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Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 
The LOD Remix 
Dr.-Ing. Michael Piotrowski 
Leibniz Institute for European Hi...
Background
Original Project 
▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) 
▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG 
▶ Docum...
Original Project 
▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) 
▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG 
▶ Docum...
Original Project 
▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) 
▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG 
▶ Docum...
Original Project 
▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) 
▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG 
▶ Docum...
Original Project 
▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) 
▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG 
▶ Docum...
Original Project 
▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) 
▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG 
▶ Docum...
Database Search Interface 
Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 2/14
Example 
Figure: Provisional convention of subsidy between Great Britain, the States 
General, and Austria, 1746-08-31 
Pi...
Peace Treaties 
▶ Peace treaties are an important part of our European cultural 
heritage 
▶ Essential for research into e...
New Project
New Project 
▶ Many potential connections from and to treaties: 
▶ Places 
▶ Partners (signatories) 
▶ Persons 
▶ Document...
New Project 
▶ Many potential connections from and to treaties: 
▶ Places 
▶ Partners (signatories) 
▶ Persons 
▶ Document...
New Project 
▶ Many potential connections from and to treaties: 
▶ Places 
▶ Partners (signatories) 
▶ Persons 
▶ Document...
New Project 
▶ Many potential connections from and to treaties: 
▶ Places 
▶ Partners (signatories) 
▶ Persons 
▶ Document...
Conversion 
▶ Original database is MySQL with custom PHP front end 
▶ No documentation 
▶ “Creative” solutions, e.g., for ...
Conversion 
▶ Original database is MySQL with custom PHP front end 
▶ No documentation 
▶ “Creative” solutions, e.g., for ...
Conversion 
▶ Original database is MySQL with custom PHP front end 
▶ No documentation 
▶ “Creative” solutions, e.g., for ...
Current State 
▶ Data has been converted to RDF (DM2E model) 
▶ 3 main classes: 
▶ Treaties (dm2e:Manuscript) 
▶ Partners ...
Current State 
▶ Data has been converted to RDF (DM2E model) 
▶ 3 main classes: 
▶ Treaties (dm2e:Manuscript) 
▶ Partners ...
Current State 
▶ Data has been converted to RDF (DM2E model) 
▶ 3 main classes: 
▶ Treaties (dm2e:Manuscript) 
▶ Partners ...
Current State 
▶ Data has been converted to RDF (DM2E model) 
▶ 3 main classes: 
▶ Treaties (dm2e:Manuscript) 
▶ Partners ...
Current State 
✔ Treaties (as “works” in the sense of FRBR) 
✔ Places 
✔ Partners (signatories) 
✘ Persons 
✔ Document typ...
Problems 
▶ Identifying signatories is non-trivial 
▶ Data from comment fields (copies, prints, related literature) can’t ...
Problems 
▶ Identifying signatories is non-trivial 
▶ Data from comment fields (copies, prints, related literature) can’t ...
Problems 
▶ Identifying signatories is non-trivial 
▶ Data from comment fields (copies, prints, related literature) can’t ...
A Pleasant Surprise 
Project “Übersetzungsleistungen von Diplomatie und Medien im 
vormodernen Friedensprozess. Europa 145...
A Pleasant Surprise 
Project “Übersetzungsleistungen von Diplomatie und Medien im 
vormodernen Friedensprozess. Europa 145...
A Pleasant Surprise 
Project “Übersetzungsleistungen von Diplomatie und Medien im 
vormodernen Friedensprozess. Europa 145...
A Pleasant Surprise 
Project “Übersetzungsleistungen von Diplomatie und Medien im 
vormodernen Friedensprozess. Europa 145...
To Do 
▶ Complete linking (locations, powers) 
▶ Try to obtain, add, and link data on negotiators 
▶ Publish 
Piotrowski 2...
Summary & Outlook
Summary 
▶ Open Humanities Award has allowed us to take a valuable resource 
for the humanities … 
▶ … and turn it into a ...
