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Leadership and management Skills

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Leadership and management Skills

  1. 1. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS CHARLES COTTER EMPEROR’S PALACE 11-12 JULY 2016 www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter
  2. 2. TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW • THE NATURE AND DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT • EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURS • INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS • CONFLICT MANAGEMENT • BUILDING AND MOTIVATING TEAMS • PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND COUNSELING • CHANGE MANAGEMENT
  3. 3. INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY • Complete the statement by inserting one (1) word only. To be an effective manager/leader, the most important characteristic/trait is………………………………….. • Now find other learners with the same word as you. • Jot these words down on the flip-chart. • Each learner will have the opportunity to elaborate on their chosen word.
  4. 4. MANAGEMENT SKILLS
  5. 5. LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 • Group Discussion: • Do you agree with the statement that managers and leaders are different? • Justify and motivate your answer by providing these distinctive differences and/or similarities.
  6. 6. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURS • Leadership values • Leadership roles
  7. 7. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Group Discussion: • By referring to the provided leadership values and roles, critically evaluate and rate yourself (use a rating scale of 1- 5) as a leader in demonstrating and fulfilling these values and roles, respectively. • Leadership values • Leadership roles • For each of these values and roles, identify personal leadership gaps and develop self-improvement strategies to enhance your leadership ability.
  8. 8. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS • The value and importance of effective communication as a leader • Open and respectful communication • Improving communication skills • Effective team meeting procedure and practice
  9. 9. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • Intra-personal • Interpersonal • Structural • Physical, technological and/or environmental
  10. 10. EFFECTIVE TEAM MEETING PROCEDURE AND PRACTICE • Criteria for effective meetings • The Meeting's Objective • Use Time Wisely • Satisfying Participants that a Sensible Process Has Been Followed • Planning your meeting • Roles and Responsibilities of Chairperson/Facilitator
  11. 11. LEARNING ACTIVITY 3 • Group Discussion: • By referring to the barriers to effective communication, from your experience as a Team Leader, identify the most common causes of communication break-downs between yourself and your manager and other colleagues. Propose solutions to these identified communication break-downs. • Identify the best practice criteria for an effective and productive team meeting. Define your roles and responsibilities as the chairperson in facilitating these positive outcomes.
  12. 12. COVEY’S EMOTIONAL BANK ACCOUNT
  13. 13. COVEY’S WIN-WIN MINDSET
  14. 14. BUILDING CREDIBILITY • The Credibility Formula as: Credibility = Integrity + Expertise. • Achieving a distinguishable level of follower faith and loyalty is certainly not an overnight occurrence and can be achieved only through openness; committed people investment and a proven scorecard of leadership and performance excellence. • Leader behaviour, actions and decisions congruent with reliability, fairness, consistency and transparency are instrumental values which can enhance follower perception of the leader’s reputation, standing and eventually, their willingness to follow and support that leader.
  15. 15. TRUST ENHANCING STRATEGIES • Open and transparent communication • Mutual respect and tolerance for individual differences • Demonstrated care and sincere interest • Recognition for the value of each individual team member • Co-operation and shared commitment
  16. 16. DEFINING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EQ) • EQ is the skill to recognize different emotions in yourself and the world around you and to interpret and use these emotions to enhance your quality of life. • EQ is a set of abilities that helps you manage your emotions and relate to others. • EQ is the ability to recognize your emotions, understand what they're telling you and realize how your emotions affect people around you. • EQ is the ability to understand and manage both your own emotions and those of the people around you.
  17. 17. CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW/HIGH EQ MANAGERS
  18. 18. THE FIVE (5) COMPETENCIES OF EQ
  19. 19. SELF AWARENESS
  20. 20. SELF AWARENESS • It must come first because if we don’t know ourselves and what we’re feeling, how can we possibly know or understand someone else and how they feel? • Self-awareness is about knowing what drives us and what we’re passionate about. • The more we know about ourselves, the better we are able to control and choose what kind of behaviours we’’ display in a work setting. • Without self-awareness, our emotions can blind us and guide us to do things or to become people we really don’t want to be. • If we are aware of our feelings and thoughts, we can choose how we will act or react in a given situation or to a certain person. • With this choice comes power - the kind of intrinsic power that no one can take away from us.
  21. 21. SELF AWARENESS • People with high emotional intelligence are usually very self-aware. • They understand their emotions, and because of this, they don't let their feelings rule them. • They're confident – because they trust their intuition and don't let their emotions get out of control. • They're also willing to take an honest look at themselves. • They know their strengths and weaknesses, and they work on these areas so they can perform better.
  22. 22. SELF REGULATION • The second step is to regulate those feelings and manage them so they do more good than harm. • Our passions can be contagious and energize others, but our ranting and ravings can damage work relations beyond repair. • Checking those emotions is what self-regulation is all about. It’s giving the rational side time to temper our feelings when needed. • When we are angry, we cannot make good decisions and often react inappropriately by blowing an incident out of proportion - we lose our perspective. • By learning to manage our emotions, we become more adaptable and innovative in stressful situations.
  23. 23. SELF REGULATION • Self-regulation helps us act intentionally rather than reactively. • Self-regulation helps us act deliberately and not destructively. • Self-Regulation is the ability to control emotions and impulses. • People who self-regulate typically don't allow themselves to become too angry or jealous, and they don't make impulsive, careless decisions - they think before they act. • Characteristics of self-regulation are thoughtfulness, comfort with change, integrity and the ability to say no.
  24. 24. SELF REGULATION
  25. 25. SELF MOTIVATION • The third step is to direct the power of our emotions towards a purpose that will motivate and inspire us. • Self-motivation is about visualizing the achievement of a goal and taking the necessary steps to get there. • Athletes use their emotions to psyche themselves up for competition. • The same technique is effective in the workplace to raise job performance. • “Self-motivated people can envision reaching the goal which gives meaning to the mundane.” • “Stand firm even when you are buffeted by events and emotions.”
  26. 26. SELF MOTIVATION • The strongly self-motivated workers also accept change and are more flexible. New twists and unexpected turns don’t bend them out of shape. • They have better attitudes, take more initiative and do balanced risk taking. But most of all, self-motivated employees persist toward goals, despite obstacles and setbacks. • People with a high degree of emotional intelligence are usually motivated. • They're willing to defer immediate results for long-term success. • They're highly productive, love a challenge, and are very effective in whatever they do.
  27. 27. EMPATHY • Empathy is defined as an outwardly-looking approach to managing relationships that enables people to see from another person’s perspective. • It means responding to others appropriately with sensitivity and compassion. • Empathy begins with listening i.e. with the purpose to understand and respond and display sensitivity and concern. • “Nobody in life will listen to us unless they feel we have listened to them.” • A team leader, who is empathetic, listens and responds and naturally displays sensitivity and concern - this makes a connection with people. • It is important for team leaders to be attuned to different people’s needs and emotional responses as well as reading these cues.
  28. 28. EMPATHY • “Empathy is the glue that will bind the group together to work successfully.” • The ability to model empathy is the best way to motivate others. • Empathetic people are usually excellent at managing relationships, listening and relating to others. • They avoid stereotyping and judging too quickly and they live their lives in a very open, honest way.
  29. 29. RELATIONSHIP/SOCIAL SKILLS • This fifth competency is about interacting with people successfully and being adept at managing emotions in others. • With heightened social skills, leaders are better communicators and better collaborators. • It's usually easy to talk to and like people with good social skills, another sign of high emotional intelligence. • Those with strong social skills are typically team players. • Rather than focus on their own success first, they help others develop and shine. • They can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and are masters at building and maintaining relationships.
