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Leadership: How to Lead, How to LiveFew things are more important to human activity thanleadership. Effective leadership helps our nation through timesof peril. It makes a business organization successful. Itenables a not-for-profit organization to fulfill its mission. Theeffective leadership of parents enables children to grow strongand healthy and become productive adults.The absence of leadership is equally dramatic in its effects.Without leadership, organizations move too slowly, stagnate,and lose their way. Much of the literature about organizationsstresses decision-making and implies that if decision-makingis timely, complete, and correct, then things will go well. Yeta decision by itself changes nothing. After a decision is made,an organization faces the problem of implementation—how toget things done in a timely and effective way.Problems of implementation are really issues about howleaders influence behavior, change the course of events, andovercome resistance. Leadership is crucial in implementingdecisions successfully.Each of us recognizes the importance of leadership when wevote for our political leaders. We realize that it matters who isin office, so we participate in a contest, an election, to choosethe best candidate.Investors recognize the importance of business leadershipwhen they say that a good leader can make a success of a weakbusiness plan, but that a poor leader can ruin even the bestplan.10
The Importance of LeadershipWho Will Gain from Leadership?Do you want to be a leader? Or, if you’re already a leader, doyou want to improve your leadership? Do you want to affectwhat other people do—to help them accomplish importantgoals? Do you want to point the way in your organization?Do you want to climb the promotion ladder to positions ofhigher authority and greater pay? Leadership will make thesethings possible.You should read this book if: • You are interested in leadership and how it affects you. • You plan to lead an organization or are already in a leadership position. • You are interested in developing yourself to meet the challenges you will confront in a leadership role. • You wish to make a difference in the world through leadership.The Meaning of LeadershipWhat is leadership? It is a process by which one personinfluences the thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors of others.Leaders set a direction for the rest of us; they help us see whatlies ahead; they help us visualize what we might achieve; theyencourage us and inspire us. Without leadership a group ofhuman beings quickly degenerates into argument and conflict,because we see things in different ways and lean towarddifferent solutions. Leadership helps to point us in the samedirection and harness our efforts jointly. Leadership is the 11
Leadership: How to Lead, How to Liveability to get other people to do something significant that theymight not otherwise do. It’s energizing people toward a goal.Without followers, however, a leader isn’t a leader, althoughfollowers may only come after a long wait. For example,during the 1930s Winston Churchill urged his fellowEnglishmen to face the coming threat from Hitler’s Germany.But most Englishmen preferred to believe that Hitler couldbe appeased—so that a war could be avoided. They wereengaged in wishful thinking about the future and denial thatthe future would be dangerous. They resented Churchill forinsisting that they must face the danger. They rejected hisleadership. He had very few followers. But finally realityintruded—Germany went too far and war began. At thispoint Churchill was acclaimed for his foresight, and becameprime minister of the United Kingdom during the SecondWorld War. During this period almost all Englishmenaccepted his leadership willingly.True leadership is sometimes hard to distinguish from falseleadership, which is merely a form of pretending. WinstonChurchill was a real and great leader. But there are alsopeople who wish to appear to be leaders, but aren’t actually.They say that they are leading others; they posture as if theyare setting direction and inspiring others. Yet often they aremerely pretending. There’s an old saying that the way tobecome a leader is to find a parade and run to the front of it.We refer to a person “leading” a parade, but walking at thefront isn’t really leadership unless the person in front isactually choosing the direction! If the person isn’t choosingthe direction, then being at the front of the line is merely a wayto pretend to be a leader.12
The Importance of LeadershipLeadership can be used for good or ill. Hitler seemed to be aleader of the German people, but he set an evil direction. Hehad great leadership skills, but put them to terrible uses.Sometimes people in business use leadership skills to exploitothers. Sometimes people in charitable organizations useleadership skills to benefit themselves rather than the peoplethey are supposed to help. Leadership skills can be pervertedto pursue bad ends.The Importance of EthicsThe danger that leadership will be perverted is why ethics areso important to good leadership. Ethics are the inner compassthat directs a person toward what is right and fair. Only if aperson has an inner ethical compass can he or she be sure thatleadership qualities will not turn to evil ends.Learning to lead with good objectives is the only purpose ofthis book. So let us say that those who do harm are not leadersat all; we recognize that they may be influential andpersuasive, but we will not think of them as leaders.With confidence that you, good readers of this book, will putleadership to noble ends, we go forward.The Work of the LeaderTaking a leadership position means several things: A leadermust have a vision of the future for the organization and itsmembers. 13
Leadership: How to Lead, How to Live EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-1 TAKING A LEADERSHIP POSITIONTaking a leadership position means: • Having a vision about what can be accomplished. • Making a commitment to the mission and to the people you lead. • Taking responsibility for the accomplishment of the mission and the welfare of those you lead. • Assuming risk of loss and failure. • Accepting recognition for success.A leader must be able to express his or her vision clearly andin a compelling manner so that others are engaged by it. (SeeExecutive Summary 1-1.)A leader has to make a commitment to his or her vision, to theorganization, and to the members of the organization. Aleader can’t be committed one day and uninterested the next.People will judge a leader by his or her commitment, and willcommit themselves no more than the leader does.A leader assumes a considerable amount of responsibility—not just for the mission that he or she urges others to accept,nor just for the organization he or she heads, but for his or herfollowers, their lives and efforts, as well.14
The Importance of LeadershipA leader assumes risk. If there is no risk, little leadership isrequired. If the effort is easy and certain to succeed, anyonecan, and probably will, “lead” it. But where the effort entails arisk of failure, then many people will quail before thechallenge and leadership is necessary to get people to make thecommitment and the effort to succeed.In most organizations, one associates high levels of leadershipwith high levels of authority. The chief executive of acompany usually plays more of a leadership role than people atlower levels of the hierarchy in the firm. It is the same in not-for-profits and government agencies. The higher on the jobladder a person is, the more she is expected to exhibitleadership.In the military, however, the opposite holds true, and for avery good reason. In the military the greatest leadershipchallenge is to get other people to risk their lives in combat.Generally, the higher one goes in the chain of command, theless exposure he has to the battlefield, and the less exposure tomen and women who are in combat.The officers who have responsibility for commanding soldiersin combat have the greatest leadership challenge, for they mustget others to risk their lives. Michael Jordan’s brother is anarmy sergeant major leading a deployment in Iraq in which heis responsible for more than 2,000 soldiers. Offered anopportunity to leave his assignment in combat, he chose tostay with his unit in harm’s way. In so doing, he accepted oneof the military’s most significant leadership challenges. 15
Leadership: How to Lead, How to LiveThe first responsibility in a position of leadership is to have avision. (See Executive Summary 1-2.) The visionary leadermust create his or her concept of what the organization canaccomplish. A business leader may be leading a few people ina department or an entire company; a military leader a smallsquad or an entire army. The vision may be smaller when thegroup of people is small; and much broader when the group ofpeople is large, but it must be forward-looking and exciting ineither case. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-2 VISIONARY LEADERSHIPVisionary leadership requires: • Creating a vision, a mission, and a strategy. • Communicating the vision/mission/strategy and getting buy-in. • Motivating action. • Helping an organization grow, evolve, and adapt to changing circumstances.The leader must also provide a mission—what needs to bedone—and a strategy, a path, for how to accomplish themission and achieve the vision, a way for the group to getthere. But having an exciting vision, an exciting mission, anda careful strategy is not sufficient. A leader must clearlycommunicate them. Only if people grasp the vision can theycommit to it, and buy-in is crucial to motivating action.Finally, a vision cannot be rigid and unchanging; it must adapt16
The Importance of Leadershipto changing circumstances, growing and evolving. Otherwiseit becomes outdated and obsolete, and loses its power to exciteand motivate people.Leaders versus Administrators and ManagersLeadership is not the same thing as being in a position ofauthority. It is possible to be a boss in a company withoutbeing a leader. A boss can be more of an administrator than aleader.Conversely, an administrator can be effective in his jobwithout being a leader. The administrator is a bureaucrat—whether in government or in business—a person who keepscareful records and sees that things are done according to therules. On the other hand, a leader can be effective withoutbeing an administrator—leaving rules, regulations, and theirenforcement to others.Administration is not as exciting a topic as leadership, but it isalmost as important. The success of organizations depends toa great degree on how well they are administered. A manageris often thought to be primarily an administrator. But amanager is not an administrator; management requires aspecial set of skills of its own. And being a manager isdifferent from being a leader, as we shall see below. So thereare three roles: administrator, manager, and leader.A manager has the broadest role, and a good manager hasmuch of an administrator and a leader in him or her. Amanager needs to set direction and inspire others to get workdone (leadership functions) and he or she needs to keeprecords and see that rules are followed (administrativefunctions). 17
Leadership: How to Lead, How to LiveThe manager is a necessary combination of leader andadministrator. (See D. Quinn Mills, Principles ofManagement, Waltham, MA: MindEdge Press, 2005.) Butleadership is the most important of the three roles.AdministratorsWhat does an administrator do? (See Executive Summary 1-3.) An administrator applies rules and regulations generallydeveloped by top executives of an organization. (In thegovernment, the key rules and regulations are often issued bylegislative authorities like the U.S. Congress). He or she keepsrecords and fills out forms necessary to take administrativesteps (like getting employees paid or reimbursing an employeefor travel expenses). EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-3 ELEMENTS OF ADMINISTRATIONThe elements of administration are: • Making rules and regulations • Making decisions that apply and interpret rules and regulations • Keeping records • Filling out forms18
The Importance of LeadershipManagersWhat does a manager do? (See Executive Summary 1-4.) He orshe makes plans and creates budgets that set forth in great detailhow something will be accomplished and how much money andother resources (e.g., people, office space) are necessary toaccomplish those plans and budgets. He decides who is going to beassigned to the necessary tasks and how they will fit into theorganization. She supervises the actions people take, ensuring thatthey are doing the right things, that no money is beingmisappropriated or wasted (we call this “controlling”), and whenproblems arise she helps to resolve them. Finally, by combiningthese tasks into a coherent whole, the manager makes theorganization operate efficiently.Running an organization effectively requires administration,management, and leadership. Leadership is ordinarily in shortersupply than administrative or managerial competence. Leadershipis more important and more demanding for most people. Fewerpeople are able or willing to be leaders, so it tends to be a highercalling than administration or management.There is a large literature discussing the differences between leadersand managers. There is also an important distinction to makebetween leaders and administrators. In general, a leader takes abroader view and points an organization toward necessary, evencritical, change.The core of the criticism in the literature is that organizations of allsorts (corporations, government agencies, and not-for-profitorganizations) tend to be over-managed (and/or over-administrated)and under-led. Because of over-management and over-administration, organizations are slow to make necessary changesand achieve less than what they could. This is a substantialcriticism that points to the importance of leadership. 19
Leadership: How to Lead, How to Live EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-4 ELEMENTS OF MANAGEMENTThe elements of management are: • Planning and budgeting • Setting direction • Organizing and staffing • Aligning the efforts of many people • Controlling • Decision-making and problem solving • Motivating and inspiring peopleThe Nature of LeadershipTrue leadership is special, subtle, and complex. Too often weconfuse things like personal style and a position of authority withleadership. • Leadership is not primarily a particular personality trait. A trait closely linked to leadership is charisma, but many people who have charisma (for example, movie actors and sports figures) are not leaders. • Leadership is not primarily a set of important objectives. It involves getting things done.20
The Importance of Leadership • Leadership is not primarily a formal position. There have been great leaders who did not hold high positions—for example, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Jeanne d’Arc—and there are people who hold high positions who are not leaders at all, but administrators who don’t want to rock the boat. • Leadership is not primarily a set of behaviors. Many leadership manuals suggest that what defines leadership is things such as delegating and providing inspiration and vision; but people who are not leaders can do these things, and some effective leaders don’t do them all.Many discussions of leadership confuse any and all of the above—personality, important objectives, formal position, specificbehaviors—with leadership. (See John P. Kotter, What LeadersReally Do, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.) Butleadership is more than any of the above characteristics. It’s aprocess by which one influences the thoughts and behaviors ofothers in a substantial way. It may involve charisma, importantobjectives, a formal position, and a particular set of behaviors, but itis not limited to any of them.Effective leaders are often very complex people. Writing aboutOliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector of England during the Englishcivil wars of the seventeenth century, a foremost historian marveledat the complexity of his personality. “There was no singleCromwell, “ he wrote, “—that is, a clear-cut individual…Instead,there was a multiplicity of Cromwells, each linked to the other byhis enormous vitality…Firstly, there was the very human, simpleand compassionate man, a visionary and a romantic. Secondly,there was a violent, boisterous and irascible bully. Thirdly, therewas the resolute and iron-willed general…Fourthly, the calculatingpolitician, the man of expedients who had no guiding principles. 21
Leadership: How to Lead, How to LiveAnd lastly, there was…the Cromwell…who, as the interpreter ofGod’s will, was capable of committing any atrocity.” (J. F. C.Fuller, A Military History of the Western World, Volume 2,New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1955, p. 110.)Because leaders can be so complex, we must be careful in ourgeneralizations about leaders and their personalities. But not allleaders are such complex personalities, which is good for most ofus who aspire to leadership.Examples of LeadershipLeadership in BusinessIn the 1980s Harley-Davidson was almost knocked out ofbusiness by competition from other firms. To survive, itneeded to change dramatically. Rich Teerlink, the company’sleader, was able to save the firm financially, but with thepressure off, the challenge of continuing to improve seemedeven more daunting.Could Teerlink get his managers and employees to make thesignificant, and to many of them inconvenient, changesnecessary?He did it by building a different company, one driven from thebottom up by employees rather than from the top down bymanagers. It’s a story of successes and failures, advances andsetbacks, dead ends and breakthroughs, ending in a muchstronger company than before. (Read the inspiring story inRich Teerlink and Lee Ozley, More Than a Motorcycle: TheLeadership Journey at Harley-Davidson, Boston: HarvardBusiness School Press, 2000.)22
The Importance of LeadershipLeadership in GovernmentWhen Charles O. Rossotti became commissioner of theInternal Revenue Service (IRS) in 1997, the agency had thelargest customer base—and the lowest approval rating—of anyinstitution in America. Mired in scandal, caught in a politicalmaelstrom, and beset by profound management andtechnology problems, the IRS was widely dismissed as ahopelessly flawed and dysfunctional organization. Rossotti—the first businessperson to head the IRS—transformed themuch-maligned agency. In the glare of intense public scrutiny,he effected dramatic changes in the way the IRS didbusiness—while the agency continued to collect $2 trillion inrevenue. Through heated congressional hearings, encounterswith Washington bigwigs, frank exchanges with taxpayers andemployees, and risky turnaround strategies, Rossottidemonstrated leadership against daunting odds. (Read thisenlightening story in Charles O. Rossotti, Many UnhappyReturns: One Mans Quest to Turn Around the MostUnpopular Organization in America, Boston: HarvardBusiness School Press, 2005.) 23