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Determining IP Routes
Introducing Routing
Outline
• Overview
• Routing Overview
• Static and Dynamic Route Comparison
• Static Route Configuration
• Default Route F...
To route, a router needs to do the following:
• Know the destination address
• Identify the sources from which the router ...
• Routers must learn destinations that are
not directly connected.
• Routers must learn destinations that are
not directly...
Static Route
• Uses a route that a
network administrator
enters into the router
manually
Dynamic Route
• Uses a route that...
Static Routes
• Configure unidirectional static routes to and from
a stub network to allow communications to occur.
• Conf...
• Defines a path to an IP destination network or subnet or host
Router(config)# ip route network [mask]
{address | interfa...
Static Route Example
• This is a unidirectional route. You must have a route
configured in the opposite direction.
Default Routes
• This route allows the stub network to reach all known
networks beyond Router A.
• This route allows the s...
Verifying the Static
Route Configuration
Router# show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mo...
• Routing protocols are
used between routers to
determine paths and maintain
routing tables.
• After the path is determine...
• An autonomous system is a collection of networks
under a common administrative domain.
• IGPs operate within an autonomo...
Classes of Routing Protocols
Classes of Routing Protocols
Distance vector Routing protocols
The Distance vector protocols find the best path
to the des...
• Routers pass periodic copies of their routing table to neighboring
routers and accumulate distance vectors.
Distance Vec...
• Routers discover the best path to destinations from each neighbor.
Sources of Information and Discovering
Routes
Selecting the
Best Route with Metrics
• Updates proceed step by step from router to router.
Maintaining Routing Information
Link state routing protocols
The protocols which choose SHORTEST PATH to
determine the best path for the Destination.
Thes...
Link state routing protocols.
The protocols which use features of both
Distance Vector and Link state are known as hybrid
...
ROUTING LOOPS
Distance vector routing protocols keep track of any
changes that occur in the internetwork by
broadcasting t...
ROUTING LOOPS
Suppose we have the above scenario with 6
networks. And the update period will be 30
seconds.
Suppose we hav...
ROUTING LOOPS
If network 6 fails then router E will send the update to
router C because all other router have the route to...
ROUTING LOOPS
After some time when router C will send update to
router B.it will stop routing for network 6.
BUT router A ...
ROUTING LOOPS
The problem occur when before update to router A & D
about the failure the router A send a HELLO update
pack...
Metrics or Solutions to stop the Routing
loops
Maximum HOP CountMaximum HOP Count
One way of solving the loops is to defin...
Metrics or Solutions to stop the Routing
loops. Cont..
Split Horizon
In this methodology the routing information cant be
s...
Metrics or Solutions to stop the Routing
loops. Cont..
Flush Updates/ Trigger Updates
It means when the is a change in any...
Metrics or Solutions to stop the Routing
loops. Cont..
Route Poisoning
If there any network will down then corresponding
r...
Collision Domain
It is a network segment with multiple hosts in
which they all shares the same bandwidth.
Exa.. HUB
Hub is...
Broadcast domain
The boundary in which all devices can see and
participate in the broadcast sent from the nay node to
any ...
Device Specifications
HUB:- 1 Collision domain
1 Broadcast domain
At a time only one request can travel to all the nodes
c...
Device Specifications conti…
Router:- each port of a router is a separate collision
domain and a broadcast domain.
Bcz any...
Administrative Distance:
Ranking Routes
It is used to give the rank to the routing protocols
It is an integer from 0-255
I...
Administrative Distance:
Ranking Routes
How the AD is used……………………………………….
Whenever a router will receive two routing upda...
Administrative Distance:
Ranking Routes
Source AD
Connected 0
Static 1
RIP 120
IGRP 100
EIGRP 90
OSPF 110
Unknown 255
255 ...
Classfull Routing Overview/ subnetting
FLSM
• Classfull routing protocols do not include the subnet mask
with the route ad...
Classless Routing Overview/ Subnetting
VLSM
• Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with the
route advertise...
Routing Protocol Comparison Chart
Summary
• Routing is the process by which items get from one location to
another. In networking, a router is the device us...
Summary (Cont.)
• Dynamic routing protocols determine how updates are
conveyed, what knowledge is conveyed, when to convey...
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Day 8 1 introducing routing n

  1. 1. Determining IP Routes Introducing Routing
  2. 2. Outline • Overview • Routing Overview • Static and Dynamic Route Comparison • Static Route Configuration • Default Route Forwarding Configuration • Static Route Configuration Verification • Dynamic Routing Protocol Overview • Features of Dynamic Routing Protocols • The ip classless Command • InterVLAN Routing • Summary
  3. 3. To route, a router needs to do the following: • Know the destination address • Identify the sources from which the router can learn • Discover possible routes to the intended destination • Select the best route • Maintain and verify routing information Router Operations
  4. 4. • Routers must learn destinations that are not directly connected. • Routers must learn destinations that are not directly connected. Router Operations (Cont.)
