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OER, MOOCs and Micro Learning

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OER, MOOCs and Micro Learning

  1. 1. OER, MOOCs and Micro Learning Damla Yıldırım (M.A.) Technische Universität Ilmenau
  2. 2. OUTLINE «Openness» in Academic Practice Open Educational Resources (OERs) Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Micro Learning Synthesis Discussion
  3. 3. «Openness» in Academic Practice Transparency     Communication & Collaboration Continued innovation Opening Doors to Global Academic Practice Wiley, D. (2006). Open source, openness, and higher education. Innovate Journal of Online Education, 3(1).
  4. 4. Open Teaching Retain   Reuse Revise   Remix Redistribute Open Educational Resources Wiley, D. (2006). Open source, openness, and higher education. Innovate Journal of Online Education, 3(1).
  5. 5. Wiley’s 5R’s of «Openness» 5R’s Description Retain Make own copies Reuse Use in a wide range of ways Revise Adapt, modify, and improve Remix Combine two or more Redistribute Share with others This material was created by David Wiley and published freely under a Creative Commons Attribution license at: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/3221
  6. 6. Open Research Open Access  Journals    Databases     Wiley, D. (2006). Open source, openness, and higher education. Innovate Journal of Online Education, 3(1).
  7. 7. OUTLINE «Openness» in Academic Practice Open Educational Resources (OERs) Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Micro Learning Synthesis Discussion
  8. 8. Open Educational Resources Teaching, learning and research  resources that reside in the public  domain or have been released under  intellectual property license that  permits their free use or re‐purposing  by others. Atkins, D. E., Brown, J. S., & Hammond, A. L. (2007). A review of the open educational resources (OER) movement: Achievements, challenges, and new opportunities. Report to The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/files/Reviewofthe OERMovement.pdf
  9. 9. Purpose of OER Movement • Sustaining open access to high quality digital educational  materials • Increasing transparency, collaboration and networking; • Encouraging “freedom of use” • Ensuring quality of digital educational materials
  10. 10. Benefits of OER • Interoperability  • Cover broad range of subjects and topics • Assure flexibility in determination • Save time and effort • Provide learning communities • Establish collaborative learning environments McGreal, R. (2013). Introduction: The need for open educational resources. In Rory McGreal, Wanjira Kinuthia, & Stewart Marshall (Eds.). Open educational resources: Innovation, research, and practice. Commonwealth of Learning and Athabasca University, Vancouver. Retrieved from http://www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/pub_PS_OER-IRP_web.pdf Geser, G. (2012). Open educational practices and resources: OLCOS Roadmap 2012. Retrieved from http://www.olcos.org/cms/upload/docs/olcos_roadmap.pdf
  11. 11. Key Challenges of OER • Lack of awareness among academics about intellectual property rights • Quality assurance of open content • Sustainibility of OER initiatives in long run Hylén, J. (2005). Open Educational Resources: Opportunities and Challenges. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1(2). Yuan, L., MacNeill S., & Kraan W. (2008). Open Educational Resources – Opportunities and challenges for higher education. Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) CETIS, 1(34)
  12. 12. Creative Commons • OER released under the appropriate  Creative Commons license • To legitimate the use, re‐use, re‐ appropriation and re‐mixing of  open content • To remove the restrictions for  learners and educators Deimann, M. & Farrow, R. (2013). Rethinking OER and their Use : Open Education as Bildung. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(3), pp. 344-360.
  13. 13. OER Practices Higher education institutions have growing interest  to participate in this “open” movement. Side by side with large institution‐based or institution‐supported initiatives, there are many  small‐scale activities. Caswell, T., Henson, S., Jensen, M., & Wiley, D. (2008). Open educational resources: Enabling universal education. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(1), pp. 1-11. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD (2007). Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/38654317.pdf
  14. 14. OER Practices More than 100 higher education institutions and  associated organisations (including Turkey) from around  the world have formed the OpenCourseWare Consortium, using a shared model, with the aim to  advance education and empower people worldwide  through opencourseware. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD (2007). Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/38654317.pdf
  15. 15. Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s OCW initiative
  16. 16. Khan Academy
  17. 17. UK Open University’s OpenLearn initiative
  18. 18. Multimedia Educational Resources for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT)
  19. 19. Multilingual Open Resources for Independent Learning (MORIL)
  20. 20. TURKEY (2007)
  21. 21. OUTLINE «Openness» in Academic Practice Open Educational Resources (OERs) Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Micro Learning Synthesis Discussion
  22. 22. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) A MOOC is an open online course offered by  any individual or institution on a platform  that hosts many other alike courses or a  stand‐alone course McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G. & Cormier, D. (2010). Massive Open Online Courses. Digital ways of knowing and learning. The Mooc Model For Digital Practice (Created through funding received by the University of Prince Edward Island through the Social Sciences and  Humanities Research Council's "Knowledge Synthesis Grants on the Digital Economy". 2010 CC Attribution.) 
