Flowers  and  plants  widely  uQlized;  their   fleeQng  existence  references  the  uncertainty   of  life  in  a  period  of  war.  
  9. 9. Kamakura Period (1185 – 1333) •  Start  of  Shogun  era   •  Zen  Buddhism  a  major  force   •  Austere  tastes  emerge   •  Tsubo  jar  –  typical  shape  
  10. 10. Myoan Eisai •  Buddhist  monk  –  brought   Zen  Buddhism  to  Japan  from   China,  1191   •  Grew  and  served  tea  for   religious  and  health   purposes   •  Taught  grinding  and  whisking   of  tea   •  Adopted  by  Kamakura   shogunate  
  11. 11. Wabi-Sabi Japanese  philosophy  and  aestheQc,  derived  from  Zen   Buddhism  and  Shinto  ideals       •  Wabi:  inner  spiritual  experience   •  Wabi  means  loneliness  of  living  in  nature;  rusQc   simplicity,  or  understated  elegance   •  Sabi:  outer,  material  life   •  Sabi  means  “worn”,  “decayed”;  beauty  that  comes   with  age,  impermanence;  embracing  imperfecQon   ulQmately  means  accepQng  oneself  her  and  now,  just   as  one  is.   •  Visually,  elements  such  as  asymmetry,  texture,   simplicity,  modesty  and  imperfecQon  represent  the   ideals  of  wabi-­‐sabi:  flawed  beauty.  
  12. 12. Muromachi Period (1392 – 1573) •  Height  of  shogunate   •  Zen  Buddhism  comes  to   prominence:  its  emphasis  on  self-­‐ discipline  and  ritual  aDracQve  to   daimyo  (regional  warlords)  and   their  samurai  (warriors)   •  Simple,  spartan  aestheQc   predominates  in  art  forms   Tea  bowl   Tea  bowl  
  13. 13. Zen Garden Ryoan-ji, Kyoto, 1400s
  14. 14. Ginkaku-ji - Temple of the Silver Pavilion •  Muromachi  Period   •  1490s  
  15. 15. Principles of Zen Gardens •  Muromachi  Zen  gardens  template  for  all  future   Zen  gardens.     •  Japanese  word  for  garden  originally  meant  “ritual   space.”  Gardens  meant  to  enable  meditaQon  and   physical  work,  pathways  to  enlightenment     •  RejecQon  of  changeability  and  embrace  of  the   permanent.   •  Rocks  and  sand  symbolize  real  world  elements,   such  as  mountains,  sea,  islands,  bridges  and  even   animals.  Zen  garden  is  minimalist  image  of   universe,  while  simultaneously  reminding  us  of   the  illusion  of  the  world.  
  16. 16. Homemade  mini   Zen  gardens!  
  17. 17. Momoyama Period (1573 – 1615) •  Period  of  unificaQon;  described  as  “brief  but  brilliant”   Qme.   •  Duality  of  opulence  in  daimyo  fortresses  and   decoraQons  –  gold  applied  to  architecture,  clothing,   painQngs  and  furnishing  –  and  rusQc  simplicity  as   exemplified  in  unpretenQous  tea  ceremony.  
  18. 18. Sen no Rikyu (1522 – 1591) •  Tea  Master  for  daimyo  Hideyoshi  Toyotomi   •  In  accordance  w/Zen  philosophy  (concept  of  wabi),   simplified  and  democraQzed  The  Way  of  Tea.     •  Created  the  tradiQon  of  minimal  and  simple  utensils  and     seengs  for  the  tea  ceremony  as  a  symbolic  withdrawal   from  the  ordinary  world.   •  Among  his  innovaQons:  a  Qny  tea  house,  separate  tea  room   where  utensils  are  washed,  two  entrances  (one  for  host,   one  for  guests)  and  a  doorway  low  enough  to  make  the   guests  bend  down  in  humility   •  QualiQes  to  be  exemplified  in  a  tea  ceremony:  harmony,   respect,  purity  and  tranquility.   •  When  ordered  by  daimyo  to  commit  ritual  suicide,  he  held   a  lavish  tea  ceremony.  At  the  end,  he  gihed  a  utensil  and  a   wall  scroll  to  each,  but  destroyed  the  tea  bowl.  Then  he   killed  himself.  Hideyoshi  later  regreDed  his  rash  acQon.  
