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THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD (ALM)
( ARMY METHOD )
OUTLINE
1. Introduction
2. Learning Theory
3. Language Theory
4. Culture
5. Teacher’s Role
6. Student’s Role
7. Interactions
8. Vocabulary Teaching
9. Grammar Teaching
10. Materials
OUTLINE
11. Syllabus
12. Role of L1
13. Evaluation
14. Objectives
15. Error Correction
16. Students’ Feelings
17. Skills
18. Techniques of the Method
19. Advantages
20. Criticism
1. Introduction
• The method was developed in the U.S. after World War II
due to the Pearl Harbor event.
• Charles Fries from the University of Michigan (1945)
developed the principles; it is also called ‘Michigan
Method’.
• Later on, Skinner’s behavioral psychology principles were
incorporated.
• It is an oral-based approach like Direct Method and Oral
Approach.
• Language learning is a process of habit formation.
2. Learning Theory
• Learning is based on the principles of Behaviourism.
• ( mimicry + memorization approach )
• Habit Formation is essential.
• Rules are induced from examples.
• Explicit grammar rules are not given.
• Learning is inductive.
• Habit formation is actualised by means of repetitions
and other mechanical drills.
Positive reinforcement
Stimulus --- organism Negative reinforcement
3. Language Theory
• Language is based on descriptive linguistics.
• Every language is seen as its own unique system.
• The system is comprised of several different levels.
( i.e. Phonological, morphological, and syntactic).
• There is a natural order of skills.
1. Listening
2. Speaking
3. Reading
4. Writing
• Everyday speech and oral skills are important.
• Perfect pronunciation is required.
• Language is primarily for Oral Communication.

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The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) = Army Method

  • 1. THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD (ALM) ( ARMY METHOD )
  • 2. OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Learning Theory 3. Language Theory 4. Culture 5. Teacher’s Role 6. Student’s Role 7. Interactions 8. Vocabulary Teaching 9. Grammar Teaching 10. Materials
  • 3. OUTLINE 11. Syllabus 12. Role of L1 13. Evaluation 14. Objectives 15. Error Correction 16. Students’ Feelings 17. Skills 18. Techniques of the Method 19. Advantages 20. Criticism
  • 4. 1. Introduction • The method was developed in the U.S. after World War II due to the Pearl Harbor event. • Charles Fries from the University of Michigan (1945) developed the principles; it is also called ‘Michigan Method’. • Later on, Skinner’s behavioral psychology principles were incorporated. • It is an oral-based approach like Direct Method and Oral Approach. • Language learning is a process of habit formation.
  • 5. 2. Learning Theory • Learning is based on the principles of Behaviourism. • ( mimicry + memorization approach ) • Habit Formation is essential. • Rules are induced from examples. • Explicit grammar rules are not given. • Learning is inductive. • Habit formation is actualised by means of repetitions and other mechanical drills. Positive reinforcement Stimulus --- organism Negative reinforcement
  • 6. 3. Language Theory • Language is based on descriptive linguistics. • Every language is seen as its own unique system. • The system is comprised of several different levels. ( i.e. Phonological, morphological, and syntactic). • There is a natural order of skills. 1. Listening 2. Speaking 3. Reading 4. Writing • Everyday speech and oral skills are important. • Perfect pronunciation is required. • Language is primarily for Oral Communication.
  • 7. 4. Culture • Culture consists of everday behaviour, and lifestyle of the target language community. • Culture is presented in dialogues.
  • 8. 5. Teacher’s Role • Teacher is like an orchestra leader. • S/he directs and controls the language behaviour of the students. • Teacher is a good model of the target language, especially for pronunciation and other oral skills. • The differences between students’ L1 and L2 should be known by the teacher.
  • 9. 6. Student’s Role • Students are imitators of the teacher as perfect model of the target language. • or the native speakers in the audio recordings.
  • 10. 7. Interactions • (T)eacher– (S)tudent or (S)tudent–(S)tudent • Interactions are mostly initiated by the teacher.
  • 11. 8. Vocabulary Teaching • Meaning is taught directly. • L1 is prohibited because it may cause bad habit formations. • Vocabulary is introduced through dialogues.
  • 12. 9. Grammar Teaching • Explicit rules are not provided. • Students induce the rules through examples and drills. • Students acquire grammar by being exposed to patterns through mechanical drills.
  • 13. 10. Materials • Dialogues • Emphasis is on the acquisition of patterns in common everyday dialogue.
  • 14. 11. Syllabus • Grammar points and sentence patterns in structural syllabus.
  • 15. 12. Role of L1 • L1 is not allowed in the classroom. • It may cause interference and bad habit formation in L2.
  • 16. 13. Evaluation • Discrete-point tests are used. • Each item (question) should focus on only one point of the language at a time. • E.g distinguishing between words in a minimal pair. • Appropriate verb form in a sentence.
  • 17. 14. Objectives • To enable students to speak and write in L2. • To make students able to use the target language automatically without stopping to think. • To form new habits in L2. Main objective of the method is: • “Using target language communicatively; acquiring listening comprehension, accurate pronunciation and reading comprehension.” • The method aims mastery in all four language skills primarily listening and speaking.
  • 18. 15. Error Correction • Errors are corrected by the teacher since errors may cause bad habit formation.
  • 19. 16. Students’ Feelings • There are no principles related to Students’ feelings.
