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psychometrics chapter one.pptx

  1. CHAPTERONE Introduction to Psychometrics
  2. Humanbehaviour  Human behaviour refers to the way humans act and interact.  is the potential and expressed capacity (mentally, physically, and socially) of human individuals or groups to respond to internal and external stimuli throughout their life.  Behavior is driven by genetic and environmental factors that affect an individual.  Behaviour can be observable or unobservable
  3. Observablebehavior  Observable behavior are known as overt behavior  Refers to behaviour or actions that are easily and directly observable,  Describes something done or shown openly and can be observed by others.  Includes physical actions, facial expressions and gestures Examples of overt behaviour include running, dancing, arguing, smiling, frowning(expression of anger, disapproval, or worry) etc.
  4.  Unobservable behavior are called covert behaviour  refers to behaviour is not observable and hidden or not shown openly.  Are not as visible or apparent. This means that it is hidden or concealed from others.  Includes mental processes Examples: of covert behaviour include thinking, dreaming, glandular responses, etc. Unobservablebehavior
  5. Definitionsofpsychometrics  Psycho =mind/mental (Greek: ‘psyche’)  Metric =measurement Therefore psychometrics is the science of measuring mental capacities and processes.
  6. Meaningof Psychometrics  Psychometrics is the science of measurement of unobservable individual behaviors.  Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement It encompasses  The construction of measurement instruments  The development of theoretical approaches to measurement.
  7. Psychologicaltest  Is a standardized measure of a person’s behaviour that is used to measure the individual differences that exist among people.  Psychometric tests attempt to objectively measure aspects of mental ability or personality, normally for the purposes of job selection.  Psychological tests are written, visual, or verbal evaluations administered to assess the cognitive and emotional functioning of a person  Mostly tests are used as a way of measuring differences between people or differences in the same person over time.
  8. Psychologicaltest Also known as:  Mental measurements  Psychological instruments  Psychometric tests  Inventories  Rating scales
  9. Featuresofa psychometrictest  Measures aspects of mental function  Used for differentiating between people  Derived through rigorous scientific and statistical methods  Used to quantify ,understand and predict behavior  Can be administered individually or in a group
  10. Needforpsychologicaltest Employers typically use psychometric tests as a way of:  Eliminating unsuitable candidates at an early stage  Screening candidates for interviews  Objectively determining someone’s ability, personality, motivation, values and reactions to their environments  Identifying the strengths or weaknesses of employee  Providing management with guidance on career progression for existing employees
  11. Whatcanbemeasured  Ability  Aptitude - “IQ”  Personality and preferences  Motivation / interests  Emotional intelligence  Attitudes  Critical thinking / inductive reasoning
  12. Wherecantheybeused inHRM Selection  Recruiting external job applicants  Promoting existing staff  Selecting for redundancy Training and development  Identify an individual’s development requirements  Enhanced self-knowledge  Career Development Team Building  Forming a new team  Developing a team
  13. Requirementsof psychometrictests Psychometric test must be: • Objective – the score must not be affected by the testers' beliefs or values.  Standardized – a test is administered the same way every time, to reduce any test bias.  Reliable – the test must produce consistent results, and not be significantly influenced by outside factors.  Validity – A test has to measure what it's designed to measure  Non-discriminatory – it must not disadvantage any group on the basis of gender, culture, ethnicity, etc.
  14. Typesofpsychometric tests  Ability test: measure a specific ability or abilities required for a job  Aptitude test: evaluates what an individual is capable of learning. Measures capacity or future potential  Intelligence test: measures a person’s general potential to solve problems, adapt to novel situations  Personality test: used to identify behaviors which characterized a unique individual
  15. Psychometrictestsused inHRM Mostly,  Ability  Personality
  16. Abilitytests Work-related reasoning, perception and judgment Includes • Verbal reasoning • Numerical reasoning • Abstract/Logical reasoning • Mechanical reasoning • Spatial reasoning
  17. VerbalReasoning  A verbal reasoning test assesses ability to make deductions from text.  Designed specifically to measure the candidate's understanding and interpretation of written information.
  18. Example
  19. Verbalreasoning:logicalsequenceofwords In this type of question, some words are given. You have to arrange these words in a meaningful order. The order may be according to age, size and need etc. Arrange the following words in a meaningful order. 1. Death 2. Marriage 3. Education 4. Birth 5. Funeral (A) 5, 1, 2, 3, 4 (B) 4, 2, 3, 1, 5 (C) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1 (D) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5
  20. Example2 Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence. 1. Key 2. Door3. Lock 4. Room 5. Switch on A. 5, 1, 2, 4, 3 B. 4, 2, 1, 5, 3 C. 1, 3, 2, 4, 5 D. 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
  21. Numericalreasoning test  Measures your ability to interpret, analyze and draw logical conclusions based on numerical data presented in graphs and tables.  Maths skills tested may include calculation of percentages, fractions and ratios  Not designed to measure your mathematical ability but your ability to use numerical data as a tool to make reasoned decisions and solve problems
  22. Example Which number comes next in this series of numbers? 2 3 5 7 11 13 a) 14 b) 15 c) 16 d) 17
  23. Example 2 Fill in the missing numbers: 1 10 3 9 5 8 7 7 9 6 ? ?
  24. Abstract/Logicalreasoning  Use diagrams, symbols or shapes instead of words or numbers.  They involve identifying the logic of a pattern and then continuing that logic to arrive at the solution.
  25. Example Which figure comes next in the sequence
  26. Answer D As the sequence progresses the number of dots alternates in opposite section of the rectangle. For example, the top of the first rectangle has 4 black dots and the bottom of the second rectangle has 2 black dots. The top of the third rectangle has 4 black dots and the bottom of the fourth has 2 black dots and so on. Conversely, the number of black dots in the bottom of the first rectangle has 5 black dots and the top of the second rectangle has 3 black dots and so on. Therefore, the correct answer is D.
  27. Mechanicalreasoningtests  They are typically used to assess how well an individual can apply reasoning in a practical environment.  Used during the selection or recruitment process for jobs related to engineering, the emergency services and the army, amongst many others.
  28. Example
  29. Example2 Which gear will turn the same way as the driver
  30. Spatialreasoning • Is a non-verbal aptitude test that assesses ability to understand complex plans and shapes. • It’s sometimes called a ‘spatial awareness test’ • Spatial reasoning tests are often used to assess technical or engineering candidates, for example people who want to become architects, engineers or designers
  31. Whattypes ofquestionswillIface?  Shape combining  Matching two dimensional shapes  Mirror images  Three dimensional cubes  Two and three dimensional solids  Maps
  32. Example Which figure is identical to the first?
  33. Example Which shape in Group 2 corresponds to the shape in Group 1?
  34. Hint: These 2 dimensional spatial questions are usually fairly straightforward but you may be asked to complete a number of them in a limited time. Note that in this example some of the shapes in Group 2 are rotations of those in Group 1. These questions use a large number of shapes that are presented close together. Some people find this very distracting and find it easier to work through the shapes in the second group systematically
  35. MeasuringPersonality What is Personality? • A person’s relatively stable feelings, thoughts, and behavioral patterns. • The combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinguishing character
  36. TheBIGFIVEpersonalitycharacteristics