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Modeling for Sustainability

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Seminar given at Lancaster University on Dec. 5, 2016

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Modeling for Sustainability

  1. 1. Modeling for Sustainability Seminar at Lancaster University December 5, 2016 Benoit Combemale (Inria & Univ. Rennes 1) http://people.irisa.fr/Benoit.Combemale benoit.combemale@irisa.fr @bcombemale
  2. 2. DiverSE Research Group DiverSE team (env. 40 people) - 8 faculty members - 1 Research Engineer - ~20 PhD students - ~6 Software Engineers - ~6 Post doc - 2Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  3. 3. Complex Software-Intensive Systems Software intensive systems - 3 • Multi-engineering approach • Some forms of domain-specific modeling • Software as integration layer • Openness and dynamicity Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  4. 4. Aerodynamics Authorities Avionics Safety Regulations Airlines Propulsion System Mechanical Structure Environmental Impact Navigation Communications Human- Machine Interaction 4 Multiple concerns, stakeholders, tools and methods
  5. 5. 5 Aerodynamics Authorities Avionics Safety Regulations Airlines Propulsion System Mechanical Structure Environmental Impact Navigation Communications Human- Machine Interaction Heterogeneous Modeling
  6. 6. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) Distribution « Service Provider Manager » Notification Alternate Manager « Recovery Block Manager » Complaint Recovery Block Manager « Service Provider Manager » Notification Manager « Service Provider Manager » Complaint Alternate Manager « Service Provider Manager » Complaint Manager « Acceptance Test Manager » Notification Acceptance Test Manager « Acceptance Test Manager » Complaint Acceptance Test Manager « Recovery Block Manager » Notification Recovery Block Manager « Client » User Citizen Manager Fault tolerance Roles Activities Views Contexts Security Functional behavior Book state : StringUser borrow return deliver setDamaged res erv e Use case Platform Model Design Model Code Model Change one Aspect and Automatically Re-Weave: From Software Product Lines… ..to Dynamically Adaptive Systems - 6Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  7. 7. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) - 7 J. Whittle, J. Hutchinson, and M. Rouncefield, “The State of Practice in Model- Driven Engineering,” IEEE Software, vol. 31, no. 3, 2014, pp. 79–85. "Perhaps surprisingly, the majority of MDE examples in our study followed domain-specific modeling paradigms" Distribution « Service Provider Manager » Notification Alternate Manager « Recovery Block Manager » Complaint Recovery Block Manager « Service Provider Manager » Notification Manager « Service Provider Manager » Complaint Alternate Manager « Service Provider Manager » Complaint Manager « Acceptance Test Manager » Notification Acceptance Test Manager « Acceptance Test Manager » Complaint Acceptance Test Manager « Recovery Block Manager » Notification Recovery Block Manager « Client » User Citizen Manager Fault tolerance Roles Activities Views Contexts Security Functional behavior Book state : StringUser borrow return deliver setDamaged res erv e Use case Platform Model Design Model Code Model Change one Aspect and Automatically Re-Weave: From Software Product Lines… ..to Dynamically Adaptive Systems Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  8. 8. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) - 8 Engineering Modeling Languages: Turning Domain Knowledge into Tools, by Benoit Combemale, Robert B. France, Jean-Marc Jézéquel, Bernhard Rumpe, Jim R.H. Steel, and Didier Vojtisek. Chapman and Hall/CRC, pp.398, 2016. Companion website: http://mdebook.irisa.fr Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  9. 9. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) - 9 Editors (textuals, graphicals, …) Test generators Simulators Analyzers Refactoring Checkers (static & dynamics) Translators Compilers Code generators Etc. Engineering Modeling Languages: Turning Domain Knowledge into Tools, by Benoit Combemale, Robert B. France, Jean-Marc Jézéquel, Bernhard Rumpe, Jim R.H. Steel, and Didier Vojtisek. Chapman and Hall/CRC, pp.398, 2016. Companion website: http://mdebook.irisa.fr Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  10. 10. - 10 J-M. Favre, D. Gasevic, R. Lämmel, and E. Pek. "Empirical language analysis in software linguistics," In Software Language Engineering, volume 6563 of LNCS, pages 316–326. Springer, 2011. "Software languages are software too" Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  11. 11. Software Language Engineering (SLE) - 11 • Application of systematic, disciplined, and measurable approaches to the development, deployment, use, and maintenance of software languages • Supported by various kind of "language workbench" • Eclipse EMF, Xtext, Sirius, Melange, GEMOC, Papyrus • Jetbrain’s MPS • Spoofax • MS DSL Tools • Etc. • Various shapes and ways to implement software languages • External, internal or embedded DSLs, Profile, etc. • Grammar, metamodel, ontology, etc. • More and more literature, a dedicated Intl. conference (ACM SLE, cf. http://www.sleconf.org)… Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  12. 12. - 12 J. Whittle, J. Hutchinson, and M. Rouncefield, “The State of Practice in Model- Driven Engineering,” IEEE Software, vol. 31, no. 3, 2014, pp. 79–85. "A clear challenge, then, is how to integrate multiple DSLs." Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  13. 13. Globalization of Modeling Languages - 13 Supporting coordinated use of modeling languages leads to what we call the globalization of modeling languages, that is, the use of multiple modeling languages to support coordinated development of diverse aspects of a system. Benoit Combemale, Julien DeAntoni, Benoit Baudry, Robert B. France, Jean-Marc Jezequel, Jeff Gray, "Globalizing Modeling Languages," Computer, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 68-71, June, 2014 Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  14. 