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  2. Contents 1. Introduction to IoT 2. Components of the IoT 3. IoT Related Statistics 4. IoT Applications & Use Case Scenarios 5. Stakeholders of the IoT Applications 6. Future Directions 7. Conclusions 2
  3. 3 Introduction to Internet of Things (IoT) What is IoT? Network of Physical Objects Embedded with Electronic Devices Data Exchange IoT is a network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, etc., The IoT devices are embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity. IoT devices connects with each other and computing resources to exchange & process data.
  4. What is IoT? 4 IoT is the network of physical objects or things embedded with electronics, softwares and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data. It is direct integration between the physical world and computer based systems resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.
  5. What is IoT? 5 Term first proposed by Kevi Asthon. • Enables devices/objects to observe, identify and understand a situation. • The IoT is significant because an object that can represent itself digitally becomes something greater than the object by itself.
  6. What is IoT? 6 • Physical objects being connected in the network are able to identify themselves to other devices. • IoT is closely identified with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) as the method of communication, although it also may include other sensor technologies, wireless technologies or QR codes.
  7. IoT Services 7 The functionality of smart devices can be abstracted as a service and an IoT application can be built by combining the smart devices with these services that help to address challenges of day-to-day activities.
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  9. 9 Why IoT?
  10. Workflow of an IoT Ecosystem 10 Sense - Monitor the environment - Collect data Process Analyze the collected data Communicate Exchange the information with other devices Action - Decision Making - Action to be performed
  11. Components of the IoT 11  Sense and Act  Sensors  Actuators  Communicate • IoT Gateways • Hubs  Process • Cloud • Fog • Edge  Interface • Mobile Application • Web Application • Wearable Sensors Mobile/ Web App Components of the IoT Cloud/ Servers IoT Gateways/ Hubs Actuators
  12. 12 Sensors A sensor is a device that is able to detect changes in an environment. A Good sensor is one : • Which is sensitive to the phenomenon that it measures. • It should not be sensitive to other physical phenomena. • It should not modify the measured phenomenon during the measurement process.
  13. Sensors/ IoT Devices • Sensors or devices collect minute data from the environment in which they are deployed. • The collected data can have various degrees of complexities ranging from a simple temperature monitoring sensor or a complex full video feed. • A device can have multiple sensors that can bundle together to do more than just sense things. Ambient Light Sensor Barometer Sensor Microphone Sensor Proximity Sensor GPS Sensor
  14. Connectivity 14 ▸The collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure through a transport medium. ▸The sensors can be connected to the cloud through various mediums of communication and transports such as cellular networks, satellite networks, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, wide-area networks (WAN), low power wide area network and many more.
  15. IoT Gateways 15 It is a device involved in establishing connection between cloud and controllers, sensors and IoT devices.  Manages the bidirectional data traffic  Multiple networks and Many protocols  Interoperability of the connected devices and sensors  Implements higher order encryption.  Data pre-processing  TCP/IP compatibility
  16. IoT Hub 16 It is a cloud platform which provide a service that supports IoT protocols.
  17. Processing 17 Once the data is collected is sent to the cloud, software performs processing on the acquired data.
  18. 18 Cloud/Servers • Sensed data stored in to the servers. • Cloud acts both as data store and also compute engine. • Analytics on data can be done inside the cloud or on data centers and then displayed on to a dashboard or report in an application.
  19. Cloud/Server 19  Creates Massive Data  Offers tools for Data Processing  Remote Data Access  Faster decision making  Integrates Billions of devices  Provides predictive Analytics  Companies uses for Business improvement
  20. Analytics 20  Irrelevant data to Useful form.  Manages and Improves entire system.  Finds irregularity in Data.  Data used could be used for future.  Predictive models can be used.
  21. Mobile/Web Application 21  Web apps can be part of IoT solution to display data, dashboard, graphics, maps, etc.  Mobile and Web applications provides platform for users to control and manage the IoT devices .
  22. 22 Actuators Action Electric Data Signal Electric Data Signal Environmental Parameter Sensor Actuator • Actuators perform some kind of physical action. • Actuators are the devices involved in converting Energy in to Motion
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  27. IoT Related Statistics 27 ▸The number of internet connected “things” already exceeded our population back in 2008. ▸By 2020 this number is expected to reach 50 billion. ▸A whopping $19 trillion is anticipated as cost-savings and profits from this investment.
  28. Market Share of IoT 28 IoT smart devices have a deeper penetration in manufacturing, healthcare, and business than in our homes or phones. By 2025 the global worth of IoT tech is projected at $6.2 trillion, with the maximum value from manufacturing ($40 billion) and healthcare ($15 billion).
  29.  McKinsey predicts the IoT market will be worth $581B for ICT-based spend alone by 2020, growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) between 7 and 15%. IoT Market Size • Industrial products lead all industries in IoT adoption at 45% with an additional 22% planning to adopt IoT in the next 12 months according to a recent Forrester survey.