  30. 30. THE VALUE OF SOCIAL AND RELATIONAL CAPITAL • “The new business currency is human (social) and relational capital, not financial capital. Given the economic downturn, the value of financial capital is depreciating, whereas social and relational capital is exponentially appreciating and yields a significant positive return-on-investment (ROI).” Charles Cotter (2016)
  31. 31. SUMMARY OF EQ COMPETENCIES
  32. 32. LEARNING ACTIVITY 4 • Group discussion: • As a Team Leader, describe how you can enhance your interpersonal competencies by concentrating on the following skills: Relationship-building Emotional Intelligence
  33. 33. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT • Defining conflict • Differentiating between functional and dysfunctional conflict • Identifying the causes/sources of conflict • Indicators/warning signals of conflict
  34. 34. FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT • Functional conflict leads to open discussion, a better understanding of differences, innovative solutions and greater commitment. • Functional conflict contributes to the achievement of organizational goals and enhances relationship-building. • Dysfunctional conflict tends be more focused on emotions than on the goal/task at hand known as affect conflict/interpersonal conflict, it is destructive when a solution is not reached, energy is diverted away from the core problem and morale is negatively affected. • Dysfunctional conflict is detrimental to relationships within the team and team performance.
  35. 35. CAUSES/SOURCES OF CONFLICT • Intra-personal • Interpersonal • Intra-group • Inter-group
  36. 36. INDICATORS/WARNING SIGNS OF CONFLICT • Signs of conflict between individuals • Signs of conflict between groups of people
  37. 37. OPTIMAL LEVELS OF CONFLICT
  38. 38. ADVANTAGES OF OPTIMAL LEVELS OF CONFLICT • Co-operation from team members • Improved performance and productivity • Reduced stress and preserved integrity • Solve problems as quickly as possible • Improved relationships and teamwork • Enhanced creativity • Increased staff morale
  39. 39. LEARNING ACTIVITY 5 • Group Discussion: • From your experience as a manager, write notes on the following conflict management-related aspects: • By referring to the three (3) types of conflict, identify one (1) example of current or recent workplace conflict in your organization. • For each of the above examples, indicate whether these examples are functional or dysfunctional conflict. Substantiate your answer. • For each of the above examples, describe the indicators/warning signs of each example. • By referring to these indicators, describe what you as a team leader can do, to nip dysfunctional conflict in the bud, thereby not allowing the conflict to escalate out of control.
  40. 40. LEARNING ACTIVITY 6 • Individual activity: • Complete the 30 question/item Thomas- Kilmann Conflict Mode instrument/questionnaire and by using the scoring sheet, determine your predominant conflict management style.
  41. 41. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES • Shark (Competing) • Turtle (Avoiding) • Fox (Compromising) • Teddy-bear (Accommodating) • Owl (Collaborating)
  42. 42. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES
  43. 43. SHARK CHARACTERISTICS • Sharks use a forcing or competing conflict management style • Sharks are highly goal-oriented • Relationships take on a lower priority • Sharks do not hesitate to use aggressive behaviour to resolve conflicts • Sharks can be autocratic, authoritative, and uncooperative; threatening and intimidating • Sharks have a need to win; therefore others must lose, creating win-lose situations • Advantage: If the shark's decision is correct, a better decision without compromise can result • Disadvantage: May breed hostility and resentment toward the person using it
  44. 44. TURTLE CHARACTERISTICS • Turtles adopt an avoiding or withdrawing conflict management style • Turtles would rather hide and ignore conflict than resolve it; this leads them uncooperative and unassertive • Turtles tend to give up personal goals and display passive behaviour creating lose-lose situations • Advantage: may help to maintain relationships that would be hurt by conflict resolution • Disadvantage: Conflicts remain unresolved, overuse of the style leads to others walking over them
  45. 45. FOX CHARACTERISTICS • Foxes use a compromising conflict management style; concern is for goals and relationships • Foxes are willing to sacrifice some of their goals while persuading others to give up part of theirs • Compromise is assertive and cooperative-result is either win-lose or lose-lose • Advantage: relationships are maintained and conflicts are removed • Disadvantage: compromise may create less than ideal outcome and game playing can result
  46. 46. TEDDY-BEAR CHARACTERISTICS • Teddy bears use a smoothing or accommodating conflict management style with emphasis on human relationships • Teddy bears ignore their own goals and resolve conflict by giving into others; unassertive and cooperative creating a win-lose (bear is loser) situation • Advantage: Accommodating maintains relationships • Disadvantage: Giving in may not be productive, bear may be taken advantage of
  47. 47. OWL CHARACTERISTICS • Owls use a collaborating or problem confronting conflict management style valuing their goals and relationships • Owls view conflicts as problems to be solved finding solutions agreeable to all sides (win-win) • Advantage: both sides get what they want and negative feelings eliminated • Disadvantage: takes a great deal of time and effort
  48. 48. THE 4-STEP CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROCESS – THERAPEUTIC MODEL • Step 1: Identify sources of potential and actual conflict (DIAGNOSIS) • Step 2: Develop conflict resolution strategies/techniques (EXAMINATION) • Step 3: Apply conflict resolution strategies/techniques (REMEDY) • Step 4: Control and review the effectiveness of the conflict resolution strategy/technique (FOLLOW-UP)
  49. 49. STEP 1: DIAGNOSIS • Identify the sources/causes of conflict: Intra-personal Interpersonal Intra-group or Inter-group • The best approach to manage conflict effectively is to be proactive.