14. Globalization of Modeling Languages - 14 • DSMLs are developed in an independent manner to meet the specific needs of domain experts, • DSMLs should also have an associated framework that regulates interactions needed to support collaboration and work coordination across different system domains. Benoit Combemale, Julien DeAntoni, Benoit Baudry, Robert B. France, Jean-Marc Jezequel, Jeff Gray, "Globalizing Modeling Languages," Computer, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 68-71, June, 2014 Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  15. 15. Globalization of Modeling Language - 15 • Context: new emerging DSML in open world ⇒ impossible a priori unification ⇒ require a posteriori globalization • Objective: socio-technical coordination to support interactions across different system aspects ⇒ Language-based support for technical integration of multiples domains ⇒ Language-based support for social translucence • Community: the GEMOC initiative (cf. http://gemoc.org) "Globalizing Domain-Specific Languages," Combemale, B., Cheng, B.H.C., France, R.B., Jézéquel, J.-M., Rumpe, B. (Eds.). Springer, Programming and Software Engineering, Vol. 9400, 2015. Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  16. 16. The GEMOC Initiative - 16 An open and international initiative to • coordinate (between members) • disseminate (on behalf the members) worldwide R&D efforts on the globalization of modeling languages http://gemoc.org @gemocinitiative Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  17. 17. The GEMOC Studio - 17 Design and integrate your executable DSMLs http://gemoc.org/studio Language Workbench Modeling Workbench Edit, simulate and animate your heterogeneous models Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  18. 18. The GEMOC Community - 18Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  19. 19. - 19 "On the unification power of models" Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016 ⎯ Jean Bézivin
  20. 20. From Software Systems - 20 • software design models for functional and non-functional properties Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016 Engineers System Models Software
  21. 21. To Cyber-Physical Systems - 21 Engineers System Models Cyber-Physical System sensors actuators Physical System Software <<controls>><<senses>> • multi-engineering design models for global system properties • models @ runtime (i.e., included into the control loop) for dynamic adaptations Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  22. 22. To Smart Cyber-Physical Systems - 22 Engineers System Models Smart Cyber-Physical System Context sensors actuators Physical System Software <<controls>><<senses>> • analysis models (incl. large-scale simulation, constraint solver) of the surrounding context related to global phenomena (e.g. physical, economical, and social laws) • predictive models (predictive techniques from AI, machine learning, SBSE, fuzzy logic) • user models (incl., general public/community preferences) and regulations (political laws) Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  23. 23. An MDE Approach for Smart CPS Development - 23 • Convergence of engineering and scientific models • A modeling framework to support the integration of data from sensors, open data, laws, regulations, scientific models (computational and data-intensive sciences), engineering models and preferences. • Domain-specific languages for socio-technical coordination • to engage engineers, scientist, decision makers, communities and general public • to integrate analysis/predictive/user models into the control loop of smart CPS Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  24. 24. Application to Sustainability Systems - 24 • Sustainability systems are smart-CPS for managing resource production, transport and consumption, for the sake of sustainability • Ex: smart grids, smart city/home/farming, etc. • Sustainability systems must balance trade-offs between the social, technological, economic, and environmental pillars of sustainability • involve complex decision-making with heterogeneous analysis models, and large volumes of disparate data varying in temporal scale and modality Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  25. 25. Application to Sustainability Systems - 25 • Scientific models are used to understand sustainability concerns and evaluate alternatives (what-if/for scenarios) • Engineering models are used to support the development and runtime adaptation of sustainability systems. How to integrate engineering and scientific models in a synergistic fashion to support informed decisions, broader engagement, and dynamic adaptation in sustainability systems? B. Combemale, B. Cheng, A. Moreira, J.-M. Bruel, J. Gray, "Modeling for Sustainability," MiSE@ICSE 2016 Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  26. 26. Using MDE in Sustainability Systems - 26 The Sustainability Evaluation ExperienceR (SEER) ⎯ 1st Modelling For Sustainability Workshop @ Bellairs, 2016 Policy makers (e.g., mayor) Communities (e.g., farmers) General public (e.g., individuals) open data regulations physical laws explore the future and make it happen Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  27. 27. Using MDE in Sustainability Systems - 27 • Smart Cyber-Physical Systems Sustainability System (e.g., smart farm) ( Context sensors actuators Production/ Consumption System (e.g. farm) Software <<controls>><<senses>> Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  28. 