Thank You 
▶ DM2E for the Open Humanities Award 
▶ Magnus Pfeffer & colleagues (HDM Stuttgart) for their hard work 
Piotro...
Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 
The LOD Remix 
Dr.-Ing. Michael Piotrowski 
Leibniz Institute for European Hi...
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Open Humanities Awards Open track: Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online (Michael Piotrowski – IEG Leibniz Institute of European History) at Enabling humanities research in the Linked Open Web – DM2E final event (11 December 2014, Navacchio, Italy)

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05 piotrowski

  1. 1. Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online The LOD Remix Dr.-Ing. Michael Piotrowski Leibniz Institute for European History <piotrowski@ieg-mainz.de> @true_mxp Pisa, December 11, 2014
  2. 2. Background
  3. 3. Original Project ▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) ▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG ▶ Documentation, digitization, and publication of 1,800 European peace treaties from the period 1450–1789 (primarily negotiators’ copies) ▶ FVV-o has collected manuscripts that are scattered over archives all over Europe (often hard to find) ▶ All facsimiles are annotated with basic metadata; some particularly important treaties are also available as full-text critical editions Ü Open-access database at http://ieg-friedensvertraege.de/ Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 1/14
  4. 4. Original Project ▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) ▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG ▶ Documentation, digitization, and publication of 1,800 European peace treaties from the period 1450–1789 (primarily negotiators’ copies) ▶ FVV-o has collected manuscripts that are scattered over archives all over Europe (often hard to find) ▶ All facsimiles are annotated with basic metadata; some particularly important treaties are also available as full-text critical editions Ü Open-access database at http://ieg-friedensvertraege.de/ Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 1/14
  5. 5. Original Project ▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) ▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG ▶ Documentation, digitization, and publication of 1,800 European peace treaties from the period 1450–1789 (primarily negotiators’ copies) ▶ FVV-o has collected manuscripts that are scattered over archives all over Europe (often hard to find) ▶ All facsimiles are annotated with basic metadata; some particularly important treaties are also available as full-text critical editions Ü Open-access database at http://ieg-friedensvertraege.de/ Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 1/14
  6. 6. Original Project ▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) ▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG ▶ Documentation, digitization, and publication of 1,800 European peace treaties from the period 1450–1789 (primarily negotiators’ copies) ▶ FVV-o has collected manuscripts that are scattered over archives all over Europe (often hard to find) ▶ All facsimiles are annotated with basic metadata; some particularly important treaties are also available as full-text critical editions Ü Open-access database at http://ieg-friedensvertraege.de/ Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 1/14
  7. 7. Original Project ▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) ▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG ▶ Documentation, digitization, and publication of 1,800 European peace treaties from the period 1450–1789 (primarily negotiators’ copies) ▶ FVV-o has collected manuscripts that are scattered over archives all over Europe (often hard to find) ▶ All facsimiles are annotated with basic metadata; some particularly important treaties are also available as full-text critical editions Ü Open-access database at http://ieg-friedensvertraege.de/ Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 1/14
  8. 8. Original Project ▶ “Europäische Friedensverträge der Vormoderne – online” (FVV-o) ▶ 2005–2010 funded by the DFG ▶ Documentation, digitization, and publication of 1,800 European peace treaties from the period 1450–1789 (primarily negotiators’ copies) ▶ FVV-o has collected manuscripts that are scattered over archives all over Europe (often hard to find) ▶ All facsimiles are annotated with basic metadata; some particularly important treaties are also available as full-text critical editions Ü Open-access database at http://ieg-friedensvertraege.de/ Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 1/14