  30. IoT Goals 30 Drivers of IoT
  31. Use Case Scenarios 31 Prevalent fields in which IoT plays a vital role: Customer Informati on/ Operation Technology Service/ Support Operations/ Manufacturing Product Development Marketing /Sales IoT Use case Fields
  32. 32 Application Domains of the IoT Smart Cities Smart Vehicles Smart Health Domains of the IoT Smart Home Smart Industries
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  36. 36 ▸ Door lock ▸ Cardio ▸ Gardening ▸ Mirror ▸ Garbage Cans ▸ Bike ▸ Tennis Racket ▸ Slow Cooker ▸ Weather Station ▸ Sleep Systems ▸ Air Conditioning ▸ Lightening ▸ Plane ▸ Pet Games ▸ House Keeping ▸ Sprinkler Control ▸ Piggy Bank Smart Home Applications ▸ Washing Machines ▸ Propane Tank ▸ Egg Tray ▸ Tooth Brush
  37. 37 Smart Cities Smart Cities equipped with self-driving transport, smart energy management, intelligent security systems, and automated environmental monitoring , hence enabling the betterment of lifestyle. Smart Transport Smart Security Smart Energy Smart Alert Smart Payment Smart Homes Smart homes and buildings are equipped with connected devices such as control lighting, climate, entertainment systems, and appliances, home security such as access control and alarm systems. When connected with the Internet, home devices are an important constituent of IoT
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  47. 47 Smart Farming ▸ Smart farming with the entry of monitored farming devices like sensors to determine soil moisture levels for enhanced irrigation systems. Smart Transport/Intelligent Transport System (ITS) ▶ ITS is integrated with ambient intelligence and IoT, to provide leading edge services to transform commuter's experience • Application of information technology. • Surface transportation to achieve enhanced commuter’s experience and provide service. • Monitoring preferences of the commuter taking into account user behaviour under various scenarios. Information and Communication Technology
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  50. 50 Car is Connected to: ▶ Internet ▶ Traffic ▶ Internet Access ▶ Navigation System ▶ Laptop ▶ Cell Phone ▶ Connected Home
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  52. Marketing/Sales 52 Flexible Billing and Pricing Models IoT is used to deploy different business models by analyzing the market and pricing models to provide better market penetration opportunities. Connected Consumable Resupply IoT can be used to analyze product usage and consumable data to create inventory-based consumable resupply models which enhance the customer’s experience and create new revenue streams. Components Manufacturer Retailer Consumer Raw Material
  53. Product Development 53 Product quality control: ▸ IoT sensors collect aggregate product data and other third-party syndicated data from various stages of a product cycle. ▸This data relates to the composition of raw materials used, temperature and working environment, wastes, the impact of transportation etc. on the final products ▸If used in the final product, the IoT device can provide data about the customer sentiments on using the product. All of these inputs can later be analyzed to identify and correct quality issues.
  54. Packaging Optimization 54 ▸ By using IoT sensors in products and/or packaging, manufacturers can gain insights into the usage patterns and handling of product from multiple customers. ▸ Smart tracking mechanisms can also trace product deterioration during transit and impact of weather, road and other environment variables on the product. ▸ This will offer insights that can be used to re- engineer products and packaging for better performance in both customer experience and cost of packaging.
  55. Operations/Manufacturing 55 Digital/ Connected Factory ▸IoT enabled machinery can transmit operational information to the partners like original equipment manufacturers and to field engineers. ▸This will enable operation managers and factory heads to remotely manage the factory units and take advantage of process automation and optimization.
  56. 56 Inventory Management ▸IoT applications permit the monitoring of events across a supply chain. ▸Using these systems, the inventory is tracked and traced globally on a line-item level and the users are notified of any significant deviations from the plans. ▸ This provides cross-channel visibility into inventories and managers are provided with realistic estimates of the available material, work in progress and estimated the arrival time of new materials. ▸Ultimately this optimizes supply and reduces shared costs in the value chain.
  57. Services/Support 57 Insurance Industry ▸ With the help of IoT and telematics data, insurance companies can get data for vehicle insurance, health insurance. ▸ This data will be very useful for insurer or those who are insurance agents. ▸ They will be able to capture customer data and improve communication, create new strategies and also save on costs. ▸ IoT will be adding to the revenue opportunity by evaluating client’s risk. Data Privacy & Security ▸ With so many devices existing in the market, there is a sharing of data and information on a massive level. ▸ There is high chance of data manipulation which can lead to risking the customer’s data or sharing of highly personal data. ▸ The Internet of Things can help in lessening the worries of such consequences. ▸ It will protect the customer’s data from breaches and also secure the payment process and information management.
