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Goal setting workshop handbook

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Goal setting workshop handbook

  1. 1. compiled by Edmore Masendeke Endless Possibilities Trust Harare, Zimbabwe 2014 & Career GOAL SETTINGGOAL SETTING for Personal, Academic
  2. 2. Contact Details Endless Possibilities c/o Edmore Masendeke 15 Atkinson Drive Hillside Harare Zimbabwe Tel: 0773 656 732 Email: mrmasendeke@gmail.com
  3. 3. Contents About us 2 Our Mission / Our Philosophy / The Scope of Our Activities / The Team About the Workshop 5 Overview / Purpose / Objectives / Participating Institutions / Programme / Sample Ground Rules Future Projects and Activities 8 About the Book 9 How this Book was Written / How to Use this Book Session 1: Define Success for Yourself 10 Session 2: “Do not DIS my ABILITIES”: Understand your strengths and 14 weaknesses. Play to your strengths. Session 3: Set Personal, Academic and Career Goals 28 Session 4: Develop Strategies to Reach Your Goals 33 Inside Back Cover: Additional Resources for Your Success 1
  4. 4. About Us Our Mission Endless Possibilities exists to assist people with disabilities:  Become who they are as individuals and to determine their own destiny;  Live without being a burden to anyone and achieve maximum possible independence, preserving as much dignity and respect as possible; and  Participate fully in their communities. Our Philosophy The philosophy of Endless Possibilities is based on the scripture 1 Thessalonians 4:11-12, which reads: “… make it your ambition and definitely endeavour to live quietly and peacefully, to mind your own affairs, and to work with your hands, as we charged you, so that you may bear yourselves becomingly and be correct and honourable and command the respect of the outside world, being dependent on nobody [self- supporting] and having need of nothing.” (Amplified Bible) Thus, Endless Possibilities operates by the following principles:  It is the business of people with disabilities to promote the harmonious living between themselves and the able-bodied [live quietly and peacefully].  It is not the business of people with disabilities to regulate the behaviours of the able- bodied toward them or to allow these behaviours to affect them in any way [mind your own affairs].  To enjoy the right to live an independent life one should engage in gainful activity using whatever ability they have [work with your hands].  Through the individual efforts of people with disabilities trying to emancipate themselves will they gain true freedom as the outside world will begin to admire them and give them a place in society [so that you may bear yourselves becomingly and be correct and honourable and command the respect of the outside world].  It is up to people with disabilities to ensure that all their needs are met even where there is no outside support [being dependent on nobody, self-supporting and having need of nothing]. 2
  5. 5. Our Objectives The main objective of Endless Possibilities is to promote an increased level of self-sufficiency among people with disabilities in Zimbabwe with a particular emphasis on tertiary education students who fall in this category. Accordingly, Endless Possibilities promotes the education, economic independence, independent living and social integration of people with disabilities:  Education — formal, informal and non-formal education for personal, professional and public success.  Economic independence — employment and entrepreneurship to enhance financial self-sufficiency.  Independent living — acceptable options for everyday living in an integrated community and/or personal support depending on the degree of impairment. Independent living does not necessarily mean disabled people doing everything for themselves nor does it necessarily mean being able to live on your own.  Social integration — active involvement and participation in everyday activities from family to international level. The Scope of Our Activities in Zimbabwe Endless Possibilities mainly works with young adults with disabilities from tertiary institutions in Zimbabwe. Since inception, in 2010, Endless Possibilities has run various training and empowerment programmes for students from the University of Zimbabwe, Midlands State University and Mutare Polytechnic College. The Team Endless Possibilities is run by a committed group of young volunteers with assistance in the area of strategic planning and the mentoring of members given on a need basis by a pool of mature and experienced professionals. Below are photographs and brief biographic information on members of The Team. 3
  6. 6. 4 Team Members QUALIFICATIONS LLM International & European Human Rights; MA Leadership & Management; HBBS Banking & Finance INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE Banking; Advertising & Market Communication; Education QUALIFICATIONS ICSA, LCCI Diploma in Accounting INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE Information & Communication Technologies QUALIFICATIONS Diploma in Photojournalism; Diploma in Hotel Management; Diploma in Retail Operations INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE Tourism & Hospitality; Media; Arts & Entertainment QUALIFICATIONS MA Leadership & Management, BBA Marketing Management, CIMA, IOBZ INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE Banking, Advertising & Market Communication, Media, Arts & Entertainment EDMORE MASENDEKE JASPER MHISHI VIMBAI HWACHA MARLVIN MUTIZE KELVIN MUTIZE QUALIFICATIONS Diploma in Business Management INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE Media; Arts & Entertainment QUALIFICATIONS MBA Non-profit Management; BA English & Economic History INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE Marketing; Education, Consultancy QUALIFICATIONS Diploma in Business and Administration; Diploma in Marketing; Diploma in Information & Technology INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE Retail; Law; Civil Society; Religion INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE Media; Arts & Entertainment TAWANDA KADZOMBE GIFT TENGATSITSI NDABAMBI
  7. 7. About the Workshop Overview Through this workshop, Endless Possibilities will create a platform for students to learn and apply goal setting principles for their personal, academic and career advancement. Highly interactive, the workshop will allow participants to share ideas among themselves and with the facilitators, broadening their understanding and appreciation of taught concepts. Purpose To reinforce self-confidence and capacity for overcoming challenges of impairment in all areas of their life. Objectives To equip students with goal setting skills and assist them in developing individual migration paths with a particular emphasis on personal, academic and career advancement. Sub-Objectives  To help students create tracks to run on – a path to follow – so they know where they are going and how to get there.  To teach students to take responsibility for their own success.  To make students aware of their strengths so they can begin to take advantage of them and use them in maximizing on available opportunities.  To make students aware of their weaknesses so they can begin to improve them and turn them into strengths. Participating Institutions The proposed workshop will be attended by the following institutions:  University of Zimbabwe  Midlands State University  Mutare Polytechnic College  Mutare Teachers' College 5