  50. 50. STEP 2: EXAMINATION • Develop conflict resolution strategies/techniques:  Shark (Competing)  Turtle (Avoiding)  Fox (Compromising)  Teddy-bear (Accommodating)  Owl (Collaborating) • There is no one best way to deal with conflict. It is dependent on the current situation as well as the team members involved in the conflict. • The golden rule is that managers should take prompt action in resolving conflict. • By failing to act, it may result in the conflict escalating beyond control and “spreading like a cancer” negatively affecting team performance and relationships.
  51. 51. STEP 3: REMEDY • Apply conflict resolution strategies/techniques • The key is to match strategies to situations • Influential considerations: Time pressure Issue importance Relationship importance Relative power
  52. 52. STEP 4: FOLLOW-UP • Managers will need to confirm whether this technique has adequately resolved the conflict. • In the event that this dysfunctional conflict persists, managers may have to resort to alternative (third party) strategies: Mediation Counseling Organizational development (OD) interventions
  53. 53. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT GUIDING PRINCIPLES – TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
  54. 54. LEARNING ACTIVITY 7 • Group Discussion: • Identify a current conflict situation in your work team. Apply the 4-step conflict resolution process, to find a solution for this conflict.
  55. 55. PERFORMANCE EQUATION
  56. 56. BENEFITS OF A MOTIVATED WORKFORCE • Quality performance • High levels of productivity (“a team member is a productive team member”) • High levels of commitment (to both the team and organization) • High levels of team cohesion
  57. 57. THE PIVOTAL MOTIVATIONAL ROLE OF THE TEAM LEADER
  58. 58. STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT
  59. 59. LEARNING ACTIVITY 8 • Group discussion: • As a Team Leader, describe how you can motivate and inspire your team members. • As a Team Leader, describe how you can accelerate your team development maturity to the most sophisticate stage i.e. performing.
  60. 60. PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT
  61. 61. CAUSES OF POOR PERFORMANCE • Personal problems • Skills/competence • Lack of resources • Organizational factors
  62. 62. LEARNING ACTIVITY 9 • Group Discussion: • By referring to the Performance Matrix, indicate how you will manage the performance of each of the four types of employee.
  63. 63. AREAS/TYPES OF CHANGE: S-P-O-T-S
  64. 64. CHANGE TRANSITION CURVE
  65. 65. CHANGE TRANSITION CURVE AND APPROPRIATE LEADERSHIP ACTIONS
  66. 66. LEARNING ACTIVITY 10 • Group Discussion: • As a manager, describe how you can accelerate and guide employees through the change transition cycle for the most sophisticated/mature stage, commitment.
  67. 67. CONCLUSION • Key points • Summary • Questions
  68. 68. CONTACT DETAILS • Charles Cotter • (+27) 84 562 9446 • charlescot@polka.co.za • LinkedIn • Twitter: Charles_Cotter • http://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter

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