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DEMOGRAPHY• The general science of studying human population.• It is the statistics of the population that is subjected to change in accordance with aging, birth, death, migration etc.• The demography of any place helps to gather information about the population, religion, language and ethnicity of that place.• Demography can be understood through census. Census 2011 -7th Census operation post Indias Independence and 15th in total since; it began in the year 1981
POPULATION• The world experienced dramatic population growth during the 20thcentury• The number of inhabitants doubling from 3 to 6 billion (2% per annum) between 1960 and 2000.
• India occupies 2nd rank among the worlds most populated countries. With its current population of more than 1.21 billion people males(51.5%) female (48.4%)• India, saw very rapid population growth from 448 million in 1960 to 1.21 billion in 2010• India has a population growth rate of 1.4%per year and decadal growth rate of 17.64% (2001 - 2011), Male: (17.19%), female: (18.12%)
Five highest populated states in India as of 2011 census.• Uttar Pradesh has top population with 19,95,81,477 (16.49%) people.• Maharashtra has second highest population with 11,23,72,972 (9.29%) people.• Bihar the third highest populated state in India with 10,38,04,637 (8.58%) population.• West Bengal stand at fourth with 9,13,47,736 (7.55%) population.• Andhra Pradesh is at number five with 8,46,65, 533 (7%) population.
Five least populated states in India as of 2011 census.• Sikkim the lowest populated state in India has a population of 6,07,688 (0.05%).• Mizoram second lowest state with a population of 10,91,014 (0.09%).• Arunachal Pradesh has a population of 13,82,611 people and ranks third on lowest populated states list.• Goa ranks fourth with 14,577,23 (0.12%) people.• Nagaland fifth lowest populate state in India with 19,80,602 (0.16%) people.
For Union Territories• NCT of New Delhi the highest populated Union Territory has a population of 1,67,53,235 people.• Lakshadweep the lowest populated Union Territory has a population of 64,429 people Population Density• Population per unit square• Average density of population in India is 382 per sq. km.
• 83.3 crore live in rural areas while 37.7 crore stay in urban areas.• 68.84% of the countrys population lives in rural areas and 31.16% in urban areas• For the first time since Independence, the overall growth rate of population in rural areas has sharply declined• The level of urbanisation increased from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census, while the proportion of rural population declined from 72.19% to 68.84%.• 18.62% of the countrys rural population lives in Uttar Pradesh and 13.48% urban population lives in Maharashtra.
LITERACY• Literacy in India is key for socio-economic progress• India’s effective literacy rate has recorded a 9.2 per cent rise to reach 74.04 per cent in 2011• Literacy rate improved among females as compared to males. Males is 82.14 %(rise of 6.9%), females is 65.46%, (rise of11.8 %)• Kerala is the most literate state in India, with 93.9% literacy, followed closely by Lakshadweep at 92.28%.• Bihar is the least literate state in India with 63.82% literacy, followed by Arunachal Pradesh at 66.95.• Haryana has the lowest female literacy rate in India.
• Cuba has the highest literacy rate 99.9, followed by Estonia & Latvia with 99.8 respectively• India is in 137th position among the world with a literacy rate of 74%• Only 63% of age group 6 – 24 is studying in India. (Over 170 million potential students are left in the lurch.)• World average literacy rate is 84%• India currently has one of the largest illiterate population of any nation on earth (20-40%)• The right to education is a fundamental right & UNESCO aims at education for all by 2015
Reasons for Low Literacy Rate• The absence of adequate school infrastructure and inefficient teaching staff is one of the main factors• No proper sanitation in most schools.• The study of 188 government-run primary schools in central and northern India revealed that 59% of the schools had no drinking water facility and 89% no toilets.• The average Pupil Teacher Ratio for All India is 1:42, implying teacher shortage.• Furthermore, the expenditure allocated to education was never above 4.3% of the GDP• Discrimination of lower castes has resulted in high dropout rates and low enrolment rates.