  8. 8. Programme 0730 Registration and Breakfast 0830 Welcome Remarks & Introduction 0900 Session 1: Define Success for Yourself 0930 Session 2: “Do not DIS my ABILITIES”: Understand your strengths and weaknesses. Play to your strengths. 1030 TEA BREAK 1045 Session 3: Set Personal, Academic, and Career Goals 1115 Session 4: Develop Strategies to Reach Your Goals 1145 Session 5: Keep Your Expectations High 1215 Session 6: The F* Word 1230 Groups; Instructions; Announcements 1245 LUNCH 1345 Consultations and Group Discussions 1600 Round-up, Recap, Question and Answer, Evaluation, Closing Remarks 1700 Close 6
  9. 9. Sample Ground Rules Sample Ground Rules Below are sample ground rules for the workshop. Discuss these sample ground rules at the beginning of the workshop with participants and let everyone agree on which ones to adopt and which ones to ignore. Also ask participants to suggest any additional ground rules. However, try to limit the number of ground rules to 12 or less. 1. Punctuality: Arrive on time to each workshop session. Arriving late is a sign of disrespect to the trainer and your fellow participants. 2. No Disturbances: Cell phones should be turned off at the beginning of the workshop and should remain off until the end, except during breaks. Avoid side conversations – if you are unclear about the topic being discussed or the instructions, please ask the facilitator to clarify. 3. Respect Others: Respect each other, yourselves, and the trainer. Do not speak when someone else is speaking. Listen actively. The trainer will be facilitating the discussions with your assistance. 4. Participation: You are your own best resource. Much of the content of the training will be coming from you. Each one of you brings a wealth of experience to the program. The workshop can only be successful if it is a two-way process and if everyone participates fully. Give everyone a chance to contribute and encourage others to do so. 5. Agree to Disagree: During this workshop everyone must feel free to express their opinions and concerns. Please view frank discussions about controversial issues as healthy exchanges rather than personal attacks. There will be tolerance of differences in approaches and strategies. Everyone should contribute to a safe/non-judgemental environment. 6. Ask Questions: There are no stupid questions. If you do have a question you don't want to ask in front of others, ask it privately during a break. Please do not think that any question that you may have is unimportant. 7. Give your honest feedback: At the end of today you will be given a form for your feedback that will help make this training better next time. Please be honest! Constructive criticism is appreciated and is the only way that we can improve. 7
  10. 10. Future Projects and Activities I believe that the Goal Setting for Personal, Academic &Career SuccessWorkshop is the beginning of a series of workshops designed to equip people with disabilities with skills necessary for them to take charge of their lives. I envision at least two more workshops in this series. The second workshop will focus on Mentorship and Peer Support. It will empower participants to enter into and manage healthy mentorship relations as protégés, mentors and peer-support partners. It will also introduce participants to the concept of supported decision making, something that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) favours over substituted decision making or guardianship. The third workshop will focus on Communication and Self Advocacy. It will explore effective communication skills as a prerequisite for success in every aspect of life. Participants will also explore their rights and how to be a self-advocate in a number of situations. The dates of the second and third workshops have not yet been determined. However, it is our hope that everyone that attends the first workshop gets an opportunity to attend the other two workshops. More workshops may be developed from the feedback that we anticipate to receive during the consultations and evaluation sessions. Our deepest desire is to design programmes and activities that meet the needs of those we serve. We, therefore, take your feedback seriously. In addition to these workshops, we have begun to prepare for the Endless Possibilities Challenge 2014. It is scheduled to be held in September and October 2014. The competition will reinforce many of the things taught in the goal setting workshop. You will be advised of more future events in due course. 8
  11. 11. About the book How this book was written The content of this book is not original. Most of it was taken from an online mentorship manual by Sheryl Burgstahler of the University of Washington. She has granted readers the permission to copy and use this material for non-commercial purposes. As a not-for-profit organisation, Endless Possibilities offers its services to people with disabilities at no cost and none of this material shall be sold to workshop participants or facilitators. This book shall be distributed free of charge. Other sources used to write this book include goal setting material that I downloaded from the internet as well as my own writings. How to use this book This book may be used by both workshop facilitators and participants. For workshop facilitators, this book may serve as a guide for what to include in their presentations. What they choose to include depends on what they deem is relevant for their session, time constraints, their experience and their creativity. Hence, facilitators are not expected to strictly base their presentations on the content of this book or to cover all of it if they decide to do so. The objective of the workshop is to introduce participants to the issues that are covered in this book and this book should not be a restriction on the facilitators. Although this book is being compiled for facilitation at a 1-day workshop with many participants, it may also be used for facilitation at shorter sessions in small group gatherings. For example, one may decide to hold 1-2 hour weekly or bi-weekly meetings with a small group of individuals and work through each topic as they go along. Again, they may choose which issues to discuss with the group and exclude those that they feel are not relevant to the group. Participants can work through the activities in this book during the time set aside for group discussions. Obviously, they will not be able to do all the activities during this time therefore they are encouraged to finish these activities at home, by themselves or as small groups. For maximum impact, we encourage participants to do as many activities as possible and to put what they have learnt in practice. We also encourage them to share what they have learnt and how they are going to apply what they have learnt in their lives with someone who will encourage them to achieve their goals. 1 Sheryl Burgstahler, 'Creating an E-Mentoring Community: How DO-IT does it, and how you can do it, too' (University of Washington, 2006). 9
