design and engineering engineering design design thinking electronics visible light communications digital electronics design process passive electronic components ic 7474 logic design electronic components applications of electronics light fidelity li-fi noise rayleigh scattering pn junction d flipflop case studies on design thinking phases of design thinking incorporating lean and agile into design thinking lean manufacturing prototype empathise double diamond model power transistors pnp transistors npn transistors bipolar junction transistors transistors zener diodes germanium diodes silicon diodes pn junction diodes objectives tree constraints objectives market analysis electron mechanics entertainment electronics telemetry instrumentation automation radio frequency identification embedded systems inductors capacitors resistors laser diode vlc modulation schemes vlc architecture variable pulse position modulation harald haas fresnel reflection optical time domain reflectometer wavelength division multiplexing demultiplexer multiplexer relative intensity noise coarse wavelength division multiplexing dense wavelength division multiplexing noise figure single pass gain travelling wave amplifier semiconductor optical amplifier bit error rate heterodyne detection homodyne detection phase shift keying frequency shift keying amplitude shift keying bandwidth sensitivity gain energy band diagram stimulated raman scattering modulation index modulated signal intelligence modulating signal carrier phase modulation frequency modulation amplitude modulation analog modulation need for modulation modulation radio waves electromagnetic spectrum rc phase shift oscillator frequency response rc coupled amplifier emitter bypass capacitor feedback coupling capacitor voltage divider bias emitter bias base bias transistor biasing cut off region saturation region active region transistor laissez faire leadership transactional leadership transformational leadership leadership automated morphing systems 3d cad 2d cad computer aided design form style automobile industry innovation applications of bipolar junction transistors testing a transistor cascode configuration darlington pair comparison of transistor configurations common collector transistor configuration common base transistor configuration common emitter transistor configuration transistor characteristics basewidth modulation early effect germanium transistors silicon transistors applications of shift registers piso parallel in serial out shift register pipo parallel in parallel olut shift register sipo serial in parallel out shift register siso serial in serial out shift register shift register diode characteristics reverse bias forward bias biasing project reports design reviews practice sessions presentation outline oral presentation oral and written communications technical writing design communications applications of counters decade counter synchronous up/down counter synchronous down countr synchronous up counter synchronous counter asynchronous up/down counter asynchronous down counter asynchronous up counter asynchronous counter ring/johnson counter with mode control twisted ring counter johnson counter ring counter counters counters using flipflops ic7476 behavioral change through designs shaping behavior through designs osaka university dr. naohiro matsumura shikakes. shikakaeology design tolerances and standards assembly drawings design drawings detail drawings layout drawings perspective sketches oblique sketches axonometric sketches orthographic sketches sketches communicating designs graphically graphical communications design communication pn junction applications barrier potential depletion region fermi level conduction band valence band lattice structure of semiconductors gallium arsenide germanium silicon semiconductor avoiding and resolving conflicts in design team wo generating and adopting concepts in design thinkin gathering and sharing design related information planning and changing design activities design process plan conflicts in team work team work in design thinking design thinking in teams benefits of design thiking agile development methds tangibility rule redesign rule ambiguity rule human rule design thinking rules ic 7476 ic 7473 level triggering edge triggering cross coupled gates latches vs flipflops race around condition jk master slave flipflop jk flipflop t flipflop rs flipflop clock signal flipflops latches logic gates logic circuits reasons for non-creativity approaches to finalize the concept activities in divergent thinking divergent thinking activities in convergent thinking convergent thinking design thinking abiliites express-test-cycle benefits of design thinking test define.ideate agile development methods design thinkling rules design thinking at a work place design engineering dsign and enginering ideate design design thinking frame work. testing develop the prototype ideation define the problem observe understanding the problem divergent-convergent thinking design thinking process ten commandements in design thinking the wicked problem design thinking principles thyristors ic packages integrated circuits mosfet jfet field effect transistors high frequency transistors diodes active components 3 x 8 decoder ic74138 4 x 16 