• Absolute poverty in India has also deterred the pursuit of formal education• The large proportion of illiterate females is another reason for low literacy in India.• Inequality based on gender differences resulted in female literacy rates being lower
RELIGION• Houses worlds third-biggest Muslim population• Majority of Muslim population: Lakshadweep and Jammu and Kashmir.• Majority of Christian population: Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland.• Majority of Sikh population: Punjab.• The share of the Hindu population is 80%
• The percentage of Hindu population has seen a decreasing trend since 1961, and in the 2011 census, it has fallen below 80%• The percentage of Muslim population has seen an increasing trend, the main reason for this is “Hindu Muslim fertility differentials”• This gap is likely to close as the fertility level among Muslims declines with increasing level of education and standards of living. There is faster increase in family planning among Muslims.
Impact of religions• Religion is a major cultural influence and also plays an important role in politics.• Political party support greatly depends upon religion.• The main religions are Hinduism and Islam and many political parties are identified by the religion of their supporters.• Many national religious issues are the key points of the success in elections• The caste system crosses religious boundaries to infect both Hindu and Islamic people• Hindus have four main castes and hundreds of sub-castes. Many political parties draw supporters from specific castes or sub-castes.
FEMALE SEX RATIO• Current female Sex ratio of India 2012 is 940 females for every 1000 males.• In India female Sex Ratio was okay till the time of Independence, thereafter it has declined regularly.• According to Census of India 20011, it has shown some improvement in the last 10 years.• It has gone up from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011 census of India.• Rural female Sex Ratio of India is 947 as per 2011 census• Urban female Sex Ratio of India is 926 as per 2011 census.
• The female sex ratio for children under the age of six was 914 girls against 1,000 boys, (a worsening from the 2001 census in which the sex ratio was 927 girls per 1,000 boys)• India’s Muslims (15%) have close to normal female sex ratios,(936) not nearly as skewed as the population at large or upper caste Hindus in particular.• The female sex ratio among Hindus (4/5 of pop.) is 931.• Christians, accounting for a little more than 2% of the population had an even better female sex ratio, skewed towards normality at 1,009.
• Kerala and Puducherry are only two places in India where total female population is more than the male population.• The states of South India have the best Sex Ratio of females per 1000 males.• Kerala with 1084 females for every 1000 males has the best female sex ratio in India.• Other states like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka are also showing an increase in their female sex ratio.• Haryana has the lowest female sex ratio of 877 females per 1000 males.• Among Union Territories, Daman and Diu has the lowest female sex ratio while Pondicherry has the highest female sex ratio in India.
• There is some extent of gender bias in India which is responsible for this decline in female ratio (however it has started to show some improvement in the last 20 years)• Lack of education and poverty in rural areas leads to gender bias.
EMPLOYMENT• Employment has grown at an average annual rate of two per cent in India during the past four decades since 1972-73• During the past decade, 2001-2010, employment is estimated to have grown globally at about 1.5 per cent per annum:• The developed countries registered a growth rate of barely one per cent during 2001-08.• The developing countries in East and South East Asia, and transition economies of Eastern Europe also saw very little growth in employment.• But Latin America and Africa performed better. South Asia maintained a steady growth of employment of 2.4 per cent in which India had a major contribution
• India’s significant record on employment growth has, however, not been adequate in view of a faster growth of labour force• A few disconcerting features of employment growth in recent years are:1. employment growth has decelerated2. sectors with higher employment potential have registered relatively slower growth3. agriculture, despite a sharp decline in its importance in GDP, continues to be the largest employer4. most of the employment growth has been contributed by the unorganised, informal sector which is characterised by poor incomes and conditions of work5. employment growth in the organised sector which seems to have picked up in recent years, has been mostly in the categories of casual and contract labour.
Primary Sector• economic activity depends mainly on exploitation of natural resources. Agriculture and agriculture related activitiesSecondary Sector• When the main activity involves manufacturing then it is the secondary sector. industrial production where physical goods are produced come under the secondary sector.Tertiary Sector• When the activity involves providing intangible goods like services then this is part of the tertiary sector. Financial services, management consultancy, telephony and IT are good examples of service sector.
• India has 40 Million Unemployed people.• Current unemployment Rate is 9.4%• Unemployment rate is10.3% in rural 7.3% in urban areas• In the Indian context, – 359 persons per 1,000 are either working or interested to work (Labour Force Participation Rate)• Out of an estimated population of 1,182 million – 424 million persons are either employed or are interested in working.• For males, the unemployment rate is 8%, whereas for females the unemployment rate is 14.6%• Agriculture is the predominant occupation in India, employing more than 50% of the population.• The service sector accounts for employing more than 25% while the industrial sector accounts for more than 10%.