  12. 12. Session 1: Define Success for Yourself “Life is not so much a matter of holding good cards, but sometimes of playing a poor hand well.” Robert Louis Stevenson Success means different things to different people. For some, positive family relationships and friendships are most important. For others, academic and career achievements weigh heavily in their definition of success. Some measure success primarily in religious aspects of their lives. Clearly, “success” is a subjective concept, unique to the individual and related to many aspects of our lives—personal, social, spiritual, academic, and professional. Defining success Success means different things to different people. How do you define success for yourself? Learning from successful experiences The following statements about success were made by people with a variety of disabilities.  For me, a successful life is living comfortably and satisfied. I don't need to be rich, just have enough money to get what I need and a few things that I want. I would like to have a good job that I enjoy doing and live in a decent-sized apartment with my husband and kids. As long as I have my family and we can live well, I'll be satisfied. This will be when I feel I can say I have achieved success.  Success is pursuing what you want. Even when you fail or when setbacks occur, to choose to continue pursuing something is a success on its own. If you then happen to accomplish what you set out to do, that's another success. But, always, you must keep trying, keep your goals in mind, and give your best. Then, even if things don't turn out the way you hope, you have succeeded.  The wonderful thing in this world is not where we are, but rather in what direction we are moving. My master's degree is a nice symbol of many challenges overcome and achievements attained. However, the times I've touched another person's life are even more important to me and confirm that I'm successful.  I live my life by the SABAH (Skating Association for the Blind & Handicapped) motto: “I CAN do it, I CAN skate.” Learning how to ice-skate changed my life forever. I am happier and healthier in every aspect of my life.  To me success is knowing and understanding yourself, acceptance, and love Imagine being eighty years old. At that point in your life how do you think you would evaluate how successful your life has been? 10
  13. 13. Finding your goals for success One successful person in an online discussion about definitions of success said: 2Success may be when you educate the educators about your impairment . Or achieve the National Honor Society. Or a date with the cute guy/gal. A homeless person's success might be finding a permanent shelter. To a college graduate, starting work. To someone working at a company, success might be attaining the CEO's position. Or success might be just getting through today. (adult with mobility and speech impairments) What specific goals for success relate to your life? Success and risk taking Successful people do not succeed all the time. They tend to experience many setbacks and failures, perhaps more than less successful people because they take more risks. Failing to take action minimizes our opportunities for success, and deprives us of a chance to learn from our experiences, and to lead self-determined lives. Thomas Edison's teachers said he was “too stupid to learn anything.” He was fired from his first two jobs for being “non- productive.” As an inventor, Edison made 1,000 unsuccessful attempts at inventing the light bulb. When a reporter asked, “How did it feel to fail 1,000 times?” Edison replied, “I have not failed 1,000 times. I have successfully discovered 1,000 ways to not make a light bulb.” Discuss some of the risks associated with your goals and how you can manage them. Success and self-determination Successful people know that they do not have control over everything in their lives. However, they can make choices and determine the course for the most important aspects of their lives.Setting and achieving goals provides a way for you to become more self-directed and independent. Self-determination is essentially being able to make choices and decisions about one's own life without any more support than necessary. 2 Replaced the word 'disability' with 'impairment' in line with the social model of disability; disability = barriers, impairment = loss or difference of body function. 11
  14. 14. According to Wehmeyer (1999), self-determination emerges when individuals learn and use aspects of self-determination such as choice-making, problem-solving and others listed below. In addition, being in an environment that supports choice and student-involvement is important. Frequent experiences that involve self-determined principles are important. Below are some definitions of aspects of self-determination that influence goal setting.  Choice making is simply the selection of one thing from an array of options.  Decision making involves weighing the possible alternatives to any situation or problem and then making a choice.  Problem solving is the process of solving some situation or dilemma whose solution is not immediately known.  Self-Monitoring and self-reinforcement support being able to tell if one is doing what is needed, and if so, providing some way to reward oneself, either with a feeling of accomplishment or an external reward. Some things to remember about success  Success can be achieved by everyone.  Success means different things to different people.  Success should be related to a person's own personal belief system and values.  Success can be measured in specific outcomes, as a process, or as a state of mind.  Standards for success can be related to personal, social, spiritual, academic, or employment goals.  Success can be defined for small, short-term goals, for overall life achievements, and for steps along the way.  Self-determination—being able to make and act on important decisions in your life—is a measure of success.  Successful people with disabilities accept disability as one aspect of who they are, but they do not allow their disabilities to define who they are or to dictate their goals in life.  Successful people are socially competent. They make connections with others and value friendships. 12
  15. 15. Affirming success Some affirmations (positive statements) from successful people with disabilities are listed below. Read each statement and think about whether it applies to you now. .  I know what success means to me.  I use my own definition of success to measure my achievements.  I can achieve success.  I am self-determined.  I have a positive attitude.  I have a sense of purpose in my life.  I have a sense of humour.  I have control over the most important aspects of my life.  I can make friends, and I value my friendships.  I am sensitive to the needs of others. Select one of these statements. Tell us what you can do and how others could help you make this statement stronger in your life. 13
