Words that frequently occur together are called collocations. For example, in greetings, we say ‘ Happy Birthday’
, ‘Merry Christmas’ but we do not interchange them. So the nouns ‘ Christmas’ and ‘Birthday’ go with the
adjectives ‘merry’ and ‘happy’ respectively. These are called collocations.
Examples like stale bread, pungent smell, law and order, pots and pans, deep sleep, strong smell, heavy rain , etc.
Collocations are not formed on the basis of any rules, but by the frequent occurrence of certain words together.
A compound Word is one that is made up of two or more words. For example, the word ‘teapot’ is made up of the
words ‘tea’ and ‘pot’.
There are many ways of making compounds.
1. Noun + Noun
e.g. Sportsman, amusement park, snake-bite
2. Gerund + Noun
e.g. Launching pad, rolling pin, steering wheel
3. Noun + Gerund
e.g. Book binding, fault finding
4. Adjective + Noun
e.g. Small talk, cold cream, Chartered accountant
5. Participle ( ing ) + Noun
e.g. Drinking water, punching bag
Wh- questions. Functions Examples
1. Who To identify person/ persons Who takes sugar in his coffee?
2. What To identify a thing/things or time What caused the damage?
3. Which To identify people/things Which girl came first?
4. Whose To identify possessor Whose books are those?
5. When To inquire about time When will he arrive?
6. Why Asking for a reason or reasons Why didn't you come yesterday?
7. Where To enquire about a place. Where did you get that bag from?
8. Whom To identify a person/persons Whom are we meeting today?
9. How To elicit some information. How many students understood these?
How do we make papers lanterns?
Formation of a Wh- question.
Intransitive verbs cannot have a direct object after them.
The subject is doing the action of the verb and nothing receives the action. An intransitive verb does not pass the action to an
Here we cannot have an object after the intransitive verb arrive.
You cannot “arrive something” (incorrect).
An intransitive verb expresses an action that is complete in itself and it doesn’t need an object to receive the action.
The baby smiled.
Here we cannot have an object after the intransitive verb smiled.
You cannot “smile something” (incorrect).
Transitive verbs require an object to complete their meaning.
Imagine that I say:
This sentence is incomplete. There is information that is missing.
You are probably wondering what I bought. (What did you buy Rob?)
Why is this sentence incomplete?
Because BOUGHT (the past of buy) is a transitive verb and a transitive verb needs an object after it to complete the sentence.
The object after a transitive verb can be a noun or a pronoun.
•I bought a car.
Now the sentence is complete and we can understand it. We added the object “a car” after the verb.
Let’s look at some other examples.
If someone says:
A phrasal verb is a verb that is made up of a main verb together with an adverb or a preposition, or both.
Typically, their meaning is not obvious from the meanings of the individual words themselves.
She has always looked down on me.
Fighting broke out among a group of 40 men.
I’ll see to the animals.
Don’t put me off, I’m trying to concentrate.
The report spelled out the need for more staff.
For instance, in the first example, the phrasal verb ‘to look down on someone’ doesn’t mean that you are
looking down from a higher place at someone who is below you; it means that you think that you are better
Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and a
preposition or an adverb:
look forward to
put up with
sit in for
Sometimes phrasal verbs consist of three
Phrasal verb Meaning Example
look for search/seek He is looking for his keys
look up to have a great deal of respect for a
His father is his model. He is the
person he looks up to.
look forward to await eagerly/anticipate with
She is looking forward to visiting
look up to try to find a piece of
information by looking in a book
or on a computer:
She didn't understand the word.
So she looked it up in her
When added to the verb the preposition or adverb may change completely the meaning of
the verb. Here are some examples:
3. Adding different prepositions to the same action verb changes the meaning of
the phrases, thus formed.
For example, call out - announce
call at - visit
call for - summon
call up - make a telephonic call
call off - cancel
Guess the difference in meanings of the underlined phrases.
(1) (a) He promised to look into the matter. investigate
(b) He asked me to look for his lost book. search
(c) I shall look forward to your arrival. Await eagerly
(2) (a) An epidemic of cholera broke out in the village. Started suddenly
(b) The thieves broke into the locked house. Entered illegally and forcibly
(c) They broke up their friendship. ended
(3) (a) You must carry out your duty faithfully. Complete; execute
(b) Please carry on with your work. continue
(c) They carried off the trophy in the football matches. won
(d) Carry forward the remaining balance to the next page. To transfer
Phrases Meaning Own Sentences
1. (a) cut in
(b) cut out
b. Stop or reduce
a. Never cut in when parents are talking.
b. His phone cut out for a moment.
2. (a) be held by
(b) be held up
a. She was be held by her mother for going out without completing her
b. Robbers held up a bank at gunpoint.
3. (a) run away
(b) run for
b. To compete in an
a. We are not going to run away.
b. He chose to run for election.
4.(a) be known as
(b) be known for
a. To be called as
b. To be famous for
a. Wolves hunt in a groups known as packs.
b. She is known for her great efforts in science.
5. (a) go with
(b) go after
a. Suit each other
a. This colour does not go with that.
b. Arnav has decided to go after his dreams with all that he has.
6. (a) put fire into
(b) put fire out
a. inspire, motivate
a. Teacher asked us to put fire into creative aspect to come out with
b. Firefighters soon put the fire out.
5. Using a dictionary, find the difference between the following pairs of phrases. Make sentences of
your own with each of them.
There are four types of English sentence, classified by their purpose:
•declarative sentence (statement)
•interrogative sentence (question)
•imperative sentence (command)
•exclamative sentence (exclamation)
Form Function example sentence (clause) final
1 Declarative statement: It tells us
John likes Mary. .
2 Interrogative question: It asks us
Does Mary like John? ?
3 Imperative command: It tells us to do
Close the door.
! or .
4 Exclamative exclamation: It expresses What a funny story he told !
Most of the sentences of English language are assertive sentences. The sentence which
declares or asserts a statement, feeling, opinion, incident, event, history, or anything is called
an assertive sentence. An assertive sentence ends with a period (.).
Assertive sentences can be either affirmative or negative.
•He plays for the Rockers club.
•Alex is a good baseball player.
•He always gives his best effort in the team.
•He is a good leader.
•I like him for his intensity.
An Asserative sentence makes statement or declared something.
Assertive sentence Definition :-
A sentence that declares or emphasizes a sentence, emotion, opinion, event, event, history
or anything is called a Asserative sentence. this is also declarative sentence definition.
Types of Declarative sentence :-
1) Affirmative Sentence
2) Negative Sentence
1) Affirmative Sentence :-
A sentence which have not use negative words like : no , not , never etc
called as Affirmative Sentence
Example :- I eat a mango
2) Negative Sentence :-
A sentence which have use no, not, never, neither-nor, nothing, etc called
as Negative Sentence
1) He has no money
2) This is not declarative sentence Types
I like coffee. I do not like coffee.
We watched TV last night. We did not watch TV last night.
1. Declarative Sentence (statement)
Declarative sentences make a statement. They tell us something. They give us
information, and they normally end with a full-stop/period.
The usual word order for the declarative sentence is:
•subject + verb...
Declarative sentences can be positive or negative. Look at these examples:
Declarative sentences are the most common type of sentence.
Do you like coffee? Don't you like coffee?
Why did you go? Why didn't you go?
2. Interrogative Sentence (question)
Interrogative sentences ask a question. They ask us something. They want
information, and they always end with a question mark.
The usual word order for the interrogative sentence is:
•(wh-word +) auxiliary + subject + verb...
Interrogative sentences can be positive or negative. Look at these examples:
Stop! Do not stop!
Give her coffee. Don't give her coffee.
3. Imperative Sentence (command)
Imperative sentences give a command. They tell us to do something, and they
end with a full-stop/period (.) or exclamation mark/point (!).
The usual word order for the imperative sentence is:
Note that there is usually no subject—because the subject is understood, it
Imperative sentences can be positive or negative. Look at these examples:
4. Exclamative Sentence (exclamation)
Exclamative sentences express strong emotion/surprise—
an exclamation—and they always end with an exclamation
The usual word order for the exclamative sentence is:
•What (+ adjective) + noun + subject + verb
•How (+ adjective/adverb) + subject + verb
Look at these examples:
•What a liar he is!
•What an exciting movie it was!
•How he lied!
•How exciting the movie was!
HOMONYMS – HOMOPHONES AND HOMOGRAPHS
The word homonym is often used to describe all words that look or sound the same, but have different
meanings. In fact, there are two subsets of homonyms – homophones and homographs.
Homophones are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings.
Homographs are words that are spelled the same and have the same or different sound, but different
lie (lie down)
Heteronyms are a type of homograph that are spelled the same, but sound different and have different
lead – show the way
lead – metal
Common homophone mistakes include:
it’s and its
their, there and they’re
to, two and too
your and you’re
Homographs, Homophones and Homonyms
It's easy to confuse homographs with homophones and homonyms, but if you think about
each word, they make more sense.
Homo-, as you know, means "same," so the end of each word tells us what is the same.
•Homograph - "Graph" has to do with writing or drawing. When you think about a graph,
you envision a picture. If you read graphic novels, you know they have pictures. Someone
drew them. So "homograph" means "same picture" or "same writing." Homographs are
written (spelled) the same. (To make matters more confusing, homographs that are spelled
the same but sound different are also called heteronyms.)
•Homophone - "Phone" has to do with sound. When you talk on the telephone, you hear
the other person's voice. When people in the 1800s used a gramophone, they were
listening to music. And phonology is the study of a language's sounds. So "homophone"
means "same sound." Homophones are pronounced the same.
•Homonym - "Nym" means "name." Stevie Nicks and Stevie Wonder have the same first
name, but they clearly are different people. It's the same with homonyms. They're spelled
the same (like homographs) and pronounced the same (like homophones), but have
different meanings. "Bow," for example, means both "to bend at the waist" and "the front
of a boat."
bear (N): a kind of animal
bear (V): to carry
date (N): a kind of fruit; a calendar time
date (V): to determine the age; to "go out"
fast (Adj): quick
fast (V): to abstain from (choose not to eat) food
hide (N): animal skin
hide (V): to conceal
In addition to homophones (words with the same sound, but different spellings, meanings, or origins),
there are also homographs (wordswith the same spellings, but different meanings, origins,
orpronunciations. There are two large subgroups:
These common words have the same spelling and pronunciation, but
very different meanings and/or origins. Common examples:
address (N): where one lives
address (V): to give a speech; to write
compress (N): medicine put on a cloth
and worn next to the skin
compress (V): press together
export (N): something that is exported
export (V): to send a product outside a country (to be
These words have the same spelling, but different stress. The stress
changes for the noun and verb forms of these words. Examples: