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Ericsson Technology Review: Leveraging LTE and 5G NR networks for fixed wireless access

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LTE and 5G New Radio are opening up significant commercial opportunities for operators to use fixed wireless access (FWA) to bring the internet to many of the more than one billion households around the world that are still unconnected, as well as to many small and medium-sized businesses. We believe that the most promising approach is shared investment with mobile broadband (MBB), using the same ecosystem, assets and spectrum bands.
The latest Ericsson Technology Review article highlights the key principles for combined MBB and FWA deployments, and presents a use case that illustrates the recommended deployment approach. The actions we recommend are designed to benefit both MBB and FWA services simultaneously.

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Ericsson Technology Review: Leveraging LTE and 5G NR networks for fixed wireless access

  1. 1. ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY FIXEDWIRELESS ACCESSINLTEAND5G C H A R T I N G T H E F U T U R E O F I N N O V A T I O N | # 7 ∙ 2 0 1 8 5% be 5% worst households Average households 3.0GHz 1.0GHz 0 0 50 50 100 100 150 150 200 200 250 300 Experienced user data rate (Mbps) Cap For example, average Sold data rate 225Mbps to average households Minimum data rate Rmin = 10Mbps LTE 20MHz Add (step 1) FDD LTE 20MHz FDD LTE 10MHz GSM WCDMA FDD
  2. 2. ✱ FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G 2 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 HÅKAN OLOFSSON, ANDERS ERICSSON, FREDRIC KRONESTEDT, SVEN HELLSTEN Unlike the country-wide decisions typically made for mobile broadband (MBB), decisions about fixed broadband and targeted fixed wireless access (FWA) deployments tend to bemadeatthelocalmarketlevel,andoperators have a critical role to play. A number of different drivers govern local market attractiveness, as outlined in Ericsson’s recently published FWA handbook [1]. ■ WehaveorganizedtheFWAmarket opportunitiesintothreedistinctsegmentsthatwe call‘WirelessFiber’,‘BuildwithPrecision’,and ‘ConnecttheUnconnected’.Eachofthesehas differentcharacteristicsmainlybasedonthe offering,theavailabilityoffixedaccessandthe correspondingaveragerevenueperuser(ARPU) thatcanbeexpectedfromcustomers[1].The WirelessFibersegmentconsistsofthosecasesin whichthereisaneedforveryhigh-rateofferingsand capacityasadirectalternativetohigh-endfixed broadband.Theambitionistoprovidefiber-like speedsandhandlehouseholds’TVneeds,matched withacorrespondinglyhighabilitytopay.Typical solddateratesare100to1,000+Mbpsandmonthly ARPUlevelsofUSD50-100.TheFWAsweetspot forthissegmentistypicallysuburbanenvironments. TheBuildwithPrecisionsegmentiscomprisedof thosecaseswherethereiscompetitionfrom performance-limitedfixedbroadbandalternatives, Globally, there is a huge underserved market for broadband connections, with more than one billion households still unconnected. The growth in high-speed mobile broadband coverage enabled by LTE and 5G New Radio is opening up much more commercially attractive opportunities for operators to use fixed wireless access to deliver broadband services to homes and small and medium-sized enterprises. LEVERAGING LTE AND 5G NR NETWORKS FOR wireless access Fixed
  3. 3. FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 3 Terms and abbreviations ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line | ARPU – Average Revenue per User | CAT – Category (in LTE) | CPE – Customer Premises Equipment | dav – Average Busy-hour Data Consumption | DL – Downlink | DSL – Digital Subscriber Line | FDD – Frequency Division Duplex | FWA – Fixed Wireless Access | MBB – Mobile Broadband | MIMO – Multiple-input, Multiple-output | mmWave – Millimeter Wave | NR – New Radio | Rmin – Minimum Data Rate | TDD – Time Division Duplex | Tx/Rx – Radio Transmitter/Radio Receiver | WCDMA – Wideband Code Division Multiple Access | xDSL – DSL family (e.g. ADSL) suchasxDSL.Here,theneedisforhighdatarate andcapacity,withacorrespondinglevelofARPU. Typicalsolddataratesare50to200Mbpsand monthlyARPUlevelsarearoundUSD20-60.The FWAsweetspotforthissegmentisinsuburbanor ruralvillagesortownsthatarecurrently underserved.Somemoresparselypopulatedareas arealsoaddressable. TheConnecttheUnconnectedsegmentismade upofcasesinwhichfixedbroadbandcompetitionis virtuallynon-existent,andsmartphonesthatuse MBBarethedominantwayofaccessingtheinternet. Userexpectationsofaccessspeedarerelativelylow. Typicalsolddataratesare10to100Mbpsand monthlyARPUlevelsarearoundUSD10-20.Even thoughARPUlevelsarelimitedinthissegment,it hasaFWAsweetspotthatstretchesfromurban environmentstoruralvillages,duetolimited investmentneeds. Subscriptions,dataratesandconsumption TheparadigmsforfixedbroadbandandMBBare different,bothintermsofsubscriptionofferingsand dimensioning.Fixedbroadbandsubscriptionstend tofocusonmaximumdataratesthatareachieved undernormalcircumstances–thatis,atlowto mediumload.Theusertrafficisoftenshapedsothat itdoesnotexceedthesolddatarate.Hence,forfixed broadband,thesolddatarateisthenormalvalue thathouseholdsubscribersrelateto. Bycontrast,forMBB,peakratesaresometimes usedformarketing,andnormallythenetwork transmitsthemaximumratethatthemobiledevice canhandle.Monthlydatabucketsdominatethe subscriptionparadigm,andadditionalmonetization isachievedthroughupgradestolargerdatabuckets, allthewaytounlimiteddata.Hence,forMBB, monthlydatabucketsarethenormalsubscription valuethatmobilesubscribersrelateto.
  4. 4. ✱ FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G 4 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 Itisimportantthatbothconsumersandoperators (fixedandmobile)understandthiscrucialdifference. OurviewisthatFWAwillinheritthesubscription paradigmsoffixedbroadbandratherthanthoseof MBB.Thatis,householdsshouldpayforFWAon thebasisofdatarateandnotbeconcernedabout dataconsumption. Last-hopdimensioning InFWAthelasthopiswireless,soallthe characteristicsofawirelessnetworkapplytothe dimensioning.Unlikefiber,butsimilartodigital subscriberlinelooplength,therewillbevarying connectionqualitytodifferenthouseholds.And, unlikefixedbroadbandoverall,thelasthopisradio andthereforeshared,whichmeansthatspeedswill degradewithincreasingnetworkload.Allthese characteristicsmustbetakenintoaccountwhen dimensioninganFWAnetwork.Further,since EricssonpromotesthesharingofassetswithMBB (whenavailable),werecommendthatFWAis broughtintogeneralRANdimensioning. Notethatforfixedbroadband,FWAandMBB alike,thereistransportaggregationabovethelast hop,whichisdimensionedaccordingtostandard principlesandcanalsocontributetoavaryinguser experience. Inshort,whileFWAwillinheritthesubscription paradigmoffixedbroadband,duetotheradio propertiesofthelasthoptohouseholds,itmustuse modifieddimensioningmethodsandtermsfromthe MBBparadigm. Figure1illustratesatypicalFWAanalysisflow.It startswithinputonthesubscriptionandoffering, includingdimensioningcriteria,whichtriggersa selected,maximallyefficientnetworkdesignthat dependsontheofferingambitionsandnetwork startingpoint.Abusinesscasecanbecalculatedby balancingtheresultingcostitemsofthedeployment withtheextrarevenuesforeseen. Figure 1: FWA deployment analysis flow Make use of RAN ‘utilize, add, densify’ deployment toolbox Refine if needed Desired ARPU Desired addressed households/site (or km2) Desired sold data rate X Mbps Minimum data rate Rmin , dav (design criteria) Network cost Network design 1. Low/medium load analysis => Sold data rate 2. Max. load analysis => Max. system load => Max. number of households Calculate business case
  5. 5. FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 5 FWAtoolbox Anexistingmobileradionetwork,normally designedforvoiceandMBB,isanexcellentbasefor offeringanFWAservice.Dependingontheradio networkstartingpointandtheoperator’sambitions forFWA,thereisatoolboxavailabletomakethe networkcapableofhandlingacombinationofvoice, MBBandFWA. Thesetoolsfallintothreemaincategories:utilize, addanddensify.Theparticularneedsofeachlocal situationcanbemetbydeployingawell-planned mixofthesetools. Utilizeexistingradionetworkassets Theabilitytoutilizeexistingradionetworkassetsis afundamentaladvantagethatsetsmobileoperators apartfromstart-upsorgreenfieldcompetitorsinthe FWAmarket.However,theadvantageisonlyfully realizedifallrelevantRANassetsareefficiently combinedforvoice,MBBandFWA.Iftheoperator choosesnottoutilizeexistingassetsbuiltforvoice andMBB,thenumberofeconomicallyviablelocal areasforFWAwillbesmaller,andtheoperatorrisks facingunnecessarycompetitionwithstandalone FWAproviders. Theradionetworkassetsthatshouldbeutilized includeexistingradiosites,sparecapacityin deployedspectrum(includingassociated equipment),andacquiredbutundeployedspectrum. Existingradiositesarecriticalassets,whetherthey areoperator-ownedorrented.The‘tool’ofutilizing existingsitesisnotusedbyitself,butincombination withotheractionstomakethosemorecost-efficient. Sparecapacityindeployedspectrumandassociated deployedradio,basebandandtransportnetwork equipmentisquitecommoninFWAtargetareas, andmakinguseofitrequiresnonewcapital expenditure.Acquiredbutundeployedspectrumis alsocommoninFWAtargetareas,whichmakes radiodeploymentinnewbandspossiblewithoutthe costofacquiringnewspectrum.Thegeographicalfit forFWAisexcellent,sinceFWAtargetedareasare