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Understanding Yama of Yoga Darshana and its application in Ayurveda

The tattvas of Yama of Yoga Dashana are namely Satya, Ahimsa , Asteya, Aparigraha and Brahmacharya are studied in Yoga Darshan and attempt is made to apply these in Ayurveda.

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Understanding Yama of Yoga Darshana and its application in Ayurveda

  1. 1. Understanding ‘Yama’ of Yoga Darshana and its application in Ayurveda By, Dr. Ashwini A. Nimbal M.D. (Ayu) Associate Professor, Dept. of Kriya Shareera BLDEA’s AVS Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya Vijayapur
  2. 2. In our daily life we are either dominated by Rajoguna (passion) or by Tamoguna (ignorance, inertia) hence even during our meditation we are unable to free ourselves from this vicious circle of Rajoguna and Tamoguna. So, we do not have a feeling of separateness of the self and the mind. Through the practice of steps of Ashtang Yogas of Yoga Darshana, impurities dominating our mind starts to waning away simultaneously with growing dominance of Satva Guna. . Yama is the first step it describes what one should avoid to advance on the spiritual path and also the person can control his Manas.. Need for Study
  3. 3. Since Ayurveda being the science of life not only deals with “Swasthasya Swasthya Rakshanam, Aturasya Vikara Prashamanam” but also throws considerable light on the philosophical aspect with its main object as the attainment of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Out of these, Moksha is considered as highest goal of life, and that of Yoga Darshana is “Dukha Nivrutti and Moksha Prapti. Ayurveda has given importance to the intimate relationship between the body and mind. Any impairment in the one affects the other and causes diseases. Therefore for positive health as well as for cure of diseases, both body and mind are required to be kept in balanced condition. For this Tatvas of Yama plays an important role. Both Ayurveda and Darshana have been evolved from the same source, the Veda and also both are practical and applied sciences hence are said to be contemporary. This paper is an attempt to show the applicability of Tatvas of Yama of Yoga Darshana in Ayurveda.
  4. 4. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Understanding Yama of Yoga Darshana Application of Tattvas of Yama in Ayurveda
  5. 5. Review of Literature : The eight means of Yoga called Yogangas or Ashtang Yogas, rÉqÉ ÌlÉrÉqÉÉxÉlÉ mÉëhÉÉrÉÉqÉ mÉëirÉWûÉU kÉÉUhÉ krÉÉlÉ xÉqÉÉkÉrÉÉå A¹ÉuÉÇaÉÉÌlÉ || (Yog.Dar.2/29) Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi are the Asthangas of Yoga. These will be explained in their respective order. Yama is the first step of Ashtang Yogas. •Yama: AÌWûÇxÉÉ xÉirÉ AxiÉårÉ oÉë¼cÉrÉï AmÉËUaÉëWûÉrÉqÉÉÈ || (Yog.Dar.2/30) Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Aparigraha are considred as Yama.
  6. 6. Ahimsa Satya Asteya Brahmacharya Saparigraha All types of Anabhidroha to Sarva Pranis in all the time, in all the places is Ahimsa. It is the one which is same as like exactly how the person has spoken, how he has imagined, how he has thought of, while giving Jnana to others, it must not be cheating, should not give rise to Bhranti, must not be Arthahina. Getting money against the Ajna of Shastra is Steya. Nishedha of such money & not keeping intrest in such money is Asteya. Having Samyama over Guptendriya. Rejecting the Vishayarjana, Rakshana, Nasha and their Himsa is Aparigraha. Yama and its Types
  7. 7. Application of Tattvas of Yama in ayurveda In Charaka Samhita, Yama is directly mentioned talking about great sages - they are the sources of spiritual knowledge, self control and restraint of mind. •Ahimsa: lÉ uÉæUÇ UÉåcÉrÉåiÉç | (Ch.Su. 30/15) One should not indulge in hatred or sinful activities. Both the sciences doesn’t limit Ahimsa upto a vegiterian diet style but projects Ahimsa as a positive life style by non hurting of all living being by Kayik, Vachik and Manasika.(Ch.Su 8/29). And also Charak considered Ahimsa as one which increases Ayu(Ch.Su. 30/15) Acharya vaghbhta also gave importance to Ahimsa as he considered Himsa as one of the Paap Karma under Dashavidha Papa Karmas. .
