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EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS ppt-units 2,4.pptx


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EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS ppt-units 2,4.pptx

  3. 3. MEANING  Referred to as ‘self-control’, is the ability to control one’s emotions, thoughts and behavior effectively in different situations.  Includes motivating oneself, and working towards achieving personal and academic goals  To manage oneself well, a person needs to develop the following. • Positive thinking: to think that one can get things done and be happy. • Result orientation: to dream big and achieve the desired or set results. •Self-awareness: to be aware of one’s personality traits and make the best out of one’s strengths.
  5. 5. MOTIVATION  Motivation is derived from the word ‘motive’.  Directing behaviour towards certain motive or goal is the essence of motivation.  Motivation is of 2 types:  Intrinsic- It includes activities for which there is no apparent reward but one derives enjoyment and satisfaction in doing them. It occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it brings them pleasure.  Extrinsic- It arises because of incentives or external rewards. Lack of motivation or incentives may lead to frustration
  6. 6. POSITIVE ATTITUDE  Positive attitude helps improve mental and physical health.  Ways to stay positive  Start the day with a morning routine. Say positive affirmations, smile ,think about the tasks to be accomplished during for the day.  Feed the mind with positivity, read motivating books, listen to music with uplifting lyrics, watch inspiring movies, sleep well.  Be proactive.  Focus on constructive and positive things. Do not approach life with ‘problems’. Approach it with ‘solutions’.  Learn from failures.  Learn to focus on the present.  Move towards your goals and dreams. Be cheerful and work hard to achieve the dreams.  Vacation with family and friends.  Healthy diet
  7. 7. MEANING OF STRESS MANAGEMENT  Stress Management refers to focusing human efforts for maintaining a healthy body and mind capable of better withstanding stressful situations.  Some of the ways to manage stress are given below.  Stay positive and analyze what is going wrong in a certain situation  Resolving the situation is easy  once understood.  • Maintain an accomplishment sheet and enter  even small achievements.  • Keep your thoughts in present. Pondering over
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF STRESS MANAGEMENT  Improves mood  Boosts immune system  Promotes longevity  Leads to burst of physical strength, which is vital for goal achievement  Complete mental and physical engagement for task accomplishment  Increases efficiency and effectiveness  Prevents psychological disorders and behavioral problems
  9. 9. STRESS MANAGEMENTTECHNIQUES Physical Exercise Yoga Meditation Enjoying Going OnVacations with Family and Friends- Taking NatureWalks-
  10. 10. SESSION-2:RESULT ORIENTATION  It describe a person’s ability to recognize what results are important and steps needed to achieve them.  Focus on outcome rather than process used to develop or deliver the product
  11. 11. HOWTO BECOME RESULT ORIENTED  Set clear goals- SMART (Specific, measurable, action oriented, realistic, timely  Prepare an action plan- (what , who, when, how long, what resources, who should)  Use the right resources and tools  Communicate with mentors and peers  Make a calendar  Work hard
  12. 12. SESSION-3: SELF AWARENESS  Understanding one’s own needs, desires, habits, traits, behaviors and feelings. STEPSTOWARDS SELF ARARENESS  Gain awareness of one’s emotions  Track one’s feelings  Expand one’s practice to areas of life beyond the person’s feelings
  13. 13. PERSONALITY AND PERSONALITYTRAITS  Personality traits are defined as relatively lasting patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that distinguish individuals from one another.  There are five parameters that describe an individual’s personality.These five dimensions are also called the ‘Big Five Factors’ and the model is referred to as the ‘Five Factor Model’. 1. Consciousness- Individuals, who listen to their conscience, are self-disciplined, do their work on time, take care of others before themselves and care about others’ feelings. 2. Openness- Individuals with openness to experience are, generally, creative, curious, active, flexible and adventurous and open minded. 3. Extraversion- Extroverts are individuals, who interact more with people around and are, talkative. They are confident. 4, Agreeableness- They are kind, sympathetic, cooperative, warm and considerate.They accommodate themselves in any situation. 5. Neuroticism- individuals show tendency towards anxiety, self-doubt, depression, shyness and other similar negative feelings.