  5. 5. Static Route • Uses a route that a network administrator enters into the router manually Dynamic Route • Uses a route that a network routing protocol adjusts automatically for topology or traffic changes Identifying Static and Dynamic Routes
  6. 6. Static Routes • Configure unidirectional static routes to and from a stub network to allow communications to occur. • Configure unidirectional static routes to and from a stub network to allow communications to occur.
  7. 7. • Defines a path to an IP destination network or subnet or host Router(config)# ip route network [mask] {address | interface}[distance] [permanent] Static Route Configuration
  8. 8. Static Route Example • This is a unidirectional route. You must have a route configured in the opposite direction.
  9. 9. Default Routes • This route allows the stub network to reach all known networks beyond Router A. • This route allows the stub network to reach all known networks beyond Router A.
  10. 10. Verifying the Static Route Configuration Router# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default U - per-user static route Gateway of last resort is 0.0.0.0 to network 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.0/8 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial0 S* 0.0.0.0/0 is directly connected, Serial0
  11. 11. • Routing protocols are used between routers to determine paths and maintain routing tables. • After the path is determined, a router can route a routed protocol. What Is a Routing Protocol?
  12. 12. • An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain. • IGPs operate within an autonomous system. • EGPs connect different autonomous systems. Autonomous Systems: Interior or Exterior Routing Protocols
  13. 13. Classes of Routing Protocols
  14. 14. Classes of Routing Protocols Distance vector Routing protocols The Distance vector protocols find the best path to the destination by judging the Distance to that hop. [ each time a packet goes to a router is known as HOP] Any route with the Least hops will be the Best route. Distance vector Routing protocols The Distance vector protocols find the best path to the destination by judging the Distance to that hop. [ each time a packet goes to a router is known as HOP] Any route with the Least hops will be the Best route.
  15. 15. • Routers pass periodic copies of their routing table to neighboring routers and accumulate distance vectors. Distance Vector Routing Protocols
  16. 16. • Routers discover the best path to destinations from each neighbor. Sources of Information and Discovering Routes
  17. 17. Selecting the Best Route with Metrics
  18. 18. • Updates proceed step by step from router to router. Maintaining Routing Information
  19. 19. Link state routing protocols The protocols which choose SHORTEST PATH to determine the best path for the Destination. These protocols maintain three types of Tables. 1.For directly attached neighbors. 2.For determining the Topology of whole inter- network. 3.Routing table. Link state routing protocols know more about the Internetwork then any other type of protocol. OSPF is the complete link state protocol. Link state protocols send regular updates about there routing table to all the connected neighbors after a regular interval.
  20. 20. Link state routing protocols. The protocols which use features of both Distance Vector and Link state are known as hybrid protocols. Exa.. EIGRP Distance vector + link state
  21. 21. ROUTING LOOPS Distance vector routing protocols keep track of any changes that occur in the internetwork by broadcasting the periodic routing table updates out to all Routers connected. This is good for the maintenance of the internetwork but not for the processing of the routers processor. But the routing updates are send after a specific time period. An inconsistent routing tables updates can cause ROUTING LOOPS
  22. 22. ROUTING LOOPS Suppose we have the above scenario with 6 networks. And the update period will be 30 seconds. Suppose we have the above scenario with 6 networks. And the update period will be 30 seconds.
  23. 23. ROUTING LOOPS If network 6 fails then router E will send the update to router C because all other router have the route to network six from the router C. Now router C know about the Failure of the Network 6 but all other A,B and D are still don`t know about the failure bcz C didn`t send update to them till now. So they keep on sending the routing updates to C for the network 6. and they assume that YES they have path for network 6. If network 6 fails then router E will send the update to router C because all other router have the route to network six from the router C. Now router C know about the Failure of the Network 6 but all other A,B and D are still don`t know about the failure bcz C didn`t send update to them till now. So they keep on sending the routing updates to C for the network 6. and they assume that YES they have path for network 6.
  24. 24. ROUTING LOOPS After some time when router C will send update to router B.it will stop routing for network 6. BUT router A & D are still unknown about the failure {not updated} and they send a update to router B that they have still path for network 6. After some time when router C will send update to router B.it will stop routing for network 6. BUT router A & D are still unknown about the failure {not updated} and they send a update to router B that they have still path for network 6.
  25. 25. ROUTING LOOPS The problem occur when before update to router A & D about the failure the router A send a HELLO update packet to router B & D about the network 6. and router B & D think that network six will be reachable through router A. and they start sending update to all of the router about this update. Then router A send request for N/W 6 to B & D, D will send to B, B will send to A, and again and again they will repeat the same procedure in a LOOP. Known as routing loop.
