Human behaviour refers to the way humans act
is the potential and expressed capacity
(mentally, physically, and socially) of human
individuals or groups to respond to internal and
external stimuli throughout their life.
Behavior is driven by genetic and
environmental factors that affect an individual.
Behaviour can be observable or unobservable
Observable behavior are known as overt behavior
Refers to behaviour or actions that are easily and
Describes something done or shown openly and can be
observed by others.
Includes physical actions, facial expressions and
Examples of overt behaviour include running, dancing,
arguing, smiling, frowning(expression of anger,
disapproval, or worry) etc.
Unobservable behavior are called covert behaviour
refers to behaviour is not observable and hidden or
not shown openly.
Are not as visible or apparent. This means that it is
hidden or concealed from others.
Includes mental processes
Examples: of covert behaviour include thinking,
dreaming, glandular responses, etc.
Psychometrics is the science of measurement of
unobservable individual behaviors.
Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the
theory and technique of psychological measurement
The construction of measurement instruments
The development of theoretical approaches to
Is a standardized measure of a person’s behaviour that
is used to measure the individual differences that exist
Psychometric tests attempt to objectively measure
aspects of mental ability or personality, normally for the
purposes of job selection.
Psychological tests are written, visual, or verbal
evaluations administered to assess the cognitive and
emotional functioning of a person
Mostly tests are used as a way of measuring differences
between people or differences in the same person over
Measures aspects of mental function
Used for differentiating between people
Derived through rigorous scientific and statistical
Used to quantify ,understand and predict behavior
Can be administered individually or in a group
Employers typically use psychometric tests as a way of:
Eliminating unsuitable candidates at an early stage
Screening candidates for interviews
Objectively determining someone’s ability,
personality, motivation, values and reactions to their
Identifying the strengths or weaknesses of employee
Providing management with guidance on career
progression for existing employees
Recruiting external job applicants
Promoting existing staff
Selecting for redundancy
Training and development
Identify an individual’s development requirements
Forming a new team
Developing a team
Psychometric test must be:
• Objective – the score must not be affected by the
testers' beliefs or values.
Standardized – a test is administered the same way
every time, to reduce any test bias.
Reliable – the test must produce consistent results, and
not be significantly influenced by outside factors.
Validity – A test has to measure what it's designed to
Non-discriminatory – it must not disadvantage any
group on the basis of gender, culture, ethnicity, etc.
Ability test: measure a specific ability or abilities
required for a job
Aptitude test: evaluates what an individual is capable
of learning. Measures capacity or future potential
Intelligence test: measures a person’s general potential
to solve problems, adapt to novel situations
Personality test: used to identify behaviors which
characterized a unique individual
In this type of question, some words are given. You have
to arrange these words in a meaningful order. The order
may be according to age, size and need etc.
Arrange the following words in a meaningful order.
1. Death 2. Marriage 3. Education 4. Birth 5. Funeral
(A) 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
(B) 4, 2, 3, 1, 5
(C) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1
(D) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5
Arrange the words given below in a meaningful sequence.
1. Key 2. Door3. Lock 4. Room 5. Switch on
A. 5, 1, 2, 4, 3
B. 4, 2, 1, 5, 3
C. 1, 3, 2, 4, 5
D. 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
Measures your ability to interpret, analyze and draw
logical conclusions based on numerical data
presented in graphs and tables.
Maths skills tested may include calculation of
percentages, fractions and ratios
Not designed to measure your mathematical ability
but your ability to use numerical data as a tool to
make reasoned decisions and solve problems
D As the sequence progresses the number of dots
alternates in opposite section of the rectangle. For
example, the top of the first rectangle has 4 black dots
and the bottom of the second rectangle has 2 black
dots. The top of the third rectangle has 4 black dots and
the bottom of the fourth has 2 black dots and so on.
Conversely, the number of black dots in the bottom of
the first rectangle has 5 black dots and the top of the
second rectangle has 3 black dots and so on. Therefore,
the correct answer is D.
They are typically used to assess how well an
individual can apply reasoning in a practical
Used during the selection or recruitment process for
jobs related to engineering, the emergency services
and the army, amongst many others.
• Is a non-verbal aptitude test that assesses ability to
understand complex plans and shapes.
• It’s sometimes called a ‘spatial awareness test’
• Spatial reasoning tests are often used to assess
technical or engineering candidates, for example
people who want to become architects, engineers
These 2 dimensional spatial questions are usually
fairly straightforward but you may be asked to
complete a number of them in a limited time. Note
that in this example some of the shapes in Group 2
are rotations of those in Group 1. These questions
use a large number of shapes that are presented
close together. Some people find this very distracting
and find it easier to work through the shapes in the
second group systematically