oftensuburbanandrural,whereunusedspectrumis mostprevalent. Addradionetworkcapabilities InanMBBRAN,radiocapabilitiesarecontinuously addedtohandlemoretraffic,morecustomersand betterappcoverage.TohandleFWAasanextra service,someoftheseadditionsmayhavetobemade soonertoachieveacombinednetworkwith sufficientcapabilities. Anexistingmobileoperatorhasthesignificant advantageofbeingabletoaddthefollowingradio networkcapabilitiesandco-financethemforMBB andFWA: • Spectrum–upcomingwidespectrumbandsin 3-6GHzandmillimeterwave(mmWave)openup potentialforprovidinghighdataratesand capacity,benefitingbothMBBandFWA • Higher-ordermodulation,multiple-input, multiple-output(MIMO)andbeamforming– offeringthepotentialtosqueezeoutthemostfrom eachspectrumband • FWA-tailoredsoftwarefeatures–toenhance performanceforFWAusersandtoprovide adequatequalitytoMBBandFWAinshared deployments • Additionalsectorsonexistingsites • 5GNewRadio(NR)access–designedforlow latencyandforwidespectrumbands,creatingan excellentoverallnetworktogetherwithLTE. Densifytheradionetworkgrid Whenthe‘utilize’and‘add’toolshavebeenusedto theirfullpotential,densificationcanofferfurther gains.Inthesecases,MBBenhancementstendtobe necessaryaswell,sotheupgradeneedsofMBBand FWAshouldbeconsideredtogetherandthe densificationofthenetworkshouldbeco-financed. Thetwooptionsfordensifyingtheradionetwork gridaremacrositedensificationandsmallcellsite THEABILITYTOUTILIZE EXISTINGRADIONETWORK ASSETSISAFUNDAMENTAL ADVANTAGE
  6. 6. ✱ FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G 6 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 densificationonpoles.Macrositedensificationisan opportunisticapproach:wherenewmacrositescan befound,suchopportunitiescanbetaken.Smallcell sitedensificationonpolesmaybenecessaryifthe macrogridissparseandperformancerequirements arehigh. SpectrumsharingacrossMBBandFWA SharingspectrumacrossFWAandMBBenables significantgainsinoverallspectralefficiency becausehigherutilizationispossiblewithone ‘biggerpipe’.Thisisexplainedbythetrunkinggain effect,whichhasbeenknownandusedinmobile systemssincetheirinfancy,allthewayfromvoice channelcapacitytoLTEcarrieraggregationfor MBB.ItisalsoapplicabletoFWA. Thelogicalconsequenceofthisisthatspectrum assetsshouldbesharedasonepool,employing carrieraggregationforLTEanddualconnectivity forLTE/NRtoensurethatallresourcesareutilized tothemaximum,whilesecuringgooduser experienceforbothMBBandFWA.Qualityacross bothservicesisensuredthroughexistingsoftware featuressuchasRANslicing. Bycontrast,anyartificialsplitofspectrum resourcesfordifferentserviceswouldresultin under-utilizationofthespectrumassets. PerformancedifferencesofFWACPEtypes UsingFWAtodeliverbroadbandservicesrequires newFWAcustomerpremisesequipment(CPE), fromsimpleindoornomadicdevicestofixed outdoor-installedunits,provisionedthrough standarddeviceretailornewmethods.ACPE managementsystemislikelytobeneededtomanage CPEinthefixedbroadbandsense–enablingthe operatortologintothedevices,configurethemand checkstatusremotely.Convergedoperatorshavethe choiceofreusingthefixedaccessCPEmanagement systemordeployingaseparateoneforFWA.Both CPEandCPEmanagementsystemsareseparate networkentitiesthatgenerallyhavelimited integrationwithcellularnetworks,meaningthatthe operatorcanacquirebest-of-breedproductsand expectthemtoworkusingstandardprotocols.The biggestdifferencebetweentheCPEalternativesis theabilitytoachievepromisedservicelevels, especiallyduringbusyhours. AnoutdoorCPEprovidesthebestperformance, asithasabuilt-indirectionalantenna(3.5GHz, 10-14dBi)andisinstalledwithapredictableradio linkqualitytotheselectedbasestation.Thetypical antennaconfigurationhastwoRxantennas,but deviceswithfourRxantennasarealsoavailable.The normaltransmissionmodeisrank-2MIMO,asthe modemisexpectedtobeinstalledwithgoodline-of- sight.MostoutdoorLTEdevicessupportCAT6and 