  8. 8. •Satya: नानृत ् बृयात ् …….। (Cha. Su. 8/19) One should not tell lie. Commenting on this, Acharya Chakrapani explained as, the orginal meaning of Satya is not limted to truth only but, he has given the conditions for truth. Any false action which results into disharmony into others life is nothing but ‘Anruta’. Acharya Charaka also explained ‘Satya’ is one of the important quality of Apta Purusha Acharya Vagbhata explained, xÉirÉ uÉÉÌSlÉÉqÉ¢üÉåkÉqÉkrÉÉiqÉmÉëuÉhÉåÎlSìrÉÇ …| (A.Hri.Ut. 39/179-180) The person is said to be Nitya Rasayana Sevi, who is Satyavadi, Krodharahita, who does the Atma Chintana, who is Shantachitta. This person has Deerghayu. He is happy in both Loka. Acharya Vagbhata also explained Anruta as one among Dashavidha
  9. 9. •Asteya: lÉÉlrÉxuÉqÉÉSSÏiÉ, lÉÉlrÉÎx§ÉrÉqÉÍpÉsÉwÉå³ÉÉlrÉÍ´ÉrÉ….........||(Ch.Su..8/19) One should not take others possession nor should desire for other women or property. This is one of the most important codes of conduct. •Brahmcharya: In Ayurveda it is counted under Trayopastamba, As, §ÉrÉ EmÉxiÉqpÉÉ CÌiÉ-AWûÉUÈ, xuÉmlÉÉåÈ, oÉë¼cÉrÉïÍqÉÌiÉ……| (Ch.Su.11) Brahmacharya means control of senses and spiritual bliss conducive to the knowledge of Brahman. (Ch.Su.11/35) Acharya Charaka explained Brahmacharya under the entities among life promoting ones. (Ch.Su. 25/40) and also Acharya Vagbhata explained same it under Agryasangrahaniya Adhyaya. Brihmacharya is one which helps in Dharma Anukula, Yashakar,
  10. 10. •Aparigraha : xÉÇcÉrÉÉiÉç mÉËUaÉëWûÈ mÉËUaÉëWûÉssÉÉåpÉÈ | (Ch.Vi. 3/24) Hoarding leads to holding and holding leads to greed. The first and foremost disease Jwar arose by the tendency of Possessiveness. mÉëuÉ×ͨÉxiÉÑ mÉËUaÉëWûÈ| (Ch.Vi..3) For the complete health one should break the chain of disease by a non possessiveness.
  11. 11. Discussion: Ahimsa : Ahimsa in Yoga Darshana is explained as Maitribhava in all the Pranis, in all the time, at all the places. It is given importance here because by following this, the Mana is not provoked for doing cruel or bad deeds. Charaka has considered it as Ayuvardaka. Vagbhata has considered Himsa as one of the Papa Karma and one should not kill the Kita Pipilika etc other Jiva. One should show Karuna, Prema, Daya towards all the Pranis. This Ahimsa is explained under Sadvritta. Acharya Charaka considers Ahimsa as Mitrata, Karuna Bhava towards all the Pranis. He considers that Mamsa Sevana is not Himsa when it is used for Roga Prashamanartha. Ayurveda explained what Himsa does for Atma Rakshana is not so called as Himsa.
  12. 12. Satya : In Ayurveda Acharya Charaka gave the definition of Satya as the facts and factual statements are called Satya. Satya is explained in Sadvrutta as it should be followed by everyone and every day. Charaka while explaining Chikitsa Chatushpada considers that Satya is one of the Guna of Rogi. Rogi must have the ability to describe the disease as it is Even when Vaidya asked about the medicines taken, Patya-Apatya followed Rogi should tell the truth. In Kashyap Samhita Satya is the Guna of Shishya, Rogi, Vaidya, also the Guna of Aptapurusha.