  19. 19. Taian Teahouse, Japanese National Treasure
  20. 20. Taian Teahouse, originally built " •  The  house  measures   just  3.3  square   meters,  half  the   normal  size  for  the   Qme.   Host  entrance  at  back  
  21. 21. Taian teahouse •  Alcove  (tokonoma)   •  Contains  aestheQc   objects  for   contemplaQon:  flower   arrangement,   calligraphy  scroll,   incense,  wriQng  box,   etc.    
  22. 22. Raku Chojiro (1516 - 1592) •  At  the  direcQon  of  Sen  no  Rikyu,  developed   raku,  a  type  of  low-­‐fire  ceramic.    
  23. 23. Kintsugi •  This  art  form   presumably   began  in  1400s   •  Example  of  wabi-­‐ sabi  aestheQc  
  24. 24. Kintsugi •  hDps://dicklehman.wordpress.com/ 2013/04/18/kintsugi-­‐gold-­‐repair-­‐of-­‐ceramic-­‐ faults-­‐2/  
  25. 25. Yobitsugi •  Repair  process  in  which  shards  of  different   poDery  are  combined  in  new  configuraQons   (with  or  without  kintsugi)  to  create  a  new  piece.   •  Wabi-­‐sabi  aestheQc  
  26. 26. “Momo” cup •  Fabricated  in  1936  from  11  shards  of  various  16th   century  teabowls  
  27. 27. Kimamori tea bowl •  Made  in  1934  from  single  surviving  shard  of   Sen  no  Rikyu’s  tea  bowl  made  by  Chojiro  
  28. 28. Edo (Tokugawa) Period 1615 - 1868 •  Country  unified  under  Tokugawa  family,   creaQng  Qme  of  peace  and  prosperity   •  Figurehead  emperor  bestowed  Qtle  of  Shogun   •  Strict  4  class  social  order:  Shogun  and  daimyo   (military  lords);  samurai  (soldiers  and   officials);  farmers  (rice  crop  taxed  to  support   the  ruling  class);  arQsans;  merchants.   Although  merchants  
  29. 29. Katana and wakizashi (long and short swords) Japanese  Sword   Museum   Muromachi  Period,   Ca.  1333    -­‐  1573   BriQsh  Museum  
  30. 30. Complicated   construcQon  of   samurai  swords  –   considered  an  art   form   Hardest  steel  on   cueng  edge;  soher   steel  on  outside  to   keep  blade  flexible.   Difficult   manufacturing   process!  
  31. 31. Samurai •  Class  of  highly  skilled  warriors,  emerged   during  feudal  Qmes  between  646  -­‐  1867;   similar  to  European  knights.  Family  members   or  mercenaries  of  daimyo,  provincial  warlords.   •  Samurai  code  of  Bushido  (“The  Way  of  the   Warrior”)  included  4  principles:  frugality,   loyalty,  mastery  of  marQal  arts,  honor  unQl   death  (or  “freedom  from  fear  of  death”).     •  Disregard  for  death  led  to  tradiQon  of   seppuku,  ritual  suicide  with  honor.  