demultiplexer/decoder ic74154 8 x 1 multiplexer ic74151 1x4 demultiplexer 4x1 multiplexer decoder demux mux intermediate frequency transformers rf chokes audio transformers power transformers transformers ferrite core inductors laminated iron core inductors iron core inductors air core inductors inductor colour coding variable inductors fixed inductors design evaluation best of class chart priority checkmark method numerical evaluation matrix pareto optimality pareto efficiency choosing the best alternative decision making evaluating design alternatives contracting design spaces expanding design spaces navigating design spaces design games method of games metaphores analogical thinking morphological chart design space generating design alternatives quality function deployment. utility plot function-means tree enumeration reverse engineering black box concept determining functions unwanted secondary function required secondary function secondary functions basic functions expressing functions id design process establishing functions bcd to excess 3/excess 3 to bcd using ic 7483 bcd to excess 3 code converter xs'3 code excess 3 code bcd code binary - grey/grey - binary convertor mode control grey code to binary converter binary to grey code converter grey code binary code combined objectives - constraints tree constraints vs objectives features of constraints eliyahu m goldratt theory of constraints bottlenecks engineering deesign zero ohm resoistors memristors varistor thermistor ldr light dependent resistor presets rheostats wirewound potentiometers carbon potentiometers potentiometers wirewound resistors metal film resistors carbon film resistors carbon composition resistors variable resistors fixed resistors establishing objectives aggregate rank ordering pairwise comparison chart ranking objectives list of objectives means functions evolution of electronics organising customer requirements prioritising customer requirements developing a strategy defining the problem market research techniques of market analysis identifying customer needs. bcd adder 4 bit binary adder ic 7483 cascading adders full subtractor half subtractor full adder half adder subtractor adder binary arithmetic marketing techniques of construction experiment analysis and optimization embodiment design solution concept product concept defining goals identifying customer needs product life cycle design process stages design process map industrial applications of electronics military applications of electronics satellite communications optical communications radio communications electron device steps for systematic design failure of engineering design importance of engineering design new design development design adaptive design engineering design components fundamental elements of design process backup and power generation medical electronics mobile communication optical communication satellite communication networking rin reflection noise mode partition noise mode locking speckle pattern speckle noise modal noise mode coupling noise in laser diodes electro-refractive modulation electro-absorption modulation mach-zehnder modulator electro-optic modulation electro-optic effect change in refractive index lithium niobate external modulation pulse position modulation pulse width modulation intensity modulation on-off keying direct modulation light emitting diode modulation of light acousto-optic tunable filters tunable multigrating filters liquid fabry perot filters tunable waveguide arrays fiber fabry perot filters tunable mach-zehnder interferometers directional couplers tunable filters vlc standardisation maximum flickering time period vlc disadvanatages vlc advantages vlc layer model vlc block diagram visible spectrum optical wireless communication system vlc standards layer model of vlc visible light spectrum optical wireless communication systems vlc wireless lans sound communication systems visible light id system information signboards underwater communications vehicle to vehicle communications vlc applications li-fi technology prof harald haas time of flight technique fresnel reflection method incoherent fmcw ofdr optical frequency domain reflectometer dead zone effect backscatter measurement method smart classroom spatial reuse gigaspeed technology smart lighting vehicle communication line of sight li-fi transceivers wi-fi subcarrier index moulation ofdm colour shift keying subcarrier inverse ppm on-off keing physical layer mac layer modulation schemes ieee 802 spectrum usage refracted near field method near field scanning method induced grating autocorrelation method photorefraction fringe shift fringe displacement fringe pattern nonlinear optical loop interferometer transverse shearing interferometry michelson interferometer mach-zehnder interferometer slab method interferometric methods refractive index profile inter-aircraft optical communications silicon optical core fiber nanomechanical optical fiber radio over fiber high altitude networks laser neural network modes intelligent optical transmission networks polymer optical fibers multi-terabit optical networks fiber optic timeline trends in fiber optic communications fiber optic generations evolution of fiber optic communications fiber optic communication fiber optics fso vs counterparts fso