  23. 23. MOOCs Higher education Executive education Employee development Khalil, H. & Ebner, M. (2014). MOOCs Completion Rates and Possible Methods to Improve Retention - A Literature Review. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2014 (pp. 1236-1244). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
  24. 24. April 2012 http://edutechnica.com/moocmap/
  25. 25. October 2013 http://edutechnica.com/moocmap/
  26. 26. Free of Charge? What About Return on Investment? • Completion Certificates • Institutional buying • Additional paid resources Strongly dependent on context, culture and political ideology Visual Academy. The Making Money Schemes of MOOCs Infographic. Retrieved from http://www.onlineschools.org/visual-academy/mooc-money/
  27. 27. Current Place of MOOCs Brown, C., Deacon, A., Small, J., & Walji, S. (2014). To MOOC or not to MOOC – That is the question. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/adeacon/to-mooc-or-not-to-mooc-that-is-the-question?qid=fe6af2e5-849d-42ba-85cf- 0fa83cd8b121&v=default&b=&from_search=2
  28. 28. Formal Accreditation Accelerating in USA Five Coursera MOOCs were recommended by American  Council of Education the Accreditation body for credit  awards in March 2013 Department for Business, Innovation and Skills – BIS (2013). The Maturing of the MOOC: Literature Review of Massive Open Online Courses and other Forms of Online Distance Learning. Research Paper Number 130. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/240193/13-1173-maturing-of-the-mooc.pdf
  29. 29. Informal Accreditation Open Badges Recognition of skills and interests Job Opportunuties Lifelong learning https://backpack.openbadges.com
  30. 30. Learner Motivation • Lifelong learning or gain an understanding of any subject matter, without any particular  expectations for completion or achievement • Edutainment  • Convenience • Exploration of online education Belanger, Y. & Thornton, J. (2013). Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach, Duke University’s FirstMOOC, Duke Center for Instructional Technology
  31. 31. Consensus Points • Brand Extension • Recruitment • Educational Innovation • Revenue (or cost reduction) Department for Business, Innovation and Skills – BIS (2013). The Maturing of the MOOC: Literature Review of Massive Open Online Courses and other Forms of Online Distance Learning. Research Paper Number 130. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/240193/13-1173-maturing-of-the-mooc.pdf
  32. 32. Controversial Points Growing interest  vs.             Hype Positive outcomes             vs.             Poor learning quality MOOCs are unstoppable which will break the old  business model of Higher Education Department for Business, Innovation and Skills – BIS (2013). The Maturing of the MOOC: Literature Review of Massive Open Online Courses and other Forms of Online Distance Learning. Research Paper Number 130. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/240193/13-1173-maturing-of-the-mooc.pdf
  33. 33. Challenges High retention rates Accreditation  Assessment  Authentication Department for Business, Innovation and Skills – BIS (2013). The Maturing of the MOOC: Literature Review of Massive Open Online Courses and other Forms of Online Distance Learning. Research Paper Number 130. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/240193/13-1173-maturing-of-the-mooc.pdf
  34. 34. Types of MOOCs • Centralized / linear • Organized lecture recordings • Predefined schedule • Proprietary licenses • Self-assessment and discussion forums • Learner Analytics • Lack of social interaction and access xMOOCs van Treeck, T., Himpls‐Gutermann, K., & Robes, J. (2013). Offene und partizipative Lernkonzepte: E‐Portfolios, MOOCs und Flipped Classrooms. In M. Ebner und S. Schön (Eds.). Lehrbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologien. Retrieved from http://l3t.eu  Grünewald, F., Meinel, C., Totschnig, M., & Willems, C. (2013). Designing MOOCs for the Support of Multiple Learning Styles. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8095, pp. 371‐382.  Schulmeister, R. (2013). Der Beginn und das Ende von Open, Chronologie der MOOC-Entwicklung. In R. Schulmeister (Ed.). MOOCs – Massive Open Online Courses: Offene Bildung oder Geschäftsmodell? Münster: Waxmann.