  9. 9. Database Search Interface Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 2/14
  10. 10. Example Figure: Provisional convention of subsidy between Great Britain, the States General, and Austria, 1746-08-31 Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 3/14
  11. 11. Peace Treaties ▶ Peace treaties are an important part of our European cultural heritage ▶ Essential for research into early modern peacekeeping and diplomacy, but also for many other historical research questions Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 4/14
  12. 12. New Project
  13. 13. New Project ▶ Many potential connections from and to treaties: ▶ Places ▶ Partners (signatories) ▶ Persons ▶ Document types ▶ Copies/prints ▶ Related literature ▶ FVV-o is open access, but not machine-processable and reusable Ü “The goal of the project funded by the DM2E Open Humanities Award is to publish the treaties metadata as Linked Open Data, and to evaluate the use of nanopublications as a representation format for humanities data.” Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 5/14
  14. 14. New Project ▶ Many potential connections from and to treaties: ▶ Places ▶ Partners (signatories) ▶ Persons ▶ Document types ▶ Copies/prints ▶ Related literature ▶ FVV-o is open access, but not machine-processable and reusable Ü “The goal of the project funded by the DM2E Open Humanities Award is to publish the treaties metadata as Linked Open Data, and to evaluate the use of nanopublications as a representation format for humanities data.” Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 5/14
  15. 15. New Project ▶ Many potential connections from and to treaties: ▶ Places ▶ Partners (signatories) ▶ Persons ▶ Document types ▶ Copies/prints ▶ Related literature ▶ FVV-o is open access, but not machine-processable and reusable Ü “The goal of the project funded by the DM2E Open Humanities Award is to publish the treaties metadata as Linked Open Data, and to evaluate the use of nanopublications as a representation format for humanities data.” Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 5/14
  16. 16. New Project ▶ Many potential connections from and to treaties: ▶ Places ▶ Partners (signatories) ▶ Persons ▶ Document types ▶ Copies/prints ▶ Related literature ▶ FVV-o is open access, but not machine-processable and reusable Ü “The goal of the project funded by the DM2E Open Humanities Award is to publish the treaties metadata as Linked Open Data, and to evaluate the use of nanopublications as a representation format for humanities data.” Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 5/14
  17. 17. Conversion ▶ Original database is MySQL with custom PHP front end ▶ No documentation ▶ “Creative” solutions, e.g., for multi-valued fields ‘partners‘ varchar(255) NOT NULL DEFAULT ” ’37,46,253’ ▶ Much information is contained in unstructured “comment” fields Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 6/14
  18. 18. Conversion ▶ Original database is MySQL with custom PHP front end ▶ No documentation ▶ “Creative” solutions, e.g., for multi-valued fields ‘partners‘ varchar(255) NOT NULL DEFAULT ” ’37,46,253’ ▶ Much information is contained in unstructured “comment” fields Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 6/14
  19. 19. Conversion ▶ Original database is MySQL with custom PHP front end ▶ No documentation ▶ “Creative” solutions, e.g., for multi-valued fields ‘partners‘ varchar(255) NOT NULL DEFAULT ” ’37,46,253’ ▶ Much information is contained in unstructured “comment” fields Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 6/14
  20. 20. Current State ▶ Data has been converted to RDF (DM2E model) ▶ 3 main classes: ▶ Treaties (dm2e:Manuscript) ▶ Partners (edm:Agent) ▶ Locations (edm:Place) ▶ Further properties: ▶ dc:title for the treaty titles ▶ dc:date for the treaty date ▶ edm:happenedAt for linking to the location ▶ rdfs:label for the names of partners and locations ▶ skos:narrower and skos:broader for modeling the hierarchy of partners ▶ dc:contributor for linking partners to treaties Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 7/14
  21. 21. Current State ▶ Data has been converted to RDF (DM2E model) ▶ 3 main classes: ▶ Treaties (dm2e:Manuscript) ▶ Partners (edm:Agent) ▶ Locations (edm:Place) ▶ Further properties: ▶ dc:title for the treaty titles ▶ dc:date for the treaty date ▶ edm:happenedAt for linking to the location ▶ rdfs:label for the names of partners and locations ▶ skos:narrower and skos:broader for modeling the hierarchy of partners ▶ dc:contributor for linking partners to treaties Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 7/14