  13. 13. Acharya Charaka emphasizes Satya as one of the Upakrama for Manas. And also in the context of Kala Akala Mrutyu, he explained the Kala is Satya for all the Pranis because it is Samakriya. It is one of the Upayas which has to be followed if the person wants to attain Moksha. If person wants to get more benefits of Rasayana, then he must talk Satya while he is following Achara Rasayana.
  14. 14. Asteya: In Ayurveda Acharya Charaka in the context of Sadvritta tells that one should not greed for others property. This is one of the most important codes of conduct. It causes more Lobha (greed) in the person. In Ayurveda money is taking for the Chikitsa is not against the Shastra, because the money is to be taken from the patients who can afford it. This money must be used to bring Oushadhis etc, so this is not Steya. Money is one of the peripheral benefits to the physician. This step of Yama is main pillar for maintaining social health. Brahmacharya: In Ayurveda it is descried as third Upastambha for life. It means observance of celibacy also enhances the physical strength of the human beings. By the word Brahmacharya, it is understood that Indriya Samyama, Soumanasta But of Yoga Darshana, Bramacharya indicates only the Indriya Samyama. According to Chakrapani, Brahmacharya is a process in which one has control over the senses like eyes etc, devoid of Manasika Dosas etc, which helps for the Brahma Jnana is Brahmacharya.
  15. 15. Acharya Charaka considers Brahmacharya as one of the Trayopathamba means it is one of the supportive pillar of Sharira. It is counted under Sadvrutta that it has to be followed by the person regularly. “Brahmacharyam Ayushyanam” (Cha.Su.25/40) means Brahmacharya is Ayu Vardhaka as it protects the Veerya and also Acharya Charaka opines that “Viryam Balavardhananam” (Cha.Su.30/15) which means Virya is Balavardhaka. Therefore he explains by Brahmacharya the Virya is protected. Hence the person’s Bala and Ayu increases. According to Acharya Vagbhata Brahmacharya acts as Dharma Anukula, Yashakar. It acts as Rasayana. Aparigraha : Charaka Samhita stated Hording leads holding and holding leads to greed. The first and foremost disease Jwara arose by the tendency of possessiveness. For the complete health one should break the chain of disease by a non possessiveness.
  16. 16. Ashantanga Yoga is the main part of Yoga Darshana, helps the person to win over Viparyaya and Ashuddhis of Chitta thereby he gains the Satya Jnyana. Yama is the first step of Bahiranga Sadhana among Ashtanga Yoga, as in this step the person gets himself ready mentally and physically for the path of Yoga.  Ayurveda and Yoga are Practical and applied sciences as both deals with the Atyantika Dukha Nivrutti and Moksha Prapti. Utilization of principles of Yama of Yoga Darshana are found more in Charaka Samhita, Comparing to other Samhitas of Ayurveda. As Charaka Samhita, the Chikitsa Pradhana Shastra but having the philosophical background. Conclussion:
  17. 17. References: 1. Dr. Kirtyananda Jha,Patanjala Yoga Darshana Bhoja Vritti Sahitam 2nd Ed, Varanasi, Choukhambha orientalia, 2004 PP 102 2. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Dr Gorakhanath Chaturvedi, CharakaSamhita Vidyotini Teeka, 2nd Ed, Varanasi, Choukhamba Bharati Academy,2005 PP 186-187 3. Acharya YT, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5th Ed, Varanasi, Choukhambha Prakashana, 2009.PP 58-59 4. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Dr Gorakhanath Chaturvedi, CharakaSamhita Vidyotini Teeka, 2nd Ed, Varanasi, Choukhamba Bharati Academy,2005 PP 183-184 5. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Dr Gorakhanath Chaturvedi, CharakaSamhita Vidyotini Teeka, 2nd Ed, Varanasi, Choukhamba Bharati Academy,2005 PP 216-217 6. Pandit Kashinath Shastri, Dr Gorakhanath Chaturvedi, CharakaSamhita Vidyotini Teeka, 2nd Ed, Varanasi, Choukhamba Bharati Academy,2005 PP 196,227-228 7. Acharya YT, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 5th Ed, Varanasi, Choukhambha Prakashana, 2009.PP 71,120,186,386-38

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