Organized sector• The sector which carries out all activity through a system• follows the law of the land.• labour rights are given due respect and• wages are as per the norms of the country and those of the industry.• Labour working organized sector get the benefit of social security net as framed by the Government.• Certain benefits like provident fund, leave entitlement, medical benefits and insurance are provided to workers in the organized sector.Unorganised Sector:• The sector which evade most of the laws and don’t follow the system.• Small shopkeepers, some small scale manufacturing units.• Workers don’t get adequate salary and other benefits like leave, health benefits and insurance
INCOME• Indias per capita income (nominal) is $ 1219, ranked 142nd in the world• The PCI figure gives a fair idea of the standard of living of the people.• It is calculated by evenly dividing the national income among the countrys population• Per capita income in India has doubled between 2004-05 and 2010-11 to touch Rs 54,835 per annum.• Delhi, Goa, Haryana and Maharashtra are the states with the highest per capita income.
• Towns and cities make more than two thirds of the Indian GDP, even though less than a third of the population live in them.• Though three-fourths of the population living in rural areas, rural areas contribute to only one-third of the national income.• In 2010, Indian emigrants are estimated to be sending home remittances totaling $55 billion, the most of any country, constituting about 4.5% of GDP.• Mean personal income (in 2008 dollars) is $53,000, and median household income is $92,000• Various sectors falling under the India GDP composition includes food processing, transportation equipment, petroleum, textiles, software, agriculture, mining, machinery, chemicals, steel, cement and many others.• The share of services in India’s GDP is 58.5per cent in 2011.The share of agriculture and industry are 13.5% and 28% respectively.
AGE STRUCTURE• The age structure of a population can have a large effect on economic growth, especially when it shifts• in recent years, India’s demographic profile has begun to evolve in a way that is potentially more favourable to economic growth• Changes in mortality and creates changes in the age structure of India’s population• 1950- India had a very young population, with many children and few elderly;.• Moving forward in time, the number of working-age individuals increased relative to children and the elderly.
• Age structure:1. 65 years and over: 5.5 %2. 15 years to 64 years: 64.9 %3. 0 years to 14 years: 29.7 %• The median age of Indian emigrants is 37 and just half of them are females.
INDIA V/S CHINA• Chinas population growth is only 0.7% per year (India with 1.6 billion, will surpass China with respect to population size in 2050)• India had 66% higher income per capita than China in 1980, but by the early 1990s China overtook India.• In 2008, the situation was reversed, with income per capita in China double that of India.• This income crossover is due to very different demographic trajectories of China and India• Because of dissimilarities in TFR and the ratio of the working-age to the non-working-age population• China’s campaign of “later, longer, fewer” and its one-child policy (beginning in 1979) led to a decline in fertility.
• Rapid rise in the ratio of China’s working-age to non-working-age population also contributed to its extremely fast economic growth since 1980.• The corresponding population ratio in India has grown more slowly
• In the short run China can take full advantage of its demographic dividend as it has1. more flexible labor markets2. higher rates of female labor force participation3. more highly educated women4. more open attitudes about women working5. less illiteracy in general6. better infrastructure7. more internal migration8. a higher degree of urbanization9. more openness to foreign trade• Moving forward, economic growth in China will be slowed by1. rising dependency rate due to a rapidly aging population.2. Wealth transfers from working-age populations to the elderly
• India’s 65 and over population currently represents only one-fourth the number of its adolescents and young adults.• It will not outnumber the younger group for nearly four decades.• India will add roughly 9 million people each year to its labour force over the next decade, while China will add virtually none.• Fertility decline and rising longevity will rise the working-age share creating higher growth rates in India over the next 30 years
• Share of India’s 50+ population today-only 16% of India’s population.• By 2050, over 33%, will be aged 50 or over• The share of those aged 65 and over will increase from 5% to 14%• The share of those aged 80 and over will rise from 1% to 3%.
• Policies to meet the education and training needs of India’s youth can ease the process of caring for growing numbers of older Indians in the future.• Behavioural and policy responses to population aging – including higher labour force participation of women, higher savings for retirement, and later age of retirement – suggest that population aging will not necessarily significantly impede economic growth.• If India adopts policies that allow the working-age population to be productively employed, India may receive a demographic dividend of roughly 1% point growth in GDP, compounded year by year.