Prerequisies of DBMS
Course Objectives of DBMS
What is the meaning of data and database
History of DBMS
Different Databases available in Market
Why to Learn DBMS?
Peoples who work with Databases
Applications of DBMS
• It is recommended that you have a good
understanding of basic computer concepts such
as primary memory, secondary memory, and
data structures and algorithms.
4. Course Objectives
1. To understand the different issues involved in the design and implementation of
a database system.
2. To study the physical and logical database designs, database modeling,
relational, hierarchical, and network models
3. To understand and use data manipulation language to query, update, and
manage a database
4. To develop an understanding of essential DBMS concepts such as: database
security, integrity, concurrency, distributed database, and intelligent database,
Client/Server (Database Server), Data Warehousing.
5. To design and build a simple database system and demonstrate competence with
the fundamental tasks involved with modeling, designing, and implementing a
5. Syllabus(CSE / CI 223)
Database system architecture: Data Abstraction, Data Independence, Data Definition
Language (DDL), Data Manipulation Language (DML).
Data models: Entity-relationship model, network model, relational and object oriented
data models, integrity constraints, data manipulation operations.
Relational query languages: Relational algebra, Tuple and domain relational calculus,
SQL3, DDL and DML constructs, Open source and Commercial DBMS - MYSQL,
ORACLE, DB2, SQL server.
Relational database design: Domain and data dependency, Armstrong's axioms, Normal
forms, Dependency preservation, Lossless design.
Query processing and optimization: Evaluation of relational algebra expressions, Query
equivalence, Join strategies, Query optimization algorithms.
Storage strategies: Indices, B-trees, hashing.
Transaction processing: Concurrency control, ACID property, Serializability of
scheduling, Locking and timestamp based schedulers, Multi-version and optimistic
Concurrency Control schemes, Database recovery.
6. Syllabus Cont…
Database Security: Authentication, Authorization and access control, DAC,
MAC and RBAC models, Intrusion detection, SQL injection.
Advanced topics: Object oriented and object relational databases, Logical
databases, Web databases, Distributed databases, Data warehousing and data
“Database System Concepts”, 6th Edition by Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F.
Korth, S. Sudarshan, McGraw-Hill.
7. DBMS Lab Syllabus (CSE / CI 261)
1:Learn the Data Definition Language (DDL) commands in RDBMS, Data Manipulation
Language (DML) and Data Control Language (DCL)
2: Simple queries: selection, projection, sorting on a simple table,Small-large number of
attributes ,Distinct output values ,Renaming attributes , Computed attributes Simple-
complex conditions (AND, OR, NOT)
3:Partial Matching operators (LIKE, %, _, *, ?) ,ASC-DESC ordering combinations
Checking for Nulls
4: Multi-table queries (JOIN OPERATIONS) ,Simple joins (no INNER JOIN)
Aliasing tables – Full/Partial name qualification ,Inner-joins (two and more (different)
tables) ,Inner-recursive-joins (joining to itself) , Outer-joins (restrictions as part of the
WHERE and ON clauses) ,Using where & having clauses
5: Nested queries :In, Not In Exists, Not Exists Dynamic relations (as part of SELECT,
FROM, and WHERE clauses)
6: Set Oriented Operations :Union ,Difference ,Intersection ,Division
7: PL/SQL Programming I :Programs using named and unnamed blocks,Programs using
Cursors, Cursor loops and records
8: PL/SQL Programming II :Creating stored procedures, functions
9: Triggers and auditing triggers
8. COURSE OUTCOMES
1. For a given query write relational algebra expressions for that query and
optimize the developed expressions
2. For a given specification of the requirement design the databases using E‐R
method and normalization.
3. For a given specification construct the SQL queries for Open source and
Commercial DBMS -MYSQL, ORACLE, and DB2.
4. For a given query optimize its execution using Query optimization algorithms
5. For a given transaction-processing system, determine the transaction
atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.
6. Implement the isolation property, including locking, time stamping based on
concurrency control and Serializability of scheduling.
• data is a collection of facts and figures that can be processed to produce information.
• Mostly data represents recordable facts. Data aids in producing information, which is
based on facts.
For example, if we have data about marks obtained by all students, we can then conclude
about toppers and average marks.
• Data are simply values or sets of values.
• The word "data" was first used to mean "Transmissible and storable computer
information" in 1946.
Data Documents: whenever data needs to be registered, data exists in the form of a data
documents. Different kinds of data documents include:
• data repository
• data study
• data set
• data paper
• data base
• data handbook
• data journal etc...
• Database is a collection of related data.
• The collection of data, usually referred to as the database, contains information
relevant to an enterprise.
• A database is a collection of data, typically describing the activities of one or
more related organizations.
For example, a university database might contain information about the following:
Entities such as students, faculty, courses, and classrooms.
Relationships between entities, such as students' enrollment in courses, faculty
teaching courses, and the use of rooms for courses
• Database is a collection of Inter-related data which is used to retrieve, insert,
and delete the data efficiently. It is also used to organize the data in the form of
a table schema, views and reports etc…
For Example, College database organizes the data about admin, staff, students
and faculty etc…
Using the database, you can easily retrieve, insert, and delete the information
11. Different Databases available in Market
• MySQL (open-source relational database management system (RDBMS))
• Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL Server is a Microsoft-developed RDBMS)
• IBM DB2
• SAP HANA
• LibreOffice Base
13. Database Management System
• DBMS is a software which is used to manage the database.
