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20 Years of Internet law @Gikii

Reflections on legal history plus views on proselytizing to the academy

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20 Years of Internet law @Gikii

  1. 1. GIKII XII (?) WINCHESTER 1 5 S E P T E M B E R 2 0 1 7 C H R I S M A R S D E N Internet Law: 15 years after E-Commerce Regs 2002; 25 years after Info Superhighway thing: We should all proselytise
  2. 2. 1992: “Information Superhighway” vision thing  When Al Gore “invented the Internet”  Sort of: US federal funding authorised by Congress from 1960s  Yet Europeans had not adopted the Internet  Waited until 1998 FRIACO (flat rate internet access)  Unlimited use through local call rates  But had invented turbo codes for 3G, the modem, DSL etc.  FP4 until now  Including European Internet Science (FP7)
  3. 3. 1993: world was innocent or ignorant? (Windows 3.x export licensed encryption, clipper chip/key escrow fights)
  4. 4. Cartoonists need to be careful of monkeys
  5. 5. The more things change…
  6. 6. Gartner Hype Cycle scales 1-8
  7. 7. 1995 – Congress discovers Internet pornography  No sex please, we’re Anglo-Saxons  1995 – Netscape IPO  Hence overwhelming support for TV ‘V-chip’ and mandatory content filtering  (1996 – Pamela Anderson sex tape, not implicated)  Resulting in Communications Decency Act 1996  Part V of “Telecommunications Deregulation Act 1996” – in which S.222 deals with privacy and transparency  1997: ACLU v. Reno overturned all of CDA except…
  8. 8. s.230 CDA  Single most important element in US and global law for Internet intermediaries  Supported by case law and Digital Millenium Copyright Act 1998 s.512 et seq.  Though noting that adoption in 2000/31/EC Electronic Commerce Directive was incomplete  E.g. no ‘put back’ provision  No academic exception
  9. 9. Code as Law/Law as Code  Lemley and McGowan 1998  Legal Implications of Network Economic Effects 86 Cal. L. Rev. 1998  https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=32212  Lessig 1999 adapts Reidenberg’s Lex Informatica  Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace  We were there at Warwick 1999 to hear him  Benkler best-titled and most interesting article of 2002:  Coase's Penguin, or Linux and the Nature of the Firm, 112 Yale L.J. http://www.benkler.org/CoasesPenguin.html  Wu 2003 writes an important article (not that one!)  When Code Isn't Law, Virginia Law Review, Vol. 89, 2003  https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=413201  Zittrain 2006 develops ideas  The Generative Internet, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 119, 2006  https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=847124
  10. 10. 1996 Bonn Ministerial on E-Commerce  Our founding EU-US agreement?  Led by German & US (Magaziner/Gore/Hundt) governments  US-EU compromises on intermediary liability in ‘Information Society’  Resulting in raft of legislation 1996-2002  Note most students still think we have ISPs responsible for net neutrality  Not ECSPs regulating ISSPs…  They also think we have no AVMS regulation online  Directive 89/552/EEC revised as 97/36/EC then 2007/65/EC  Soon to be further revised – 2018?
  11. 11. Retrospective: Digital Tornado (1997)
  12. 12. Hype Cycle Alive and Well
  13. 13. Result…
  14. 14. 2016 Ad Shares United States
  15. 15. Landmark European Legislation and Regulation  1998: Telecoms Single Market  2000: ‘Safe Harbor’ for Privacy  Negotiated from 1998 always nonsense, struck down Case C-362/14 Schrems  2000: E-Commerce Directive  2002 Electronic Communications Regulations (UK)  2000: Local Loop Unbundling Regulation  1999: Net Neutrality in US  I also included it in Council of Europe Report…  2000: Yahoo v. LICRA  1998: Bavaria v. Felix Somm (Compuserv case)  2001: Copyright Enforcement Directive  2001: Budapest Convention on Cybercrime (force 2004)  Protocol of 2003 on hate speech (entered into force 2006) not signed by UK, Ireland, US