  26. 26. Metrics or Solutions to stop the Routing loops Maximum HOP CountMaximum HOP Count One way of solving the loops is to define the maximum hop count RIP permits a hop count of 15 only means if anything that requires 16th hop is deemed as unreachable. Means after a loop of 15 hops the next network will be considered as unreachable
  27. 27. Metrics or Solutions to stop the Routing loops. Cont.. Split Horizon In this methodology the routing information cant be sent back to the direction from which it was received In this methodology the routing information cant be sent back to the direction from which it was received
  28. 28. Metrics or Solutions to stop the Routing loops. Cont.. Flush Updates/ Trigger Updates It means when the is a change in any internetwork topology a special update is sent to all neighbors immediately so that they can update there routing tables.
  29. 29. Metrics or Solutions to stop the Routing loops. Cont.. Route Poisoning If there any network will down then corresponding router will start advertising that network as a 16th network or unreachable network. This will stop all other to send packets for that network
  30. 30. Collision Domain It is a network segment with multiple hosts in which they all shares the same bandwidth. Exa.. HUB Hub is a 1 collision and 1 broadcast domain Means if two hosts transmits at same time a collision can occur Means if two hosts transmits at same time a collision can occur
  31. 31. Broadcast domain The boundary in which all devices can see and participate in the broadcast sent from the nay node to any node in the network. A broadcast domain is always created by the routers.
  32. 32. Device Specifications HUB:- 1 Collision domain 1 Broadcast domain At a time only one request can travel to all the nodes connected with the hub. And if there is any collision then a single collision can stop whole network Switch:- 1 Broadcast domain, multiple collision domain, each port is a separate collision domain, multiple unicast domain. A Switch always performs 1st time broadcast when it is power ON and after that it will always use unicast method for data distribution
  33. 33. Device Specifications conti… Router:- each port of a router is a separate collision domain and a broadcast domain. Bcz any broadcast or any collision in the internetwork will only affects the connected port of the router not to all the interfaces of the router. A router used to handle all its ports separately.
  34. 34. Administrative Distance: Ranking Routes It is used to give the rank to the routing protocols It is an integer from 0-255 It will show the trustworthiness of any routing protocol. 0 means most trusted. 255 means traffic can`t be pass to that route.
  35. 35. Administrative Distance: Ranking Routes How the AD is used………………………………………. Whenever a router will receive two routing updates At same time then it will check for the AD distance for that updates and save the update with least AD in its routing table. BUT if the both have the same AD then it will follow the routing metrics of protocol that is used for the routing from the side of routing update. Like [hop count/shortest path] How the AD is used………………………………………. Whenever a router will receive two routing updates At same time then it will check for the AD distance for that updates and save the update with least AD in its routing table. BUT if the both have the same AD then it will follow the routing metrics of protocol that is used for the routing from the side of routing update. Like [hop count/shortest path]
  36. 36. Administrative Distance: Ranking Routes Source AD Connected 0 Static 1 RIP 120 IGRP 100 EIGRP 90 OSPF 110 Unknown 255 255 will never be used. Source AD Connected 0 Static 1 RIP 120 IGRP 100 EIGRP 90 OSPF 110 Unknown 255 255 will never be used.
  37. 37. Classfull Routing Overview/ subnetting FLSM • Classfull routing protocols do not include the subnet mask with the route advertisement. • Within the same network, consistency of the subnet masks is assumed. • Summary routes are exchanged between foreign networks. • These are examples of classfull routing protocols: – RIP version 1 (RIPv1) – IGRP
  38. 38. Classless Routing Overview/ Subnetting VLSM • Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with the route advertisement. • Classless routing protocols support variable-length subnet mask (VLSM). • Summary routes can be manually controlled within the network. • These are examples of classless routing protocols: – RIP version 2 (RIPv2) – EIGRP – OSPF – IS-IS
  39. 39. Routing Protocol Comparison Chart
  40. 40. Summary • Routing is the process by which items get from one location to another. In networking, a router is the device used to route traffic. Routers can forward packets over static routes or dynamic routes, based on the router configuration. • Static routers use a route that a network administrator enters into the router manually. Dynamic routes use a router that a network routing protocol adjusts automatically for topology or traffic changes. • Unidirectional static routes must be configured to and from a stub network to allow communications to occur. • The ip route command can be used to configure default route forwarding. • The show ip route command is used to verify that static routing is properly configured. Static routes are signified in the command output by “S.”
  41. 41. Summary (Cont.) • Dynamic routing protocols determine how updates are conveyed, what knowledge is conveyed, when to convey knowledge, and how to locate recipients of the updates. • A routing protocol that has a lower administrative value is more trustworthy than a protocol that has a higher administrative value. • There are three classes of routing protocols: distance vector, link-state, and balanced hybrid. • The ip classless command can be used to prevent a router from dropping a packet that is destined for an unknown subnetwork of a directly attached network if a default route is configured.

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