  16. 16. Session 2: “Do not DIS my ABILITIES”: Understand your strengths and weaknesses. Play to your strengths. "That some achieve great success is proof to all that others can achieve it as well." Abraham Lincoln Understanding yourself provides the foundation for taking self-determined actions. It is a key to success. To know yourself means to be aware of your strengths, weaknesses, needs, interests and preferences. Self-awareness is essential for developing goals that reflect personal desires and for making informed decisions. Valuing yourself leads to positive self- esteem. The belief that you are part of something larger and more enduring than daily struggles can provide the strength required to persevere when life presents its inevitable challenges. People often make judgments and decisions about what they think people with disabilities can and cannot do based on their physical appearance. However, people with disabilities oftentimes have a way of surpassing people's expectations of them and proving that they are more able than they are thought to be. For example, people with disabilities have proved their abilities in some of the following ways.  People with visual impairments can pursue successful careers as lawyers, lecturers, music teachers and marketing consultants, to name but a few careers, with the use of technology. They can also do manual jobs such as making bricks and tiles.  People with hearing impairments are often successful in noisy jobs, such as panel beating, which may have a negative effect on hearing people. Careers as different as forestry, graphic art, medical technology and banking are also successfully pursued by hearing impaired people.  People with physical impairments are successful in many careers including teaching, social work, business management and many others. Stephen Hawking is one of the 14
  17. 17. greatest scientists the world has ever known, yet he is quadriplegic and can only speak with the aid of a computer. He freely admits that he has reached the top in his field because of and not in spite of his impairment. People with disabilities tend to also be associated with the following traits, which may contribute to their success as employees or entrepreneurs: Creative Problem Solving — The same ingenuity that enables a wheelchair user to retrieve the Froot Loops from the top shelf in the supermarket can be used to effectively deal with business dilemmas. Flexibility — People with disabilities are accustomed to adapting to the everyday changes that come with disabling conditions. These same strategies can be used in business to adapt to constantly changing market forces. Grace Under Fire — The ability to handle stressful situations with grace and dignity without compromising one's principles is invaluable in business. Living in a disabling environment is the perfect practice ground for refining this skill. Persistence — People with disabilities are not accustomed to giving up easily, and this persistence translates well into the world of business. Sense of Humour — It is nearly impossible to live with impairment without developing a sense of humour. Whether you are dealing with impairment or a business issue -- a good sense of humour helps keep things in the right perspective. Willingness to Ask for Help — People with disabilities understand that accepting help from others can actually make a person more self-sufficient. The same is true for a business. Resourcefulness — People with disabilities have learnt how to make the most of two of life's most precious resources--time and money. In business terms, this is called bootstrapping! Beyond these characteristics, each individual has his or her strengths and weaknesses that can enable him or her to succeed in various careers. Below are some people with disabilities that have changed the world in spite of or because of their impairments:  Louis Braille (blind), at age fifteen, invented the six-dot Braille system that is enabling 15
  18. 18. millions of visually impaired people to read and write as clearly as people with clear vision.  Albert Einstein (learning disability) could not talk until he was three and could not read until he was eight, but was the greatest scientist of the twentieth century and notable physicist of all time.  Michael Bolton (deaf) is a famous pop and rock singer.  Franklin Delano Roosevelt (polio) was the 32nd President of the United States of America and played a big role during World War II. Roosevelt eventually aided the poor and un-employed of America and restored order at various times during his Presidency. He was also the only President to ever get elected 4 years in a row mostly because of his help for the recovery of the economy.  Richard Branson (learning disability) is the founder and chairman of London-based Virgin Group. Accepting disability A personal factor that has been identified as a characteristic of successful college students with disabilities is “acceptance of disability,” suggesting that successful students understand the impact of their impairments and accept them as something they must deal with in their daily life. For example, one successful college student with a mobility impairment said: Clearly, disabilities can be obstacles. However, it's important to focus on obstacles that problem solving can surmount. Sometimes trade-offs do exist. I once wanted to go into biochemistry, but my lack of fine-motor skills and general distrust of lab partners made me realize that I wanted something I could do on my own—hence, history- philosophy. Admittedly, I rerouted, but for those who are determined to be biochemists and such, most obstacles can be overcome with abilities. Share a challenge in your life that you have to overcome, or work around, in order to achieve success. 16
  19. 19. Trying New Things You can't learn about all of your abilities and interests if you don't try new things. Trying new things can increase your confidence and self-esteem or help you feel good about yourself. It is also important to try new things because they may turn out to things you really enjoy. Self-esteem is the way you feel about yourself. This can be important when you are experiencing big changes or starting something new. Having low self-esteem may hold you back from trying new things because you might not feel like you can do it. Tell us about something you tried and then developed an interest in. Pursuing STEM Students with disabilities are often discouraged from pursuing challenging careers such as those in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Why do you think this is the case? Do you think students with disabilities should be discouraged from pursuing these fields? Have you been encouraged or discouraged in STEM areas of study? Identifying your likes and dislikes You will spend a long time in school and at work. Building on things that you like to do and learn about is one step towards a fulfilling life. Give some thought to your likes and dislikes. Think about how you would complete each partial sentence below. 1. One thing I really like to do is: One thing I really dislike doing is: 2. One activity I really like at school is: One activity I don't like at school is: 3. The subject I like most at school is: The subject I like least at school is: 4. One activity I really like for recreation is: A recreational activity I don't like is: 5. Something I like to do with my friends is: 17