  16. 16. Horse taking over the law?  Lessig famously debated ‘law of the horse’  Larouche predicted death of Internet law  Except telecoms, media law & copyright….  Guadamuz ‘Attack of the Killer Acronym’  2017: empirical textual analysis, tools of information retrieval, ‘scientific legal approach’ begin to dominate analysis  When did students last visit a Law Library?  Pasquale, Cohen and others question AI and dominance of ‘surveillance-industrial’ state  Exciting times to be an information lawyer!
  17. 17. Our colleagues need our help  IP and data protection obviously…  Human rights & PIL  private enforcement/lack of treaties = lack of interest…  Crime  Cybercrime, hate speech etc.  Contract  E-commerce, AI  Property  Blockchain & smart contracts as post-conveyancing  Tort  Privacy & Libel/Defamation, AVs as case study  Even basic online researching skills  BAILII, legislation.gov.uk, blawgs
  18. 18. We predicted all this horsing around years ago  Susskind…But see also Bing, Leith, Paliwala etc.  Most recently Katz
  19. 19. Focus on civil liability  I will only touch on criminal and copyright laws  From lack of competence not interest!  For copyright see:  Hoeren Hugenholtz  Guadamuz (@Technollama), IPKat  Samuelson, Lemley and many others (even Lessig)  In UK, we are waking up (again) to cybercrime studies  (Reed/Walden/Wall pioneers) Note surveillance laws much studied  UN Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime  https://www.unodc.org/.../CYBERCRIME_STUDY_210213.pdf  Brown and Edwards and me https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1427776
  20. 20. Net Neutrality 2017 – just when I thought it was safe to publish a book
  21. 21. Regulated self-regulation  The European approach?  Holznagel, Grunwald, Bender , Schulz http://www.uni- muenster.de/Jura.tkr/oer/publikationen/  Historically (Max Planck) https://www.rg.mpg.de/research/regulated-self- regulation-from-a-legal-histrorians-perspective  Co-regulation  Senden (2005), Marsden (2011)  Multistakeholder governance  Noveck and Verhulst, throughout last 20 years  Some studies code for ‘private censorship’ connived at by governments and cybersecurity types
  22. 22. Competition: From ‘New Chicago School’ to “hipster antitrust”  Innovation and vertical tying Microsoft 1996-2011  Lemley/McGowan (1998) Legal Implications of Network Effects  Telecoms cases  BT/MCI 1996 WorldCom/MCI 1998 BT/AT&T (Concert) 1999  Mobile - Vodafone/Mannesmann 2000  Multimedia  AOL-TimeWarner 2000 British Interactive Broadcasting 1998  Net neutrality cases 1999/2000  Bell South/AT&T, Bell Atlantic/GTE = Verizon  2017: GAFA cases inc.  Google (from 2009) & FBK/WhatsApp
  23. 23. Competition 2: Dominance Ongoing throughout period:  Media Mergers  AOL (every company it buys dies) to Facebook via  Software – Microsoft/Netscape  Began with 1993 Windows 3.1 case in US  Continued until 2008  Search – Google  Began 2009 – continues 2017  Hardware – Intel  Many fines but “only the paranoid survive”
  24. 24. Future Past Imperfect? More of the Same  Gordian knot of intermediary safe harbour/harbor  Gordian knot of privacy  Gordian knot of copyright enforcement  Gordian knot of European regulations  Enter Brexit!
  25. 25. Platform Dominance
  26. 26. Privacy mania  EC/95/46 was pre-Internet privacy  GDPR comes into effect 2018  Meantime e-privacy rules in 2002 and 2009  Yet how much of our legislation is still pre-Internet?
  27. 27. Internet world is becoming Gall-Peters, not US, EU & Japan
  28. 28. Horse law? Copyright law? Monkey selfies?
  29. 29. We should all proselytise  Theological anthropology teaches us  new movements spend their first decades  organising and constructing founders’ myths  Laws and horses  Revolutionary People’s Movement of Judea  ‘End to end’ net neutrality (sic)  Gikii! BILETA  And resisting merger/takeover by existing ‘faiths’  media law, copyright, law and economics - TPRC  Now it’s time to preach to the unconverted  Not just IP, privacy and law/technology and regulation  Though nudgers need reminders of myths of super-users  Competition lawyers need educating  Human rights lawyers forget Internet law is rights-based discourse  Cybercrime, access to law  Blockchain contract/property, Tortious liability
  30. 30. Are we all information lawyers? Are we data social scientists? (probably not…) @ChrisTMarsden

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