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  59. 59 Internet of Everything (IoE)
  60. Wearables 60 ▸Health- and fitness-oriented wearable devices that offer biometric measurements such as heart rate, perspiration levels, and even complex measurements like oxygen levels in the bloodstream are also becoming available. ▸Some additional capabilities of wearable devices are more mundane, but might also provide information that could be useful in adjusting environmental controls. ▸For Example: Wearable devices could tell if you have your jacket on in the car or if it's just in the back seat. This could be helpful in keeping the car temperature at a comfortable level. ▸IoT enabled wearables can be used to measure perspiration levels that could also be used as a data point for adjusting both temperature and humidity.
  61. List of Wearable Devices 61 ▸ Smart Shirt/Textiles ▸ Headset/Earphones ▸ Smart Shoes ▸ Pathfinders ▸ Haptics ▸ Augmented Reality ▸ 3D/4D Printed Ornaments ▸ Brain Computer Interactions (BCI) ▸ Budweiser Red Light Sense ▸ Smart Socks
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  72. IoT in Healthcare 72 ▸Connected healthcare platforms and smart medical apps. ▸Eldercare is one of the IoT devices, which is deployed to track and monitor elderly patients.
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  74. IoT in Healthcare 74 ▸ADAMM – Asthma Monitor ▸Apple’s Research Kit and Parkinson’s Disease ▸Coagulation Testing ▸Apple Watch App  Monitors Depression ▸Connected Contact Lens ▸Ingestible Sensors ▸Connected Inhaler ▸Closed Loop Insulin Delivery ▸Smart Continuous Glucose Monitoring ▸Cancer Treatment
  75. IoT in Healthcare 75 ▸Sensor Assisted Robotic Surgery ▸Heart Rate Monitoring ▸Body Scanning ▸Medical Waste Management ▸Hearing Aid ▸Interoperability ▸Remote Patient Monitoring
  76. NANO-THINGS • Much smaller • Less power hungry + self-powered • Able to do some processing + data storage • More sensitive (enabling more applications) • New nanosensing capabilities 76 • Nano-nodes • Routers • Nano-interfaces • Nano-cameras • Nano-phones • Nano-sensors
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  78. Approaches for the development of Nano-IoT. 78
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  94. Stakeholders in the IoT 94
  95. IoT Architecture 95 Cloud Communicate Integrate Integrate Trigger Action Trigger Action Provide Information User Interface Devices/Sensors Things
  96. Actors in the IoT Architecture 96
  97. Domains and Architectural Design Issues 97
  98. 98 Challenges faced in IoT and Solutions Huge Amount of Data Heterogeneous Data • The volume of data transacted by devices grows exponentially. • There are more and more devices that communicate with each other to accomplish tasks. The amount of data generated by these devices is huge. • Technologies and Communications platforms flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of markets is required. Data in IoT
  99. 99 Quality of Service in IoT ▸Security -Establish secure communication channel and be resistant to attacks. ▸ Privacy -Gather data from trusted data sources only and not to expose sensitive information of the device. ▸Standardization -Well defined and accepted protocols. IoT object oriented • Dynamicity -Constant change in network topology, sensing data and properties of IoT objects. • Scalability-Large magnitude of sensors and devices connected to the IoT. • Mobility- Frequent change in location of the IoT objects. • Opportunistic Presence -Dynamic connection status of the IoT object with the network.
  100. 100 Common IoT Challenges • Meeting Customer Expectations • Easing Security Concerns • Keeping IoT Hardware Updated • Overcoming Connectivity Issues • Waiting for Governmental Regulation
  101. 101 IoT Security Failures Security Accidents Examples Security Requirement October 21, 2016, DDoS attack to Dyn’s Managed DNS infrastructure. In 2014, remote code execution vulnerability, affected more than 150000 Webcam devices, because of weak password. Secure Booting Access Control Anti- DDoS Device Authentication Secure Software Updates and Patches
  102. 102 IoT Hype
  103. IoT Road Map 103
  104. Advantages of the IoT • Smart City • Advanced Navigation • Real time Traffic Information • Driver and Passenger Safety • Fuel and Cost Efficiency • Less Traffic Blocks 104
  105. Disadvantages of the IoT • Internet Infrastructure • Cost Consuming • Software Integration • Privacy and Security • Remote Areas 105
  106. 106 Suggestions for future work  Utilize internal (e.g. Privacy IG, Web Security IG) and external (e.g. IETF) security resources.  Invite external experts to share their security issues, challenges, technology trends, etc.  Use security related IGs to incubate new ideas.  Encourage early participation in vertical groups, e.g. IOT, Web Payments.  Encourage the usage of security and privacy questionnaire;  Organize workshops to explore new security standard topics. People Process Technology
  107. 107 Conclusions ▸The internet has changed life drastically, moving interactions between people at a virtual level in several contexts with the use IoT concepts. ▸In this perspective we have seen the components of IoT, its architecture, the present statistics of IoT and its future growth. ▸IoT technologies when deployed poses many challenges. ▸IoT is closely associated security and data privacy, which is the most important aspect of any process. ▸Posing apt knowledge of cyber security, types of cyber security and how the IoT impacts the functionality of cyber security is of much priority.