  14. 14. PERSONALITY DISORDERS  CATEGORY-A: SUSPICIOUS- People of this disorder mistrust others and are suspicious, even when there is no need to do.  1. PARANOID- distrust for others, including friends, family members and partners. People with such a disorder mostly hold grudges against others.  2. SCHIZOID- A person with schizoid personality disorder is detached and aloof and prone to introspection and fantasy.  3. SCHIZOTYPAL- People with this type of personality disorder believe that they can influence other people or events with their thoughts.They often misinterpret behaviors.This causes them to have inappropriate emotional responses.
  15. 15.  CLUSTER B: EMOTIONAL AND IMPULSIVE- characterized by unstable moods and behaviors, which lead to unhealthy and unstable relationships, emotional instability and feeling of worthlessness. 1. Antisocial : People with antisocial personality disorder disregard social rules and obligations.They are irritating and aggressive, and act impulsively. 2. Borderline : People with borderline personality disorder essentially lack a sense of self-worth, and thus, experience feelings of emptiness and fears of abandonment. Suicidal threats and acts of self harm are common in people with such a personality disorder 3. Histrionic personality disorder: People with histrionic personality disorder frequently try to gain more attention by being overly dramatic.They are extremely sensitive to criticism or disapproval, and can be easily influenced by others. 4. Narcissistic personality disorder: People with narcissistic personality disorder believe that they are more important than others.They lack empathy for other people and tend to exaggerate their own achievements.
  16. 16.  CLUSTER C: ANXIOUS-This personality disorder is characterised by feelings of worry, anxiety or fear 1. Avoidant personality disorder: People with this type of disorder are socially inept, unappealing or inferior, and constantly fear being embarrassed, criticised or rejected. 2. Dependent personality disorder: People with such a disorder are characterised by lack of self-confidence and an extra need to be looked after.They are heavily dependent on other people for their emotional and physical needs.  3. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder:- People with such a disorder strongly stick to rules and regulations.They can be characterized by a general pattern of excessive concern with orderliness, perfectionism and attention to details.
  17. 17. STEPSTO OVERCOME PERSONALITY DISORDERS  Talk to someone to share your feelings.  Look after your physical health. A healthy body can help you maintain a healthy mind.  Build confidence in your ability to handle difficult situations.  Engage in hobbies, such as music, dance and painting.These have a therapeutic effect.  Stay positive by choosing words like ‘challenges’ instead of ‘problems’.
  18. 18. THANKYOU
  21. 21. ENTREPRENEURSHIP An economic process, where an idea is generated or an opportunity is created, refined, developed and implemented, while being exposed to uncertainty to realize a profit by effective utilization of resources. Following are some of the characteristics of entrepreneurship. • It is an economic activity done to create, develop and maintain a profit- oriented organisation. • It begins with identifying an opportunity as a potential to sell and make profit in the market. • It deals with optimisation in utilization of resources. • It is the ability of an enterprise and an entrepreneur to take risks.
  22. 22. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS ART AND SCIENCE Entrepreneurship is the perfect combination of art and science as it requires specific progression and procedures to be followed and also the skill to digress when required, and yet make the entire activity profitable and growth oriented.
  23. 23. ENTREPRENEUR Economists define an entrepreneur as - someone, who brings in resources, labour, material and other assets into profit making combinations. Psychologists define an entrepreneur as a person, who is, typically, driven by a psychological force, which creates a desire to obtain or attain something. Sociologists define an entrepreneur as a person, whose actions would determine social status and contribute to societal development.
