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Understanding Yama of Yoga Darshana and its application in Ayurveda
Understanding ‘Yama’ of Yoga Darshana
and its application in Ayurveda
Dr. Ashwini A. Nimbal M.D. (Ayu)
Associate Professor, Dept. of Kriya Shareera
BLDEA’s AVS Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya Vijayapur
In our daily life we are either dominated by Rajoguna
(passion) or by Tamoguna (ignorance, inertia) hence even
during our meditation we are unable to free ourselves
from this vicious circle of Rajoguna and Tamoguna. So,
we do not have a feeling of separateness of the self and
the mind. Through the practice of steps of Ashtang Yogas
of Yoga Darshana, impurities dominating our mind starts
to waning away simultaneously with growing dominance
of Satva Guna. .
Yama is the first step it describes what one should avoid to
advance on the spiritual path and also the person can
control his Manas..
Need for Study
Since Ayurveda being the science of life not only deals with
“Swasthasya Swasthya Rakshanam, Aturasya Vikara Prashamanam”
but also throws considerable light on the philosophical aspect with
its main object as the attainment of Dharma, Artha, Kama and
Moksha. Out of these, Moksha is considered as highest goal of life,
and that of Yoga Darshana is “Dukha Nivrutti and Moksha Prapti.
Ayurveda has given importance to the intimate relationship between
the body and mind. Any impairment in the one affects the other and
Therefore for positive health as well as for cure of diseases, both
body and mind are required to be kept in balanced condition. For
this Tatvas of Yama plays an important role.
Both Ayurveda and Darshana have been evolved from the same
source, the Veda and also both are practical and applied sciences
hence are said to be contemporary.
This paper is an attempt to show the applicability of Tatvas of Yama
of Yoga Darshana in Ayurveda.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Understanding Yama of Yoga
Application of Tattvas of Yama in
Review of Literature :
The eight means of Yoga called Yogangas or Ashtang Yogas,
rÉqÉ ÌlÉrÉqÉÉxÉlÉ mÉëhÉÉrÉÉqÉ mÉëirÉWûÉU kÉÉUhÉ
krÉÉlÉ xÉqÉÉkÉrÉÉå A¹ÉuÉÇaÉÉÌlÉ || (Yog.Dar.2/29)
Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and
Samadhi are the Asthangas of Yoga. These will be explained in their
Yama is the first step of Ashtang Yogas.
AÌWûÇxÉÉ xÉirÉ AxiÉårÉ oÉë¼cÉrÉï
AmÉËUaÉëWûÉrÉqÉÉÈ || (Yog.Dar.2/30)
Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Aparigraha are considred as
All types of Anabhidroha to Sarva Pranis in all the time, in all
the places is Ahimsa.
It is the one which is same as like exactly how the person has
spoken, how he has imagined, how he has thought of, while
giving Jnana to others, it must not be cheating, should not give
rise to Bhranti, must not be Arthahina.
Getting money against the Ajna of Shastra is Steya. Nishedha
of such money & not keeping intrest in such money is Asteya.
Having Samyama over Guptendriya.
Rejecting the Vishayarjana, Rakshana, Nasha and their
Himsa is Aparigraha.
Yama and its Types
Application of Tattvas of Yama in ayurveda
In Charaka Samhita, Yama is directly mentioned talking about great
sages - they are the sources of spiritual knowledge, self control and
restraint of mind.
lÉ uÉæUÇ UÉåcÉrÉåiÉç | (Ch.Su. 30/15)
One should not indulge in hatred or sinful activities.
Both the sciences doesn’t limit Ahimsa upto a vegiterian diet style
but projects Ahimsa as a positive life style by non hurting of all
living being by Kayik, Vachik and Manasika.(Ch.Su 8/29).
And also Charak considered Ahimsa as one which increases
Acharya vaghbhta also gave importance to Ahimsa as he considered
Himsa as one of the Paap Karma under Dashavidha Papa Karmas.
नानृत ् बृयात ् …….। (Cha. Su. 8/19)
One should not tell lie.
Commenting on this, Acharya Chakrapani explained as, the orginal
meaning of Satya is not limted to truth only but, he has given the
conditions for truth. Any false action which results into disharmony
into others life is nothing but ‘Anruta’.
Acharya Charaka also explained ‘Satya’ is one of the important
quality of Apta Purusha
Acharya Vagbhata explained,
xÉirÉ uÉÉÌSlÉÉqÉ¢üÉåkÉqÉkrÉÉiqÉmÉëuÉhÉåÎlSìrÉÇ …|
The person is said to be Nitya Rasayana Sevi, who is Satyavadi,
Krodharahita, who does the Atma Chintana, who is Shantachitta.
This person has Deerghayu. He is happy in both Loka.
Acharya Vagbhata also explained Anruta as one among Dashavidha
One should not take others possession nor should desire for other
women or property. This is one of the most important codes of conduct.