applications atmospheric effects on fso ring topology mesh topology star topology point-to-multipoint configuration point-to-point arrangement fso architectures line of sight technology fiberless optics fiberfree optics free space optics otdr drawbacks polarisation otdr polarisation noise dead zone power ratio optical power backscatter measurement eye height eye diagram q-factor optical signal to noise ratio wdm performance parameters scalability wavelengh reuse capacity upgadation wdm type wdm features arrayed waveguide grating fiber bragg grating absorption filters interference filters optical spectral filters littrow grating devices diffraction grating wdm demultiplexers wdm couplers multi-hop networks single-hop networks virtual topology wavelength routing network broadcast and select network wdm networks wavelength tunable filter multi-thin film filter reflector angularly dispersive devices bidirectional wdm unidirectional wdm multigranular optical cross connect optical cross connect optical switch optical circulators roadm optical add drop multiplexer nerwork topology optical network wdm standards system integration deployment issues ase noise double rayleigh scattering reflections hybrid raman amplifiers distributed raman amplifiers discrete raman amplifiers raman gain raman amplifiers saturation output power gain clamping peak trough ratio gain undulation single pass phase shift 3-db spectral bandwidth cavity gain near twa fabry-perot amplifier facet reflectivity power spectrum zblan glass bidirectional double-colour pumped tdfa bidirectional single-colour pumped tdfa pump signal fiber to the home energy level diagram optical communication bands thulium ions thulium doped fiber amplifiers rare earth doped elements erbium microfiber amplifier gain flatness saturated output power edfa characteristics excited state absorption erbium doped fiber amplifiers erbium rare earth elements power amplifier pre-amplifier in-line amplifier rare earth doped fiber amplifier raman fiber amplifier fabry perot amplifier optical regenerator optical amplifier photons/bit complementary error function error function asynchronous detection synchronous detection on/off keying signal to noise ratio intradyne detection shot noise current photodetector current polarisation shift keying coherent systems transmission distance limit 3 db bandwidth system rise time rise time budget total power loss link power budget point to point link maximum allowable bit rate dispersion length strength of interaction nrz pulse rz pulse soliton transmission system gordon-haus effect soliton line coding temporal response coded mark inversion manchester coding duobinary signal non return to zero returen to zero encoding quantization pulse code modulation pulse amplitude modulation noise performance transimpedance front end amplifier high impedance front end amplifier low impedance front end amplifier amplifier equalizer digital optical fiber receiver excess avalanche noise factor multiplication factor avalanche photodiode shot noise thermal noise dark current noise quantum noise specific detectivity detectivity noise equivalent power figure of merit avalanche multiplication impact ionisation response time avalanche photodiodes pin photodiodes p-n junction photodiodes long-wavelength cutoff responsivity quantum efficiency absorption coefficient photodiodes photodetectors fiber coupling mode hopping distributed feedback lasers buried heterostructure lasers index guided lasers gain guided lasers semiconductor injection lasers double heterojunction four level system three level system two level system population inversion boltzmann statistics degenerate system einstein relations lasers lambertian pattern external quantum efficiency internal quantum efficiency recombination coefficient power recombination led characteristics edge emitting led surface emitting led dome led planar led double heterojunction led indirect bandgap semiconductors direct bandgap semiconductors optical fiber optical sources water barrier cable sheath cable strength member fiber buffering cable design exposure to nuclear radiation hydrogen absorption macrobending losses microbending losses weibull statistics griffith theorem fiber flaws fiber strength and durability need for optical fiber cabling nanostructure core fiber photonic bandgap fibers index-guided microstructures photonic crystal fibers fiber brag grating expert systems artificial intelligence flexible manufacturing applications puma unimate robot double crucible method fiber drawing plasma activated chemical vapor deposition modified chemical vapor deposition chemical vapor deposition vapor axial deposition outside vapor phase oxidation techniques flame hydrolysis liquid phase (melting) techniques optical fibers birefringence polarisation mode dispersion intermodal dispersion waveguide dispersion material dispersion chromatic dispersion intramodal dispersion phase propagation constant group velocity phase velocity four wave mixing dispersion cross phase modulation self-phase modulation pockel's effect kerr effect stimulated brillouin scattering mie scattering fiber bend absorption scattering attenuation display system signal conditioner secondary transducer primary transducer
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