For Example, MySQL, Oracle etc are a very popular commercial database
which is used in different applications.
• DBMS provides an interface to perform various operations like database
creation, storing data in it, updating data, creating a table in the database
and a lot more.
• It provides protection and security to the database. In the case of multiple
users, it also maintain data consistency.
14. Database Management System
• A database management system stores data in such a way that it becomes
easier to retrieve, manipulate, and produce information.
• Database Management System or DBMS refers to the technology of storing
and retrieving users data with utmost efficiency along with appropriate
• A database-management system (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data
and a set of programs to access those data. The collection of data, usually
referred to as the database, contains information relevant to an enterprise. The
primary goal of a DBMS is to provide a way to store and retrieve database
information that is both convenient and efficient.
• A database management system, or DBMS, is software designed to assist
in maintaining and utilizing large collections of data. The need for such
systems, as well as their use, is growing rapidly. The alternative to using a
DBMS is to store the data in files and write application-specific code to
15. Why to Learn DBMS?
Traditionally, data was organized in file formats. DBMS was a new concept
then, and all the research was done to make it overcome the deficiencies in
traditional style of data management. A modern DBMS has the following
• Real-world entity − A modern DBMS is more realistic and uses real-world
entities to design its architecture. It uses the behavior and attributes too.
For example, a school database may use students as an entity and their
age as an attribute.
• Relation-based tables − DBMS allows entities and relations among them
to form tables. A user can understand the architecture of a database just
by looking at the table names.
• Isolation of data and application − A database system is entirely different
than its data. A database is an active entity, whereas data is said to be
passive, on which the database works and organizes. DBMS also stores
metadata, which is data about data, to ease its own process.
16. Why to Learn DBMS? Cont…
• Less redundancy − DBMS follows the rules of normalization, which splits
a relation when any of its attributes is having redundancy in values.
Normalization is a mathematically rich and scientific process that reduces
• Consistency − Consistency is a state where every relation in a database
remains consistent. There exist methods and techniques, which can detect
attempt of leaving database in inconsistent state. A DBMS can provide
greater consistency as compared to earlier forms of data storing
applications like file-processing systems.
• Query Language − DBMS is equipped with query language, which makes
it more efficient to retrieve and manipulate data. A user can apply as many
and as different filtering options as required to retrieve a set of data.
Traditionally it was not possible where file-processing system was used.
17. Peoples who work with Databases
• Application programmer: user who implements
specific application programs to access the stored data
• Application user: Accesses an existing application
program to perform daily tasks.
• Database Administrator (DBA): responsible for
authorizing access to the database, monitoring its use
and managing all the resources to support the use of the
entire database system
• End user: people whose jobs require access to a
database for querying, updating and generating reports
• sophisticated user: Those who use other methods,
other than the application program, to access the
20. College Database
• Student table
• Staff table
Regd.No Name Sex Age
Y19CS1323 RAM M 19
Y19CS1324 SITHA F 20
Y19CS1325 LAKSHMI F 21
Y19CS1326 LAKSHMAN M 22
Staff Number Name Designation Qualification
1 X Professor Ph.D
2 Y Associate Professor M.Tech
3 z Assistant Professor M.Tech
Question: Display all the details of female students
Answer: Select * from student where sex=F;
Regd.No Name Sex Age
Y19CS1324 SITHA F 20
Y19CS1325 LAKSHMI F 21
1) Display all the Faculty names
2) Display the Faculty names of whose designation is professor
3) Display all the details of Ph.D staff
1) Select name from staff;
2) Select name from staff where designation= professor;
3) Select * from staff where qualification= ph.d;
25. A Brief History of Database Management
• A Database Management System allows a person to organize, store, and
retrieve data from a computer. It is a way of communicating with a
computer’s “stored memory.” In the very early years of computers, “punch
cards” were used for input, output, and data storage. Punch cards offered a
fast way to enter data, and to retrieve it. Herman Hollerith is given credit for
adapting the punch cards used for weaving looms to act as the memory for a
mechanical tabulating machine, in 1890. Much later, databases came along.
• Databases (or DBs) have played a very important part in the recent evolution
of computers. The first computer programs were developed in the early
1950s, and focused almost completely on coding languages and algorithms.
At the time, computers were basically giant calculators and data (names,
phone numbers) was considered the leftovers of processing information.
Computers were just starting to become commercially available, and when
business people started using them for real-world purposes, this leftover data
suddenly became important.
26. A Brief History of Database Management
• Enter the Database Management System (DBMS). A database, as a
collection of information, can be organized so a Database Management
System can access and pull specific information. In 1960, Charles W.
Bachman designed the Integrated Database System, the “first” DBMS.
IBM, not wanting to be left out, created a database system of their own,
known as IMS(Information Management System). Both database systems
are described as the forerunners of navigational databases.
• By the mid-1960s, as computers developed speed and flexibility, and
started becoming popular, many kinds of general use database systems
became available. As a result, customers demanded a standard be
developed, in turn leading to Bachman forming the Database Task Group.
This group took responsibility for the design and standardization of a
language called Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL).