2. Learning Theory
3. Language Theory
5. Teacher’s Role
6. Student’s Role
8. Vocabulary Teaching
9. Grammar Teaching
12. Role of L1
15. Error Correction
16. Students’ Feelings
18. Techniques of the Method
4. 1. Introduction
• The method was developed in the U.S. after World War II
due to the Pearl Harbor event.
• Charles Fries from the University of Michigan (1945)
developed the principles; it is also called ‘Michigan
• Later on, Skinner’s behavioral psychology principles were
• It is an oral-based approach like Direct Method and Oral
• Language learning is a process of habit formation.
5. 2. Learning Theory
• Learning is based on the principles of Behaviourism.
• ( mimicry + memorization approach )
• Habit Formation is essential.
• Rules are induced from examples.
• Explicit grammar rules are not given.
• Learning is inductive.
• Habit formation is actualised by means of repetitions
and other mechanical drills.
Stimulus --- organism Negative reinforcement
6. 3. Language Theory
• Language is based on descriptive linguistics.
• Every language is seen as its own unique system.
• The system is comprised of several different levels.
( i.e. Phonological, morphological, and syntactic).
• There is a natural order of skills.
• Everyday speech and oral skills are important.
• Perfect pronunciation is required.
• Language is primarily for Oral Communication.
7. 4. Culture
• Culture consists of everday behaviour, and
lifestyle of the target language community.
• Culture is presented in dialogues.
8. 5. Teacher’s Role
• Teacher is like an orchestra leader.
• S/he directs and controls the language
behaviour of the students.
• Teacher is a good model of the target
language, especially for pronunciation and
other oral skills.
• The differences between students’ L1 and
L2 should be known by the teacher.
9. 6. Student’s Role
• Students are imitators of the teacher as
perfect model of the target language.
• or the native speakers in the audio
15. 12. Role of L1
• L1 is not allowed in the classroom.
• It may cause interference and bad habit
formation in L2.
16. 13. Evaluation
• Discrete-point tests are used.
• Each item (question) should focus on only
one point of the language at a time.
• E.g distinguishing between words in a
• Appropriate verb form in a sentence.
17. 14. Objectives
• To enable students to speak and write in L2.
• To make students able to use the target
language automatically without stopping to
• To form new habits in L2.
Main objective of the method is:
• “Using target language communicatively;
acquiring listening comprehension, accurate
pronunciation and reading comprehension.”
• The method aims mastery in all four language
skills primarily listening and speaking.
20. 17. Skills
• Listening and speaking are emphasised.
• There is a natural order of skills.
21. 18. Techniques of the Method
• Dialogue Memorization
• Backward Build-up (Expansion) Drill
• Repetition Drill
• Chain Drill
• Single-slot Substitution Drill
• Multiple-slot Substitution Drill
• Transformation Drill
• Question-Answer Drill
• Use of Minimal Pairs
• Complete the Dialogue
22. SAMPLE LESSON
• Sample group consists of 34 Beginning-level
students of 13-15 years of age, having English
classes in Mali.
23. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity1 = Dialogue Memorization
• Teacher introduces a short dialogue through
gestures and body language (role-play). Repeats the
dialogue twice and students listen attentively.
Students memorize the dialogue by choral
24. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity2= Backward Build-up Drill (Expansion Drill)
• Teacher helps students for the memorization and
repetition of long sentences by dividing the
sentence into segments.
• post office
• To the post office
• Going to the post office
• I’m going to the post office.
25. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity3 = Repetition Drill
• Students repeat the dialogue several times. Teacher
gives roles to students. Teacher says Sally’s lines
and students say Bill’s. Then, they switch roles.
• Later on, girls take Sally’s part, and boys take Bill’s.
26. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity4 = Chain Drill
• Teacher chooses some lines and start a chain drill
by asking a question from the dialogue to the
• Then, the student follows the teacher’s example
and asks the same way to the student sitting next to
him. All students practice dialogue in the same way.
All students have a chance to practice.
27. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity5 = Single-slot Substitution Drill
• Teacher starts an other drill: S/He gives them a word or
phrase to replace a word or phrase from the sentence
• T: I’m going to the post office.
• T: ( shows the picture of a bank and says:) ‘ the bank ’
• S: I ’m going to the bank.
• T: She
• S: She’s going to the bank.
28. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity6 = Multiple-slot Substitution Drill
• Teacher increases complexity by giving students
more than one cue word to substitute.
• T: I ’m going to the post office.
• T: They - park
• S: They are going to the park.
29. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity7 = Transformation Drill
• Teacher asks students to change the type of
sentence from affirmative to negative or question
forms, or from active to passive.
• T: She is going to the post office.
• T: Make a question
• S: Is she going to the post office.
30. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity8 = Question-Answer Drill
• Then, teacher shows pictures and asks a question and
answers him/herself to show that they should answer
the questions with ‘Yes’ and ‘No’.
• T: Are you going to the football field?
• T: Yes, I’ m going to the football field.
• T: Are you going to the park? (shows the picture)
• S: Yes, I ’m going to the park.
31. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity9 = Use of Minimal Pairs
• The teacher works with pairs of words which differ
in one sound. Teacher makes a comparison
between the sounds and let the students to
perceive the difference.
32. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity10 = Complete the Dialogue
• Teacher selects some words from the dialogue,
erases them, and asks students to find the missing
33. SAMPLE LESSON
Activity11 = Grammar Game
• Teacheri ntroduces a game to practice the structure. The game is
called “ supermarket alphabet game ”.
• S1: I am going to the supermarket.
• I need a few apples.
• S2: I am going to the supermarket.
• He needs a few apples. I need a little bread.
• S3: I am going to the supermarket.
• He needs a few apples. She needs a little bread.
• I need a little cheese.
34. Summary of the Method
• The purpose of the method is to use target language
communicatively/ to communicate acquire listening
comprehension and accurate pronunciation.
• ALM is similar to Direct Method in that both shares an
• Grammar rules are explained inductively with
• Errors lead to formation of bad habits. They should
immediately be corrected by the teacher.
• Positive reinforcement helps students to develop
35. Summary of the Method
• Students acquire structure first; they will learn vocabulary
• The learning of another language should be the same as the
acquisition of native language. We do not need to memorize
the rules, we can induce the rules from examples.
• The natural order of skill acquisitionis: listening, speaking ,
reading , writing.
• Classroom interaction is teacher -directed. There is student-
student interaction in chain drills.
• Students need to overlearn the target language which
means using the language automatically with repetitions.
• All students are active in the class.
• The classroom is interested in what they are
learning, and have a lively atmosphere.
• Emphasizes sentence production, controls
• The method has been scientifically discredited.
• It is not appropriate for groups of larger than 25.
• It does not develop language competency, lack of
• May cause boredom with endless drills.
• Learners have little control over what they are learning.
• Students are unable to transfer the skills they acquired
out of classroom.
• It is better to use the method integrated into others.
• Rivers, W. 1968. Teaching Foreign Language Skills. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
• Skinner, B. F. 1957. Verbal Behavior. New York: Appleton-
• Brooks, N. 1964. Language and Language Learning: Theory
and Practice (2nd edn.). New York: Harcourt Brace.
• Chastain, K. 1988. Developing Second-language Skills (3rd
edn.). Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing.
• Finocchiaro, M. 1974. English as a Second Language: From
Theory to Practice (2nd edn.). 62–72, 168–72. New York: