Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

16. Compaction

28 vues

Publié le

What you can do to avoid and allleviate compaction on your farm. Greg Stewart, Maizex and Alex Barrie, OMAFRA

Publié dans : Alimentation
  • Soyez le premier à commenter

  • Soyez le premier à aimer ceci

16. Compaction

  1. 1. Compaction Alex Barrie, OMAFRA Greg Stewart, Maizex Seeds
  2. 2. Where have we been?
  3. 3. Axle Loads
  4. 4. Ballasting
  5. 5. Tracks versus Tires
  6. 6. Inflation Pressure
  7. 7. Controlled Traffic
  8. 8. Tire Technology
  9. 9. Corn yield response in years following soil compaction (20 tonne axle, one time, Fall 1981) 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 Relative Corn Yield 1982 84 86 88 90 92 Year Minnesota Data from Voorhees et al. 1996 dry wet wet Yield Impacts
  10. 10. Remediation
  11. 11. Where are we now?
  12. 12. Soil Compaction = Reduced Porosity pre impact post impact 36 psi Source: Brunotte et al., vTI13
  13. 13. Material Science
  14. 14. Material Science Each tiny piece of the material has a set of forces acting on it. These forces are added up to determine the force that will cause the material to fail.
  15. 15. Material Science 𝑁𝑒𝑤𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑚2 = Pa 1 Bar 100,000 Pa 100 kPa 14.5 PSI 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑖𝑛2 = PSI
  16. 16. Everything is a Spring • Strain : how much a material has moved. – Percent change in length. • Stress – strain curves predict a materials strength.
  17. 17. Except when you push it too farStress Strain or Elongation Stress-Strain Curve 𝑆𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒= 𝑅𝑖𝑠𝑒/𝑅𝑢𝑛=𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 Elastic Region Plastic Region Yield Strength
  18. 18. Strong soil 1% OM : 5% clay 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 leichter Boden schwerer Boden (Stundenboden) Soil strength (psi) trocken feucht nass light soil heavy soil dry soil moist soil wet soil Stettler, 2017
  19. 19. R² = 0.1772 R² = 0.7505 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 PercentSoilOrganicMatter Year All Ontario Essex, Kent Lambton Change in Soil Organic Matter from 2002 to 2016 All Ontario compared to Essex, Lambton, Kent Significant Reduction in: • Waterholdig capacity • Infiltration • Aggregate stability • Nutrient Cycling • Erosion Protection • Soil biology • etc
  20. 20. Trends in Ballasted Tractor Weight Shearer and Fulton, Ohio State, CompactionSmart, 2017, Adapted from University of Nebraska, Lincoln Shearer and Fulton, OSU, CompactionSmart 2016
  21. 21. Developments – The example of the combine harvester (Manufacturer: Dronningborg, Randers, DK) Wheelload(t) Year of manufacture TyreVolume(m3) Tyre-SurfaceContactArea(m2) Wheel load tyre volume Contact area Source: Per SchjØnning, Aarhus University, DK Meanground pressure:7.5psi Meanground pressure:19psi
  22. 22. What are the loads on soil? • Axle weight, tire pressure, flat plate area, length of contact, width of contact all factors. • Increased soil moisture increases depth of compaction.
  23. 23. What are the loads on soil? 6 inches 12 inches 20 inches
  24. 24. What are the loads on soil? 6 inches 12 inches 20 inches
  25. 25. Insert Alex’s talk and slides 26
  26. 26. Confidential 27
  27. 27. Confidential 28
  28. 28. Confidential 29
  29. 29. Confidential 30
  30. 30. Compaction Risk Ranking
  31. 31. Relative Ranking- Equipment Loads • High Load • ^ • | • | Hay wagons, SP Sprayers • | Balers, Hay equipment, SP forage harvesters • | Grain Carts, Manure Spreaders* • | Tractors of all types large to small* • | Pickups • | • V • Low load
  32. 32. Relative Ranking- Equipment Loads Hay wagons, SP Sprayers Balers, Hay equipment, SP forage harvesters • Usually Bias ply tires • Heavy unchanging load over entire field • Good opportunity for controlled traffic – Other ways of avoiding compaction without modifying tires.
  33. 33. Relative Ranking- Equipment Loads Grain Carts, Manure Spreaders • Usually better tire choices tires • Heavy load but changes over field during operation • Not well suited for controlled traffic – Best option to reduce tire pressure as much as possible
  34. 34. Relative Ranking- Equipment Loads Tractors of all types large to small and Pickups • Many options for tires • Heavy to moderate load with varying draft forces and ballast • Not well suited for controlled traffic – Best option to reduce tire pressure as much as possible
  35. 35. Compaction Case Studies
  36. 36. J Rink Farms Port Lambton
  37. 37. Field Inflation Pressure: 8 PSI
  38. 38. Field Inflation Pressures 4 PSI 7 PSI
  39. 39. No Soil Contact Pressure Greater than 8 PSI!? J Rink Farms, Port Lambton
  40. 40. Field Inflation Pressures (PSI) 7 7 7
  41. 41. Road Inflation Pressures 7 7 20
  42. 42. Thoughts…..Questions?
  43. 43. Corn Planter Set-up Original front tires- 16.5-16.1 …. 24 psi rec Rears - ordered with no tire package. Burnett Farms Belwood.
  44. 44. Grain buggy- Unverferth 1000 bu Originally- 480/80-R42… Rated at 7940 lbs @ 35 psi Custom fabricated rims- IF 710/70 R38- 16500 @ 35 psi We run them at 13-15 psi 8 PSI 12 PSI 13-15 PSI
  45. 45. Burnett Farms, Belwood
  46. 46. Thoughts…..Questions?
  47. 47. Combine 1250 CFO fronts, 1000 VF rears. Front 15 psi/Rear 17 psi. Shawridge Farms, Arthur
  48. 48. CTIS on 400 bu air cart. 900/60/32 35 psi on road to 16 psi in field.
  49. 49. CTIS on JD 4045 sprayer for both row crop and floater tires.
  50. 50. Is CTIS worth the investment?
  51. 51. Thoughts…..Questions?
  52. 52. Country Custom Ag. – Cliff Horst, Tavistock
  53. 53. Thoughts…..Questions? Thanks!

×