  20. 20. One thing I don't like doing with my friends is: 6. An activity I like to do when I'm alone is: One activity I don't like to do alone is: Share with the group a job you might enjoy because of your likes and dislikes. Dealing with incorrect assumptions Successful people accept their impairments as one aspect of who they are. They do not deny the existence of limitations, but they also do not allow their impairments to define who they are. An important part of this self-awareness is learning to effectively deal with negative stereotypes and misunderstandings related to their impairments. What is an assumption someone made about you because of your impairment that was untrue? How did you feel? How did you handle the situation? Would you handle the situation in the same way if it happened again? If not, how would you handle it? Describing your impairment Self-knowledge can be reflected in how you describe yourself. For example, the way you describe your impairment may suggest that you consider yourself strong and resilient, helpless and worthless, passive and dependent, or creative and productive. During a rainy afternoon in a small lounge in McCarty Hall at the University of Washington, a group of high school students with disabilities viewed a collection of videos about people with disabilities. Their job was to come up with guidelines for context, style, and format for a new video on computer technology for people with disabilities. After showing one program that featured a boy riding a horse who used crutches to walk, a young woman who is blind suggested: I think we should make a list of words that we will never use in a DO-IT video. “Special,” “heart-warming and “inspirational” go to the top of the list. Why are kids with 18
  21. 21. impairments any more or less “special” than other kids? And why did the announcer say it was “inspirational” to see a kid with an impairment ride a horse when we assume other kids ride horses just to have fun? What words do you prefer not be used in describing your impairment or people with impairments as a group? Dealing with rude people You can't prevent people, with or without disabilities, from being rude. But you do have control over how you respond. You can develop a positive way of thinking about and dealing with the inevitable situations where you are labelled in a negative way. You can learn to separate your knowledge of the truth about yourself from the way you are described by others. In the following statements, individuals with disabilities articulate how these strategies play out in their lives.  Yes, it's not nice when someone walks up to you and says, bluntly, “Hey, what's wrong with you?” But remember that this person is curious. My experience has been that if you tell them about your impairment, they are sometimes actually interested....If you educate one person about your impairment, dispel one rumour, isn't it worth the anger at the bluntness of the question  It is not impossible, but it is difficult to teach people to be more sensitive and understanding to how we feel when they give us different labels.  I don't blame anybody if they don't treat me the way I want to be treated, because I know that they are not in my shoes. They can't see or feel what I see or feel, because they don't experience what I do, and this is their impairment. I have so many goals to achieve and dreams to seize, I have no time to stop and hear what they think I am. What they think of me is none of my business. Others may view you differently than what you know to be true about yourself. The ability to know and value yourself even when others suggest otherwise is key to leading a successful life. If someone describes you or your impairment in a way that you do not like, what are some positive ways to handle the situation? 19
  22. 22. Thinking about language An interesting online conversation about labels emerged within a group of young people and adults with hearing impairments.  As a hearing-impaired individual, I always found it uncomfortable when people would say I'm “deaf.” I prefer “hard of hearing” or “hearing-impaired” over “deaf.”  I used to say I was “hard of hearing” and hated to be called “deaf.” After losing more hearing, I became legally deaf. Even though I can talk and sing (badly), I am deaf.  I prefer the term “hearing impaired” because people don't react as badly as they do when the term “deaf” is used. When I tell someone I'm deaf, he/she acts as though I can't communicate at all. But if I say I'm hearing impaired, people think I can communicate, but I just have some trouble. Some people associate the word “deaf” with being dumb, even if they don't mean to.  “Deaf” simplifies things for me. The only problem that I've encountered over this terminology is that somebody heard me wrong and told another person that I was “death!”  I became deaf as an adult and in the process went through a period when I was “hard of hearing,” meaning if I really concentrated I could still get information from sounds. Then I became totally deaf and now rely completely on my vision and other senses for all my information. I am “deaf” and feel that gives a clear picture of me and how to communicate with me (i.e., no matter how loud you speak, I am still deaf....GRIN!)....The problem I have with the term “hearing impaired” is that it implies that hearing is still there and if we work hard enough it might kick in....It also labels me impaired, which “I ain't.” I'm just deaf. The hearing isn't impaired either. It just isn't there.  I sometimes forget I am deaf because the silence has become so “normal,” and on those days I am startled to be labelled. How do you like people to describe your impairment? If wording is important to you, what can you do to let others know? 20
  23. 23. Responding to labels Read the following email discussion between people with disabilities.  Does anybody find that people who aren't disabled spend way too much time thinking up new terms to call “us?” In the '70s and earlier most of us were called “cripples.” That seemed a little too cold, so throughout the '80s we were called “handicapped” or “disabled.” But now we've gained the phrase “physically challenged.” Do you guys feel any different when any of these names are used?  When someone says, “What disease do YOU have?” it hurts like hell, no matter how much self-worth I have.  No, it doesn't hurt or change anything when I'm called “handicapped,” “physically challenged,” or “disabled.”  I hate the word “cripple.” I also don't like the word “normal” when it is used to describe people who don't have impairments. Does this mean “abnormal” is the opposite of “normal?” I never thought of myself as “abnormal”—disabled, malfunctioning, or handicapped perhaps, but never “abnormal.”  An insight that people who get carried away with labelling need to catch is that we are all disabled, whether our impairment is being hair growth impaired, having a crippled tolerance perspective, or just being blind to the feelings of fellow travellers.  I believe everybody has an impairment of one type or another. I'm right in there with everybody else. Look for people's strengths, not their weaknesses.  I think that as with any minority group, there is an unfortunate tendency to assume that all disabled people are like the one or few that an outsider knows. Examples I have faced include assumptions that I must be cold, tired, incapable of comprehending, starved for touching (usually results in a pat on the head), uninterested in athletic events in which I cannot compete myself, destined for an early grave, financially needy, desirous of being approached by strangers, without appreciation of humour....I could go on ad nauseam. How do different labels for your impairment affect or not affect you? 21
  24. 24. Finding humour Successful people tend to be able to see the lighter side of situations. This includes finding the humour in things that happen to people because of their impairments. In an online discussion, people with hearing impairments shared the following funny experiences.  I once got off a plane in Sioux Falls and had a wheelchair waiting for me because they knew I had an impairment - I am deaf.  One of my favourite stories was told to me by a counsellor who is deaf. He's driving through a drive-through window. He gets to the speaker and says, “Hello, I'm deaf and won't be able to hear you. I can read lips so we can communicate when I get to the window.” All of a sudden this woman in the booth gets this “Oh good, I'm trained for this, I know what to do” look on her face as she runs out and gives the guy a Braille menu....in his car....he's driving.  It's happened more than once that someone will come up to me and ask me if I'm from France or Germany or Switzerland or some European country because of my “accent.” You can imagine the shock on their faces when I tell them I have a hearing impairment. Some of them act embarrassed. “Bonjour!” That's all the French I know! :)  In my sophomore year of high school my math teacher left the room for a minute when I was using an FM amplification system (which amplifies the voice of the speaker, who is wearing a clip-on microphone, into my hearing aid). The teacher had the microphone attached to his shirt. If you leave the room with the FM system, the sound doesn't stop transmitting! :) Well, I heard some running water, and so I turned my FM off to save myself and my teacher from a major embarrassment. A few minutes later, I looked up and my teacher was right there in front of me. His face was as red as a beet as he announced, “I was just washing my hands, okay?”  I've had the same experience! After class I told him I was scheduling an “FM Embarrassment Seminar” for the teachers who use the FM system. We still joke about it. Share a humorous situation that occurred as a result of your impairment. 22
  25. 25. Building on strengths Just like everyone else's, your life is a unique mix of strengths and challenges, abilities and disabilities. It is important to regularly take inventory of your strengths and limitations as you pursue a self- determined life. Then you can develop strategies for success that build on your strengths in your weaker areas, and develop strategies to minimize their impact. What is one of your strengths and one of your challenges in completing schoolwork? Do you have an eye for good design? An excellent memory? A passion for history? Are you challenged by mathematics? Uninterested in business? Unable to manipulate small objects? Redefining limitations as strengths Determining your strengths and limitations is not as black-and-white as it sounds. Sometimes, as noted by one teen who is a wheelchair user and quoted below, what others consider a weakness in your life you can actually choose to redefine as a strength.  A characteristic I think is a strength is my ability to worry a lot. Some consider this a weakness. I do in fact worry a lot. I worry about something that I hear about or see or even read about. Then it sometimes comes out as a big issue that I and others around me can address together as a group. Worrying about something is like saying that you care about what the outcome of a certain situation could be. Describe a characteristic that you have that could be considered a weakness by some people but, looked at another way, could be considered a strength in school or employment. Exploring learning strengths and challenges Everyone has learning strengths and challenges; each person learns best in a unique way. Think about how you would complete the following sentences, considering factors that relate to you, your teacher, and your environment.  I learn best when I ... I have difficulty learning when I... An example of what I can do to help myself learn is... 23
  26. 26.  I learn best when my teacher ... I have difficulty learning when my teacher... An example of what I can do to help my teacher help me learn is...  I learn best in an environment where... I have difficulty learning in an environment where... An example of how I can create a positive learning environment for myself is... Think about your level of strength regarding the following characteristics.  paying attention  processing/understanding what I read  processing/understanding what I hear  remembering things  expressing myself in writing  expressing myself by speaking  showing what I know  physical strength  ability to manipulate objects  visual ability  hearing ability What is one of these characteristics that you consider a limitation of yours? How can you minimize its impact or even turn it into a strength? Taking inventory of your learning style One aspect of who you are is your basic learning style. Knowing your learning style can help you understand yourself and how you can succeed. Access the following website to explore your learning style: http://www.metamath.com/multiple/multiple_choice_questions.html What were the results? Do you agree with them? Why or why not? 24
  27. 27. Healthy self-esteem Self-esteem refers to judgements about yourself. If you don't like yourself very much and feel like most of your actions are stupid, you have low self-esteem; being teased and criticized a lot may contribute to poor self-esteem. If you think you are better than other people and are considered conceited, your self-esteem may be too high; you may feel that any time something goes wrong it must be someone else's fault. If you basically like yourself and you consider yourself to have a fairly typical mix of strengths and limitations, you probably have pretty healthy self-esteem. What advice would you give to a friend who has poor self- esteem, in part because he or she is teased by other students? Valuing yourself Think about how the following advice from young people and adults with disabilities does or does not apply to your life. Then share advice you have for other participants in this workshop.  Always remember that it's OK to be unusual.  Don't be afraid to express and stand up for what you believe just because it may be different from everyone else's beliefs.  Trust in who you are. No one can take that from you. If you don't stand up for yourself, you'll get trampled.  Learn to think for yourself and not follow the “herd.” Be tough; be assertive; do not get discouraged. Accept life as it is, NOT as you would like it to be.  Live in the world of reality, but allow yourself moments of meditation and reflection on the nature of things. Whenever possible, enjoy good music, good food, and good companionship.  Remind yourself that every life makes a difference. Make as large a difference as you can.  Do not think of yourself as more “special” than other people. You may have a few more hurdles, and higher hurdles, to deal with than others, but life is learning to clear the hurdles no matter what they are. If you want something, earn it like everybody else. 25
  28. 28.  Never, never (did I say never!) use your impairment as an excuse for not doing something. Remember, there is a whole world out there ready and willing to make excuses for you, and if you make an excuse, others will happily accept the excuse. But every time such an excuse is given and accepted, you've limited what those around you will be prepared to let you do. Learning to value yourself To be a self-determined adult, you must understand and value yourself. How could you help a younger child learn to value himself? Affirming Self-Value Some positive statements of successful people who value themselves are listed below. Read each statement and think about your level of agreement about whether it applies to you.  I take good care of myself physically.  I take good care of myself emotionally.  I admire the strengths that come from my uniqueness.  I accept myself.  I have high self-esteem.  I have dignity and self-respect.  I have a sense of purpose in my life.  I trust my own judgment.  I make a positive contribution to my family, school, and community.  I feel comfortable around people with different characteristics.  I respect other people. Describe yourself (age, interests, personality traits, abilities and impairments) using only affirmative (positive) statements, with a focus on qualities you like and/or value about yourself. 26
  29. 29. Affirming success Some positive affirmations from successful people with disabilities are listed below. Read each statement and think about your level of agreement with it.   I know my strengths and challenges.  I know what is important to me.  I know what I need versus what I prefer.  I know what options I have.  I am an independent thinker.  I am optimistic about my future.  I care about my school, my community, and other people.  I act on my own convictions.  I recognize and respect my rights and responsibilities.  I can resist negative peer pressure.  I am comfortable with my disability.  I take my impairment into account when I set goals and develop strategies, but I realize that it is only a small part of my identity.  I can deal with the negative stereotypes of others in a constructive way. Share with us an additional affirmation statement that is true about you now or that you would like to be true about yourself in the future. Successful people tend to be able to see the lighter side of situations. 27
  30. 30. Session 3: Set Personal, Academic& Career Goals “Begin with the end in mind.” Stephen Covey When seventy-one adults with specific learning disabilities who had achieved success in their careers were interviewed, researchers found patterns to their success (Reiff, Gerber, & Ginsberg, 1992). The success factors were divided into two categories: • internal decisions • external manifestations Successful adults exhibited a powerful desire to succeed and were goal-oriented. A strong motivator was a desire to gain control of their lives. They recognized that their impairments presented them with significant challenges that require determination and hard work to overcome. Dreaming BIG! Dreaming has a bad reputation because it's associated with doing nothing instead of been seen as an important part of a process. For an individual, dreaming can serve the same function as brainstorming serves for a group—getting creative ideas on the table without dismissing them too quickly. The acts of dreaming and then thinking through the steps to reaching that dream are key to leading a fulfilling life. All young people, including those with impairments, need to dream—dream BIG! What is a goal? Goals are mentioned a lot in our everyday lives. A goal is a direction, an objective, or an end. 28
  31. 31. Goals could be about things we want to do more of, or improve on. A goal is something we want to achieve. People can have all sorts of goals. For example  I am going to join the local cricket club next year  I am going to stop smoking  I am going to loose 5kg It is up to you to think about what goals you might want to set. Goal setting can be used for ANYTHING. For example you can set a goal to do with:  Studies  Work  Hobbies  Relationships  Finances  Health. It's up to YOU to think about what things you might want to change. Goals can also be something that:  You want to be able to do in the future  You want to be better at doing  You want to stop doing. Why have goals?  By identifying your goals you can work out what you want to achieve that suits you and your lifestyle.  Having a goal helps in having a clear path to follow – it helps you go in the right direction and get you to the right place.  Having goals gives you something to aim for and can be a really good motivator to keep focused on a particular task.  Some goals can seem too big; if this happens it's a good idea to break them down into smaller goals or easy steps. 29
  32. 32.  Completing a goal is a great achievement. It gives you a feeling of being capable and in control of the situations around you, and increased motivation to achieve new goals. It is also a good reason for celebration and a chance to look back and see how far you have come.  Remember, if you don't reach your goal, that's OK. Everybody sets goals, but they are not always achieved. Your goals will keep changing as you change.  Students working on academic goals often report that they are able to finally understand how to manage their assignments or increase their grades with targeted studying or use of strategies. What are you good at? We all have things we are good at, and things we don't enjoy so much. Thinking about your strengths (our talents and skills) and things you enjoy can help you set goals for the future. What are some of the things you are good at? Understanding the goal setting process Having established your needs and strengths, goal-setting involves three main steps: identifying an end point (the goal or achievement), working out what steps are needed to reach that end point and, finally, establishing what structures must be in place to facilitate goal attainment. • Identify the Goal – What do you want to learn or do? • Write the Goal – Is the goal clear, concise, measurable, short-term/ long-term? • Create an Action Plan – How will you begin to work on this goal and when? SMART goals The 'SMART' principles also provide a useful guide to goal-setting. SMART goals are:  Specific – it's easier to accomplish a specific goal than a general one. For example, 're- join my old lunch club and attend twice a week'. an excited goal achiever 30
  33. 33.  Measurable – there should be concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of goals.  Attainable – when people identify goals that are really important to them (e.g. 'be able to cook Sunday lunch for my family') they are more likely to develop the attitudes and ability to reach them.  Realistic – goals should represent an objective that people are willing and able to work toward. They should also be set at a sufficiently high level that they represent real progress. Of course, progress is relative.  Timely – goals should be grounded within a time frame (e.g. 'by the end of the week I will be able to button my own cardigan'). Setting Goals at the Right Level Goals should be slightly out of your immediate grasp, but not so far that there is no hope in achieving them. Just remember that a belief that a goal is unrealistic may be incorrect! 31
  34. 34. Goal Checklist As you are setting your goals, keep the following thoughts on the following goal checklist in mind. Is the goal specific (not too narrow in focus, or too broad)? Is the goal measurable or directly observable? Is it relevant for your environment or situation? or . . . an attempt to modify my environment? Is goal attainable, but . . . challenging enough? Is this something that you really want to work? Is there a timeline for the goal? Can you envision the completed goal, or tell what the goal will “look” like when finished? Sharing goals Sharing your goals with others can often lead to more success. Why not discuss some of your goals with your family and friends? 32
  35. 35. Session 4: Develop Strategies to Reach Your Goals “First comes thought; then organization of that thought into ideas and plans; then transformation of those plans into reality. The beginning…is in your imagination.” Napoleon Hill Successful people set goals, keep expectations high, and are creative in developing strategies to reach their goals. They look at options and make informed decisions. Making informed decisions Making decisions is an important part of becoming an adult. To make good decisions, you need to understand the problem and know what options are available and the consequences of each. Here are steps you can follow to make an informed decision: 1. Determine what the problem is. 2. Determine what information you need, and use personal and information resources to get it. 3. Determine what choices you have and the consequences, advantages, and disadvantages of each action. 4. Make a decision. 5. Take action. 6. Evaluate your decision according to results. 7. Adjust your decision or next steps as needed. What are some of the things you need to know in order to make an informed decision about what jobs to apply to? 33
  36. 36. Developing study habits In order to achieve academic success, it is important to develop good study habits. Even students who did not need to study a lot in high school will find that they need good study habits in college. Here is what one successful person with hearing and mobility impairments reports:  I could never achieve anything without writing things down. Sometimes I use a calendar, sometimes a blank sheet of paper in my notebook, and sometimes the computer. I use a prioritization process. I write out everything that I need to do. Then I mark the things that MUST get done today or tomorrow as opposed to later, and I prioritize in order of importance. I get a lot of satisfaction crossing off accomplished steps. It also helps to break down larger tasks into smaller ones. I make lists, plan how to do the things on the lists, and then use the lists to motivate me to get things done. Read the following suggestions for good study habits and tell us what you would add to the list.  Write a daily “to do” list.  Get organized by keeping a calendar that schedules work to be done and deadlines  Break large projects into smaller tasks.  Study at high-energy times of the day.  Schedule uninterrupted study time each day. 34
  37. 37.  Find your best study places.  Study in short segments throughout the day.  Find ways to revitalize yourself—exercise, dance, sleep, healthy snacks.  Create a support system of fellow students; study together or be available by phone and/or email.  Reward yourself for developing successful habits, such as allowing time to play a favorite computer game. Creating an action plan to achieve goals Creating an action plan includes the following steps: 1. Set definite goals – ask 'What is my goal?’ 2. Take each of your goals, break it down into sub-goals and sequence your sub-goals – ask 'What steps need to be taken?’ 3. Identify the resource requirements – ask 'What resources do I need in order to achieve my goals and sub-goals?' Time? Money? Stationary? A laptop? 4. Identify the knowledge and skill requirements – ask 'What skills do I need to achieve this? What information and knowledge do I need? What help, assistance, or collaboration do I need?' or 'Who can do it and how?’ 5. Time the accomplishment of each of your sub-goals as well as your ultimate goals – ask 'When should it be done by?’ 6. Outline the benefits of each of your sub-goals as well as your ultimate goal – ask 'What's good about this?' Use the table below to create an action plan to achieve your goals. Tell us about a goal you have regarding recreation, school, or employment. List at least three things you need to do to reach this goal, and identify at least one thing you can do right now to move closer to your goal. 35
  38. 38. Affirming success Listed below are some affirmations of individuals with disabilities who have achieved success. Read each statement and think about whether it applies to you now.  I have high expectations for myself.  I set goals for myself.  I can identify steps to reach my goals.  I anticipate results.  I am motivated to succeed.  I like to do things myself.  I like to learn new things.  I work hard in school.  I am creative.  I have a sense of direction.  I plan ahead and make choices carefully. Tell us what you can do to make one of these statements stronger in your life within the next month. Tell us how a parent, guardian, teacher, or someone else you know could help you make this statement stronger in your life. 36
  39. 39. Additional Resources for Your Success We recommend that you refer to the following resources for additional information on goal setting for personal, academic and career success. Search online for them. You may be able to download them as free e-books (PDFs) or audio-books (Mp3s). 1. Goal Setting: 13 Secrets of World Class Achievers by Vic Johnson 2. Dream Big & Make It Happen by Evan Mawarire 3. Seven Keys to Abundant Living with No Regrets by Stephen Adei 4. Goals!: How to Get Everything You Want Faster Than You Ever Thought Possible by Brian Tracy 5. The Magic Lamp: Goal Setting for People Who Hate Setting Goals by Keith Ellis (TM) 6. The Success Principles : How to Get from Where You Are to Where You Want to Be by Jack Canfield 7. Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time by Brian Tracy 8. The Magic Story by Frederick Van Rensselaer Dey 9. The Richest Man in Babylon by Mr George S Clason 10. Success! The Glenn Bland Method by Glenn Bland 11. Goal Setting: How to Create an Action Plan and Achieve Your Goals by Michael S. Dobson 12. Failing Forward: Turning Mistakes into Stepping Stones for Success by John Maxwell This is not an exhaustive list of all the books that you can refer to. But this is just a list that will help you as you begin your journey of success. We hope that you will be able to identify more books on goal setting by yourself and use them to enrich your life.