  32. 32. Samurai armor •  Warrior  class   of  the   Shogunate  era   (Kamakura,   Muromachi,   Momoyama   and  Edo   periods)   •  Typically  made   of  steel,   leather,  wood  
  33. 33. •  hDp://www.lacma.org/samurai#video   •  Trailer  for  Kurosawa  film,  Kagemusha:   •  hDps://www.youtube.com/watch? v=NIw1obsIPyw  
  34. 34. Edo (Tokugawa) Period (1615 – 1868) •  Country  unified  under  Tokugawa  family,  final   shogunate   •  Strict  social  hierarchy,  Confucian  social  order   •  StarQng  in  1633,  shogunate  evicted  nearly  all   Europeans,  and  restricted  Chinese  and  Koreans;   Japanese  people  forbidden  from  construcQng  ocean-­‐ building  ships.  IsolaQonist  approach  unQl  fall  of   shogunate  in  1868.   •  Catholics  seen  as  destabilizing  influence  and  so,  were   persecuted.     •  Samurai  lost  their  lands  to  regional  daimyo,  forced  to   work  for  them.  In  turn,  daimyo  forced  to  relocate   families  to  Edo  (modern  Tokyo)  while  they  moved  back   and  forth  annually  between  their  province  and  Edo.    
  35. 35. Confucian-influenced Social Order •  Officially:     •  Daimyos  and   samurai   •  Farmers   •  ArQsans   •  Merchants   BUT…   Tokugawa  Ieyasu    
  36. 36. Ukiyo “Floating World” Yoshiwara  Pleasure  District,  detail,  ca.  1660  -­‐80  
  37. 37. Woodcut, 1740, N. Shigenaga •  Merchants  were  limited  in  ways  to  spend  their   money,  so  they  acquired  lavish  goods  and   enjoyed  expensive  pleasures.  
  38. 38. Inro
  39. 39. Netsuke •  Snail  and  bucket,  wood,  19th   century   •  Baku  -­‐    monster  that  eats   dreams  –  ivory,  18th  century  
  40. 40. •  Wood,  metal,  ivory   •  19th  century  
  41. 41. 18th  and  19th  century  
  42. 42. Ukiyo-e “Pictures of the Floating World •  Since  merchants,  despite  being  the  wealthiest  segment   of  the  populaQon,  were  in  the  lowest  posiQon  in  the   social  hierarchy,  they  turned  to  art  and  culture.     •  Ukiyo-­‐e,  a  type  of  genre  art,  was  a  way  to  aDain  cultural   status.   •  Originally,  ukiyo-­‐e  was  considered  “low”art  (early  pop   culture),  but  in  fact  ohen  was  of  extremely  high  quality   and  depth  –  referencing  classicial,  literary  and  historical   sources  along  with  daily  life  and  even  pornography.   •  The  most  common  art  form  was  the  woodblock  relief   print;  since  it  could  be  produced  in  mulQples  it  was   relaQvely  low-­‐cost.   •  In  1765,  new  technology  made  it  possible  to  print  in  a   whole  range  of  colors.  Courtesans  and  kabuki  actors   were  favored  subjects.  
  43. 43. Japanese Woodblock Prints Process  required  4  people:     •  Idea  conceived  by  publisher   •  Designer  drew  image  on  paper   •  Carver  chiseled  image  as  negaQve     •  Master  printer  applies  ink  and  prints   •  Polychrome  prints  made  by  using  a  separate   carved  block  for  each  color  –  someQmes  up  to  20   per  print!  SomeQmes  more  than  1000  prints   could  be  made  from  same  set  of  blocks,  unQl   they  became  too  worn.   •  Kozo  paper  (made  from  inner  bark  of  mulberry   trees)  favored.  
  44. 44. Otani  Oniji  II,  1794   Toshusai  Sharaku   •  Famed  kabuki  actor   in  role  as  evil   manservant   •  ArQst  sought   psychological   realism  
  45. 45. Kitagawa Utamaro 1753 - 1806
  46. 46. Best  known  for  images  of  beauQful  courtesans,  he  also   produced  images  of  eroQca  popular  with  me  of  the  Qme.  
  47. 47. Evening Snow at Kanbara, 1834  Ando Hiroshige One  of  a  series  of  scenic  views  on  road  from  Kyoto  to  Edo  
  48. 48. Hokusai Katsushika: 36 views of Mt. Fuji •  hDps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2dqtcu2NN8  
  49. 49. •  hDps://www.youtube.com/watch? v=t8uF3PZ3KGQ     •  ReprinQng  of  a  Utamaro  woodblock  by  a   master  printer  

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