  35. 35. • Decentralized • Connectivist principles of learning  • Active participation and engagement • Social learning through social software • Personal Learning Environments • Peer Learning (pedagogical model) • Joint communication cMOOCs Types of MOOCs van Treeck, T., Himpls-Gutermann, K., & Robes, J. (2013). Offene und partizipative Lernkonzepte: E-Portfolios, MOOCs und Flipped Classrooms. In M. Ebner und S. Schön (Eds.). Lehrbuch für Lernen und Lehren mit Technologien. Retrieved from http://l3t.eu Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), pp. 3-10. Grünewald, F., Meinel, C., Totschnig, M., & Willems, C. (2013). Designing MOOCs for the Support of Multiple Learning Styles. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8095, pp. 371-382. McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G. & Cormier, D. (2010). Massive Open Online Courses. Digital ways of knowing and learning. The Mooc Model For Digital Practice (Created through funding received by the University of Prince Edward Island through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council's "Knowledge Synthesis Grants on the Digital Economy". 2010 CC Attribution.)
  36. 36. George Siemens and Stephen Downes: “Connectivism and Connective  Knowledge” at the University of Manitoba in 2008
  37. 37. Sebastian Thrun: “Artificial Intelligence” at the University of Stanford in 2011
  38. 38. Udacity: Sebastian Thrun and Peter Norvig (Director of Research at Google) in 2012
  39. 39. Coursera: Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng in 2012
  40. 40. edX: Harvard University and MIT
  41. 41. FutureLearn UK: The Open University in 2013
  42. 42. OUTLINE «Openness» in Academic Practice Open Educational Resources (OERs) Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Micro Learning Synthesis Discussion
  43. 43. Micro Learning Micro‐content delivery through web and  mobile service with a sequence of micro  interactions which prevents learners from  information overload Bruck, P. A., Motiwalla, L., & Foerster, F. (2012). Mobile learning with micro-content: A framework and evaluation. Proceedings from BLED 2012. Retrieved from http://aisel.aisnet.org/bled2012/2 Kovachev, Cao, Klamma, & Jarke (2011). Learn-as-you-go: New ways of cloud-based micro-learning for the mobile web. Proceedings from 10th International Conference, Hong Kong, China, pp. 51-61.
  44. 44. Micro Learning • Formal learning         Direct & Pragmatic approach • Autonomous learning environment • On‐demand information from any kind of device • Independent from any restrictions of formal  education. Krüger, N. (2012). Micro-E-Learning in Information Literacy. Proceedings from World Library and Information congress: 78th IFLA General Conference and Assembly. Retrieved from http://conference.ifla.org/past/2012/93-kruger-en.pdf
  45. 45. Micro Learning Micro learning does not provide  seperate learning sessions, rather it is  integrated into several activities of  learner It supplements other forms of learning  to support the autonomy of learner. Bruck, P. A., Motiwalla, L., & Foerster, F. (2012). Mobile learning with micro-content: A framework and evaluation. Proceedings from BLED 2012. Retrieved from http://aisel.aisnet.org/bled2012/2
  46. 46. Micro Learning Macro Learning • Static  • Quickly  outdated  Micro Learning • Dynamic • Pragmatic • Autonomous  • Personalized • Open Access (i. e. Digitial  repositories of universities)  Krüger, N. (2012). Micro-E-Learning in Information Literacy. Proceedings from World Library and Information congress: 78th IFLA General Conference and Assembly. Retrieved from http://conference.ifla.org/past/2012/93-kruger-en.pdf
  47. 47. OUTLINE «Openness» in Academic Practice Open Educational Resources (OERs) Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Micro Learning Synthesis Discussion
  48. 48. Individual Involvement Institutional Involvement Recognition Individually  Institutionally (Global) Transparency Individually developed educational  materials, or courses A collection of institutionally developed  educational materials, or courses Quality Benchmarking of individually developed  educational materials, or courses Benchmarking of institutionally developed  educational materials or courses AND  brand extension MICRO MACRO OER & MOOCs
  49. 49. Discussion

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