In Ayurveda it is counted under Trayopastamba,
As, §ÉrÉ EmÉxiÉqpÉÉ CÌiÉ-AWûÉUÈ, xuÉmlÉÉåÈ,
Brahmacharya means control of senses and spiritual bliss conducive to
the knowledge of Brahman. (Ch.Su.11/35)
Acharya Charaka explained Brahmacharya under the entities among
life promoting ones. (Ch.Su. 25/40) and also Acharya Vagbhata
explained same it under Agryasangrahaniya Adhyaya.
Brihmacharya is one which helps in Dharma Anukula, Yashakar,
xÉÇcÉrÉÉiÉç mÉËUaÉëWûÈ mÉËUaÉëWûÉssÉÉåpÉÈ |
Hoarding leads to holding and holding leads to greed. The first
and foremost disease Jwar arose by the tendency of
mÉëuÉ×Í¨ÉxiÉÑ mÉËUaÉëWûÈ| (Ch.Vi..3)
For the complete health one should break the chain of disease by a
Ahimsa in Yoga Darshana is explained as Maitribhava in all the Pranis, in all the
time, at all the places. It is given importance here because by following this, the
Mana is not provoked for doing cruel or bad deeds. Charaka has considered it as
Ayuvardaka. Vagbhata has considered Himsa as one of the Papa Karma and one
should not kill the Kita Pipilika etc other Jiva. One should show Karuna, Prema,
Daya towards all the Pranis. This Ahimsa is explained under Sadvritta. Acharya
Charaka considers Ahimsa as Mitrata, Karuna Bhava towards all the Pranis. He
considers that Mamsa Sevana is not Himsa when it is used for Roga
Ayurveda explained what Himsa does for Atma Rakshana is not so called as
In Ayurveda Acharya Charaka gave the definition of Satya as the
facts and factual statements are called Satya.
Satya is explained in Sadvrutta as it should be followed by everyone
and every day.
Charaka while explaining Chikitsa Chatushpada considers that
Satya is one of the Guna of Rogi. Rogi must have the ability to
describe the disease as it is Even when Vaidya asked about the
medicines taken, Patya-Apatya followed Rogi should tell the truth.
In Kashyap Samhita Satya is the Guna of Shishya, Rogi, Vaidya,
also the Guna of Aptapurusha.
Acharya Charaka emphasizes Satya as one of the Upakrama for
Manas. And also in the context of Kala Akala Mrutyu, he
explained the Kala is Satya for all the Pranis because it is
Samakriya. It is one of the Upayas which has to be followed if
the person wants to attain Moksha. If person wants to get more
benefits of Rasayana, then he must talk Satya while he is
following Achara Rasayana.
In Ayurveda Acharya Charaka in the context of Sadvritta tells that one should not greed for
others property. This is one of the most important codes of conduct. It causes more Lobha
(greed) in the person. In Ayurveda money is taking for the Chikitsa is not against the
Shastra, because the money is to be taken from the patients who can afford it. This money
must be used to bring Oushadhis etc, so this is not Steya. Money is one of the peripheral
benefits to the physician. This step of Yama is main pillar for maintaining social health.
In Ayurveda it is descried as third Upastambha for life. It means observance of celibacy
also enhances the physical strength of the human beings. By the word Brahmacharya, it is
understood that Indriya Samyama, Soumanasta But of Yoga Darshana, Bramacharya
indicates only the Indriya Samyama.
According to Chakrapani, Brahmacharya is a process in which one has control over the
senses like eyes etc, devoid of Manasika Dosas etc, which helps for the Brahma Jnana is
Acharya Charaka considers Brahmacharya as one of the Trayopathamba means it
is one of the supportive pillar of Sharira. It is counted under Sadvrutta that it has
to be followed by the person regularly. “Brahmacharyam Ayushyanam”
(Cha.Su.25/40) means Brahmacharya is Ayu Vardhaka as it protects the Veerya
and also Acharya Charaka opines that “Viryam Balavardhananam”
(Cha.Su.30/15) which means Virya is Balavardhaka. Therefore he explains by
Brahmacharya the Virya is protected. Hence the person’s Bala and Ayu increases.
According to Acharya Vagbhata Brahmacharya acts as Dharma Anukula,
Yashakar. It acts as Rasayana.
Charaka Samhita stated Hording leads holding and holding leads to greed. The
first and foremost disease Jwara arose by the tendency of possessiveness. For the
complete health one should break the chain of disease by a non possessiveness.
Ashantanga Yoga is the main part of Yoga Darshana, helps the
person to win over Viparyaya and Ashuddhis of Chitta thereby
he gains the Satya Jnyana.
Yama is the first step of Bahiranga Sadhana among Ashtanga
Yoga, as in this step the person gets himself ready mentally and
physically for the path of Yoga.
Ayurveda and Yoga are Practical and applied sciences as both
deals with the Atyantika Dukha Nivrutti and Moksha Prapti.
Utilization of principles of Yama of Yoga Darshana are found
more in Charaka Samhita, Comparing to other Samhitas of
Ayurveda. As Charaka Samhita, the Chikitsa Pradhana Shastra
but having the philosophical background.