• For more information on material covered in this chapter,
visit our Web site:
Notes de l'éditeur
Incorporate biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
Stigma: Label that causes certain people to be regarded as:
Different, defective, and set apart from mainstream members of society.
Prominent themes in explaining psychological disorders - Spiritual, scientific, and humanitarian.
Trephining - Skulls of the living had holes cut out of them.
Exorcism - Drive away evil spirits through a physically and mentally painful form of torture carried out by a shaman, priest, or medicine man.
Treatments recommended by church such as deportation, torture, and burning at the stake.
Moral treatment - Notion that people could develop self-control over their behaviors if they had a quiet and restful environment.
Mental hygiene movement - Humanitarian goals that Dix advocated had a lasting influence on the mental health system.
Her work was carried forward into the twentieth century by advocates.
Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Center Construction Act initiated a series of changes that would affect mental health services for decades to come.
Deinstitutionalization movement - Promoted the release of psychiatric patients into community treatment sites.
Advocacy groups worked tirelessly to change the way public views mentally ill people and how society deals with them.
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
Mental Health Association
Center to Address Discrimination and Stigma
Eliminate the Barriers Initiative
Antistigma programs - Part of efforts to improve the delivery of mental health services.
Hippocrates - Founder of modern medicine.
Believed that there were four important bodily fluids that influenced physical and mental health, leading to four personality dispositions.
Claudius Galen developed a system of medical knowledge based on anatomical studies.
Benjamin Rush - Founder of American psychiatry.
Rekindled interest in the scientific approach to psychological disorders.
Treatment - Bloodletting and purging, tranquilizer, fright inducement.
Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis.
Theory and system of practice that relied on the concepts of the unconscious mind, inhibited sexual impulses, and early development.
Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning that became the basis for the behaviorist movement.
B. F. Skinner formulated a systematic approach to operant conditioning.
Specifying the types and nature of reinforcement as a way to modify behavior.
Positive psychology: Emphasizes the potential for growth and change throughout life.
Scientific method - Objectivity
Testing ideas about the nature of psychological phenomena without bias before accepting these ideas as adequate explanations.
Ideal approach involves a set of steps in which the psychologist:
Proposes a hypothesis.
Conducts a study.
Collects and analyzes the data.
Independent variable: Level is adjusted or controlled by the experimenter.
Dependent variable: Value is the outcome of the experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable.
Quasi-experimental - Studies that investigate differences among groups not determined by random assignment.
Placebo condition: Participants receive a treatment similar to the experimental treatment.
Lacking the key feature of the treatment of interest.
Double-blind: Neither the person giving the treatment nor the person receiving the treatment knows:
Whether the participant is in the experimental or control group.
Involve tests of relationships between variables that researchers cannot experimentally manipulate.
Correlation statistic in terms of a number between -1 and +1.
Positive numbers represent positive correlations.
Scores on one variable increase, scores on the second variable increase.
Negative correlations - Scores on one variable increase, scores on the second variable decrease.
Incidence: Frequency of new cases within a given time period.
Prevalence: Number of people who have ever had a disorder at a given time or over a specified period.
Qualitative research: Provides research with methods of analyzing complex relationships that do not easily lend themselves to conventional statistical methods.
Concordance rate: Agreement ratios between people diagnosed as having a particular disorder and their relatives.
Gene mapping: Attempt by biological researchers to identify the structure of a gene and the characteristics it controls.
Molecular genetics: Study of how genes translate hereditary information.