28. Using MDE in Sustainability Systems - 28 • Based on informed decisions • with environmental, social and economic laws • with open data Heuristics-Laws Scientists Open Data Scientific Models / Physical Laws (economic, environmental, social) SEER Sustainability System (e.g., smart farm) ( Context sensors actuators Production/ Consumption System (e.g. farm) Software <<controls>><<senses>> <<supplement field data>> <<feed>> <<integrate>> <<explore model relations (tradeoff, impact and conflict)>> Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  29. 29. Using MDE in Sustainability Systems - 29 • Providing a broader engagement • with "what-if" scenarios for general public and policy makers Heuristics-Laws Scientists Open Data General Public (e.g., individuals) Policy Makers (e.g., mayor) MEEs ("what-if" scenarios) Scientific Models / Physical Laws (economic, environmental, social) SEER Sustainability System (e.g., smart farm) ( Context sensors actuators Production/ Consumption System (e.g. farm) Software <<controls>><<senses>>Communities (e.g., farmers) <<supplement field data>> <<provide configuration, preferences, questions>> <<present possible future and variable indicators>> <<feed>> <<integrate>> <<explore model relations (tradeoff, impact and conflict)>> Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  30. 30. Heuristics-Laws Scientists Open Data General Public (e.g., individuals) Policy Makers (e.g., mayor) MEEs ("what-if" scenarios) Scientific Models / Physical Laws (economic, environmental, social) SEER Sustainability System (e.g., smart farm) ( Context sensors actuators Production/ Consumption System (e.g. farm) Software <<controls>><<senses>>Communities (e.g., farmers) <<adapt>> <<supplement field data>> <<provide configuration, preferences, questions>> <<present possible future and variable indicators>> <<feed>> <<integrate>> <<explore model relations (tradeoff, impact and conflict)>> Using MDE in Sustainability Systems - 30 • Supporting automatic adaptation • for dynamically adaptable systems Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  31. 31. Using MDE in Sustainability Systems - 31 • Application to health, farming system, smart grid… Heuristics-Laws Scientists Open Data General Public (e.g., individuals) Policy Makers (e.g., mayor) MEEs ("what-if" scenarios) Scientific Models / Physical Laws (economic, environmental, social) SEER Sustainability System (e.g., smart farm) ( Context sensors actuators Production/ Consumption System (e.g. farm) Software <<controls>><<senses>>Communities (e.g., farmers) <<adapt>> <<supplement field data>> <<provide configuration, preferences, questions>> <<present possible future and variable indicators>> <<feed>> <<integrate>> <<explore model relations (tradeoff, impact and conflict)>> Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  32. 32. Heuristics-Laws Scientists Open Data General Public (e.g., individuals) Policy Makers (e.g., mayor) MEEs ("what-if" scenarios) Scientific Models / Physical Laws (economic, environmental, social) SEER Sustainability System (e.g., smart farm) ( Context sensors actuators Production/ Consumption System (e.g. farm) Software <<controls>><<senses>>Communities (e.g., farmers) <<adapt>> <<supplement field data>> <<provide configuration, preferences, questions>> <<present possible future and variable indicators>> <<feed>> <<integrate>> <<explore model relations (tradeoff, impact and conflict)>> Farming System Modeling - 32 Farmers Agronomist Irrigation System in collaboration with Jean-Michel Bruel, Benoit Combemale, Ileana Ober, Hélène Raynal, "MDE in Practice for Computational Science," International Conference on Computational Science (ICCS), 2015. Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  33. 33. - 33 https://github.com/gemoc/farmingmodeling Farming System Modeling Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  34. 34. Conclusion - 34 • From MDE to SLE • Language workbenches support DS(M)L development • On the globalization of modeling languages • Integrate heterogeneous models representing different engineering concerns • Language interfaces to support structural and behavioral relationships between domains (i.e., DSLs) • From software systems to smart CPS • Interactions with the physical world limited to (i.e., fixed, in closed world) control laws and data from the sensors • What about the broader context in which the system involves? • Physical / social / economic laws • Predictive models • Regulations, user preferences Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  35. 35. Conclusion - 35 • Require to integrate scientific models in the control loop of smart CPS to provide more informed decisions, a broader engagement, and eventually relevant runtime reconfigurations • SEER is a particular instantiation of such a vision for sustainability systems Software is eating the world, but… may the world drive software! Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  36. 36. Open Challenges - 36 • Diversity/complexity of DSL relationships • far beyond structural and behavioral alignment, refinement, decomposition • Separation of concerns vs. Zoom-in/Zoom-out • Live and collaborative modeling • minimize the round trip between the DSL specification, the model, and its application (interpretation/compilation) • Model experiencing environnements • What-if/for scenarios • Integration of analysis and predictive models into DSL semantics Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016
  37. 37. - 37 "If you believe that language design can significantly affect the quality of software systems, then it should follow that language design can also affect the quality of energy systems. And if the quality of such energy systems will, in turn, affect the livability of our planet, then it’s critical that the language development community give modeling languages the attention they deserve." − Bret Victor (Nov., 2015), http://worrydream.com/ClimateChange Modeling for Sustainability – B. Combemale (Univ. Rennes 1) – December 4th, 2016

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