  22. 22. Current State ▶ Data has been converted to RDF (DM2E model) ▶ 3 main classes: ▶ Treaties (dm2e:Manuscript) ▶ Partners (edm:Agent) ▶ Locations (edm:Place) ▶ Further properties: ▶ dc:title for the treaty titles ▶ dc:date for the treaty date ▶ edm:happenedAt for linking to the location ▶ rdfs:label for the names of partners and locations ▶ skos:narrower and skos:broader for modeling the hierarchy of partners ▶ dc:contributor for linking partners to treaties Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 7/14
  23. 23. Current State ▶ Data has been converted to RDF (DM2E model) ▶ 3 main classes: ▶ Treaties (dm2e:Manuscript) ▶ Partners (edm:Agent) ▶ Locations (edm:Place) ▶ Further properties: ▶ dc:title for the treaty titles ▶ dc:date for the treaty date ▶ edm:happenedAt for linking to the location ▶ rdfs:label for the names of partners and locations ▶ skos:narrower and skos:broader for modeling the hierarchy of partners ▶ dc:contributor for linking partners to treaties Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 7/14
  24. 24. Current State ✔ Treaties (as “works” in the sense of FRBR) ✔ Places ✔ Partners (signatories) ✘ Persons ✔ Document types ✘ Copies/prints (“manifestations”) ✘ Related literature Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 8/14
  25. 25. Problems ▶ Identifying signatories is non-trivial ▶ Data from comment fields (copies, prints, related literature) can’t be extracted automatically ▶ We don’t have the name of the signees (= negotiators) Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 9/14
  26. 26. Problems ▶ Identifying signatories is non-trivial ▶ Data from comment fields (copies, prints, related literature) can’t be extracted automatically ▶ We don’t have the name of the signees (= negotiators) Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 9/14
  27. 27. Problems ▶ Identifying signatories is non-trivial ▶ Data from comment fields (copies, prints, related literature) can’t be extracted automatically ▶ We don’t have the name of the signees (= negotiators) Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 9/14
  28. 28. A Pleasant Surprise Project “Übersetzungsleistungen von Diplomatie und Medien im vormodernen Friedensprozess. Europa 1450–1789” (June 2009–May 2012, BMBF) ▶ Documented all negotiators ▶ Documented the languages used in the treaties Ü We’re trying to obtain and integrate this data Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 10/14
  29. 29. A Pleasant Surprise Project “Übersetzungsleistungen von Diplomatie und Medien im vormodernen Friedensprozess. Europa 1450–1789” (June 2009–May 2012, BMBF) ▶ Documented all negotiators ▶ Documented the languages used in the treaties Ü We’re trying to obtain and integrate this data Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 10/14
  30. 30. A Pleasant Surprise Project “Übersetzungsleistungen von Diplomatie und Medien im vormodernen Friedensprozess. Europa 1450–1789” (June 2009–May 2012, BMBF) ▶ Documented all negotiators ▶ Documented the languages used in the treaties Ü We’re trying to obtain and integrate this data Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 10/14
  31. 31. A Pleasant Surprise Project “Übersetzungsleistungen von Diplomatie und Medien im vormodernen Friedensprozess. Europa 1450–1789” (June 2009–May 2012, BMBF) ▶ Documented all negotiators ▶ Documented the languages used in the treaties Ü We’re trying to obtain and integrate this data Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 10/14
  32. 32. To Do ▶ Complete linking (locations, powers) ▶ Try to obtain, add, and link data on negotiators ▶ Publish Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 11/14
  33. 33. Summary & Outlook
  34. 34. Summary ▶ Open Humanities Award has allowed us to take a valuable resource for the humanities … ▶ … and turn it into a valuable resource for the digital humanities ▶ Work will continue beyond December 31: Important impetus for further development as well as for related work on controlled vocabularies and authority files for historical research (ÚDARIAH-DE) Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 12/14
  35. 35. Thank You ▶ DM2E for the Open Humanities Award ▶ Magnus Pfeffer & colleagues (HDM Stuttgart) for their hard work Piotrowski 2014-12-11 Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online 13/14
  36. 36. Early Modern European Peace Treaties Online The LOD Remix Dr.-Ing. Michael Piotrowski Leibniz Institute for European History <piotrowski@ieg-mainz.de> @true_mxp Pisa, December 11, 2014

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