  24. 24. QUALITIES OF A SUCCESSFUL ENTREPRENEUR  Initiative  Willingness to take risks  Ability to learn from experience  Motivation  Self-confidence  Hard work  Decision making ability
  25. 25. TYPE OF ENTREPRENEURS  Service entrepreneurs- create a new market for their services or provide a service in an existing market.  Business entrepreneurs- entrepreneurs, who undertake business and trading activities and are not concerned with the manufacturing work.  Industrial entrepreneurs- a manufacturer, who identifies the needs of customers and creates products or services to serve them. Such an entrepreneur is product oriented, who starts through an industrial unit to create a product like electronic industry, textile unit, machine tools, manufacturing unit  Agricultural entrepreneurs-  Technical entrepreneurs- Technical entrepreneurs use their technical knowledge and skills to innovate. They use their technical expertise to create and offer machines, tools and methods.  Non-technical entrepreneurs- providing services to create a market for technical entrepreneurs. they are not concerned with the manufacturing process but have more to do with before and after the manufacturing process.  Professional entrepreneurs- Such an entrepreneur starts a business, nurtures it and makes it reach a point of self-sustenance. Once the project reaches that point, the entrepreneur sells the business and starts a new one, and then, follows the same cycle.  IT entrepreneurs-People who take up entrepreneurship in the field of Information Technology (IT) are called IT entrepreneurs. IT entrepreneurs are confined to innovation in the field of Information Technology.  Women entrepreneurs.- when women take up entrepreneurship, they are called women entrepreneurs.  Social entrepreneurs- Individuals, who focus on developing solutions that benefit the society, are called social entrepreneurs. They develop, fund and implement solutions that are directed towards society, culture and environment.  Family business entrepreneurs- When a family or an individual runs a business successfully and passes it on to the next generation, then such an entrepreneur is, generally, termed as family business entrepreneur.  First generation entrepreneurs- They do not have any entrepreneurship background.
  26. 26. ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF AN ENTREPRENEUR  Identifying entrepreneurial opportunity  Turning ideas into action  Feasibility study  Resourcing  Setting up an enterprise  Managing the enterprise  Growth and development:
  27. 27. QUALITIESTHAT MOTIVATE AN ENTREPRENEUR.  Standard of excellence  Uniqueness  Focus on long-term goals  Need to influence  Identifying opportunities and risk taking
  28. 28. WAYS BYWHICH ASPIRING ENTREPRENEURS CAN IDENTIFY NEW BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES AND EVALUATETHEIR POTENTIAL AND RISKS  Community concerns- Identify the inefficiencies, analyse how an idea can help and evaluate the risks involved.  Personal experiences: Many powerful world changing ideas come from the experiences and challenges an entrepreneur faces in life. If you aspire to become an entrepreneur.  Research with others- Speak to like-minded people, get involved through social groups and join local startup groups
  29. 29. SESSION-2: BARRIERSTO ENTREPRENEURSHIP  Environmental barriers- Lack of adequate resources or raw material, Non-availability of skilled labour, Lack of requisite machinery and other infrastructure and Unavailability of monetary resources on time.  Personal barriers- Self-doubt, Forming a team and teamwork,
  32. 32.  Decisiveness- Decisiveness is the ability to make profitable and quick decisions. Decisiveness can be developed through the following process. 1. knowing yourself 2. Identifying opportunities 3. Analyse the opportunity 4. problem solving  Initiative- Initiative is the ability to take charge and act in a situation before others  Interpersonal skills Interpersonal means dealing with relationships. It is between two or more persons. it becomes important that we learn how to interact with people. Some ways to do that are as follows- Listening, Body language, Positive attitude and Stress management  Perseverance- Perseverance is the ability to continue to do something, even when it is difficult.  Organisational skills- Organisational skills refer to the ability of making optimal use of one’s time, energy and resources to achieve one’s goals. Organisational skills include- Time management, Goal setting, Efficiency and Managing quality.
  33. 33. MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT AN ENTREPRENEUR  Entrepreneurs are born that way  All entrepreneurs have great ideas  Entrepreneurs take lots of risks  Businesses either flourish or fail  A lot of money is required to start any business  One must know everything before starting a business