  • 20. 17. Skills • Listening and speaking are emphasised. • There is a natural order of skills. 1. Listening 2. Speaking 3. Reading 4. Writing
  • 21. 18. Techniques of the Method • Dialogue Memorization • Backward Build-up (Expansion) Drill • Repetition Drill • Chain Drill • Single-slot Substitution Drill • Multiple-slot Substitution Drill • Transformation Drill • Question-Answer Drill • Use of Minimal Pairs • Complete the Dialogue
  • 22. SAMPLE LESSON • Sample group consists of 34 Beginning-level students of 13-15 years of age, having English classes in Mali.
  • 23. SAMPLE LESSON Activity1 = Dialogue Memorization • Teacher introduces a short dialogue through gestures and body language (role-play). Repeats the dialogue twice and students listen attentively. Students memorize the dialogue by choral repetition.
  • 24. SAMPLE LESSON Activity2= Backward Build-up Drill (Expansion Drill) • Teacher helps students for the memorization and repetition of long sentences by dividing the sentence into segments. Ex: • post office • To the post office • Going to the post office • I’m going to the post office.
  • 25. SAMPLE LESSON Activity3 = Repetition Drill • Students repeat the dialogue several times. Teacher gives roles to students. Teacher says Sally’s lines and students say Bill’s. Then, they switch roles. • Later on, girls take Sally’s part, and boys take Bill’s.
  • 26. SAMPLE LESSON Activity4 = Chain Drill • Teacher chooses some lines and start a chain drill by asking a question from the dialogue to the nearest student. • Then, the student follows the teacher’s example and asks the same way to the student sitting next to him. All students practice dialogue in the same way. All students have a chance to practice.
  • 27. SAMPLE LESSON Activity5 = Single-slot Substitution Drill • Teacher starts an other drill: S/He gives them a word or phrase to replace a word or phrase from the sentence they repeat. EX: • T: I’m going to the post office. • T: ( shows the picture of a bank and says:) ‘ the bank ’ • S: I ’m going to the bank. • T: She • S: She’s going to the bank.
  • 28. SAMPLE LESSON Activity6 = Multiple-slot Substitution Drill • Teacher increases complexity by giving students more than one cue word to substitute. Ex: • T: I ’m going to the post office. • T: They - park • S: They are going to the park.
  • 29. SAMPLE LESSON Activity7 = Transformation Drill • Teacher asks students to change the type of sentence from affirmative to negative or question forms, or from active to passive. Ex: • T: She is going to the post office. • T: Make a question • S: Is she going to the post office.
  • 30. SAMPLE LESSON Activity8 = Question-Answer Drill • Then, teacher shows pictures and asks a question and answers him/herself to show that they should answer the questions with ‘Yes’ and ‘No’. Ex: • T: Are you going to the football field? • T: Yes, I’ m going to the football field. • T: Are you going to the park? (shows the picture) • S: Yes, I ’m going to the park.
  • 31. SAMPLE LESSON Activity9 = Use of Minimal Pairs • The teacher works with pairs of words which differ in one sound. Teacher makes a comparison between the sounds and let the students to perceive the difference. Ex: • ship–sheep • live–leave
  • 32. SAMPLE LESSON Activity10 = Complete the Dialogue • Teacher selects some words from the dialogue, erases them, and asks students to find the missing words.
  • 33. SAMPLE LESSON Activity11 = Grammar Game • Teacheri ntroduces a game to practice the structure. The game is called “ supermarket alphabet game ”. • Ex: • S1: I am going to the supermarket. • I need a few apples. • S2: I am going to the supermarket. • He needs a few apples. I need a little bread. • S3: I am going to the supermarket. • He needs a few apples. She needs a little bread. • I need a little cheese. • ...
  • 34. Summary of the Method • The purpose of the method is to use target language communicatively/ to communicate acquire listening comprehension and accurate pronunciation. • ALM is similar to Direct Method in that both shares an oral-based approach. • Grammar rules are explained inductively with substitution drills. • Errors lead to formation of bad habits. They should immediately be corrected by the teacher. • Positive reinforcement helps students to develop correct habits.
  • 35. Summary of the Method • Students acquire structure first; they will learn vocabulary afterwards. • The learning of another language should be the same as the acquisition of native language. We do not need to memorize the rules, we can induce the rules from examples. • The natural order of skill acquisitionis: listening, speaking , reading , writing. • Classroom interaction is teacher -directed. There is student- student interaction in chain drills. • Students need to overlearn the target language which means using the language automatically with repetitions.
  • 36. Advantages • All students are active in the class. • The classroom is interested in what they are learning, and have a lively atmosphere. • Emphasizes sentence production, controls grammatical structures.
  • 37. Criticism • The method has been scientifically discredited. • It is not appropriate for groups of larger than 25. • It does not develop language competency, lack of effectiveness. • May cause boredom with endless drills. • Learners have little control over what they are learning. • Students are unable to transfer the skills they acquired out of classroom. • It is better to use the method integrated into others.
  • 38. REFERENCES • Rivers, W. 1968. Teaching Foreign Language Skills. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. • Skinner, B. F. 1957. Verbal Behavior. New York: Appleton- Century-Crofts. • Brooks, N. 1964. Language and Language Learning: Theory and Practice (2nd edn.). New York: Harcourt Brace. • Chastain, K. 1988. Developing Second-language Skills (3rd edn.). Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing. • Finocchiaro, M. 1974. English as a Second Language: From Theory to Practice (2nd edn.). 62–72, 168–72. New York: Regents Publishing.