20+20MHzcarrieraggregationbutmoreadvanced devicesuptoCAT16supportarealsoavailable. Inter-bandcarrieraggregationbetweenFDDand TDDisespeciallyuseful,asservicescanbestarted onexistingFDDbandsandlaterexpandedasFWA subscribersandtrafficincrease. AcorrectlyinstalledoutdoorCPEisdirectedto thebest-servingcell,leadingtoalowerpathlossand increasingthevalueofmid-bandandmmWaveTDD spectrum.Thelargegaininsignalqualityisaresult ofthe10dBdifferenceinantennagainandthe avoidanceof10-15dBinwall/windowattenuation lossessufferedbyindoordevices.Anothercontributor tosignalattenuationforindoordevicesisthedeep indoorloss,asthedeviceislikelytobeplacedina hiddenlocationortoprovideoptimumWi-Ficoverage. Thiscouldcontributeanother5dBinpathloss. WhereasanindoorCPEiscomparabletoa smartphoneintermsofspectrumefficiency,an outdoorCPEistwotothreetimesmoreefficient.To putitanotherway,forthesamedataconsumption, aroundtwotothreetimesasmanyhouseholdscan beservedusingoutdoorratherthanindoorunits–or twotothreetimesasmuchspectrumwouldbe QUALITYACROSSBOTH SERVICESISENSURED THROUGHEXISTING SOFTWAREFEATURES
  7. 7. FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 7 neededtoserveindoor-onlyFWAhouseholds.A finaladvantageofoutdoorCPEisthattherelative performancedifferencebetweenthebest,median andworstfive-percentileusersissignificantlylower. Intermsofperformance,indoorCPEunits normallystartwithCAT6capabilitiesofupto 300Mbps.Moreadvanceddevicescouldsupport CAT16upto1Gbpsandofferrank-4MIMO.More advancedCPEarchitecturesarealsobeing discussed,suchasasplitdesign,whereanoutdoor windowantennaisconnectedtoanindoorunitvia inductionthroughthewindowglass. Casestudy:thecountrytown Thecountrytownexamplerepresentsamarket withinourBuildwithPrecisionsegment, characterizedbyrelativelymatureLTEMBBand decentfixedbroadbandofferings,complementedby terrestrialorsatellitebroadcastservicestomeet households’linearTVneeds.Thetypicalmonthly ARPUforMBBisaroundUSD20,andthe predictedwillingnesstopayisUSD40fora dedicatedhouseholdFWAinternetservicewitha soldrateof50-200Mbpsandunlimiteddata. Theoperatorusesthefollowingasthebasisfor dimensioningthesystem: • Thenetworkshouldbedesignedtobeableto connectatleast30percentofhouseholds.In contrasttotheextensiveupfrontinvestments requiredinafiberdeployment,theabilityto designandinvestforalimitedmarketsharefrom thebeginningandexpandlaterasthesubscriber basegrowsisausefulpropertyofFWA. • ThereisnoambitiontoofferIPTVoverFWA,as householdTVneedsareassumedtobeservedby satelliteorterrestrialaccess. • Thedominantusecaseismeetingallthe households’internetneeds. • Forvideostreamingsupport,householdsshould, whenneeded,experienceatleastaminimumdata rate(Rmin)of10Mbpsevenduringbusyhours. ThiscorrespondstoonehighdefinitionTVvideo stream,withsomemargin,oracombinationof multiplestandarddefinitionTVstreams. • Basedontheoperator’sexperiencefromsimilar FWAareas,theaveragehousehold’sconsumption duringbusyhoursis0.9GB/h,correspondingtoan averagedataflowof2Mbpsduringbusyhours. Withtheassumptionthat10percentofdatais beingconsumedduringbusyhours,thiswould correspondto270GBpermonth. Networkstartingpoint Coverageisprovidedbyamacronetworkwith three-sectorsitesandaninter-sitedistanceofabout 1km.TheoperatorhasaccesstosixFDDbands: threebandsbelow1GHz(typically700,800and 900MHz),andthreebandsinthe1-3GHzrange (typically1,800,2,100and2,600MHz).TheMBB trafficinthisareaishandledusingasubsetofthe availablebands.Themajorityofsmartphonesare LTE-capable,andthereisalsoGSMandWCDMA coveragetohandlesimplerphones.Atypicalmacro sitehastwoLTEcarriers(800and1,800MHz)as wellasaWCDMAcarrierinthe2,100MHzband, andafewGSMcarriersinthe900MHzband. High-levelanalysis[2]hasshownthatthe deployedLTEcapacityinwesternandcentral Europeislessthan40percentutilized,giventhe LTEsmartphonesubscriberdensityinthearea.This meansthatthereisspareradiocapacitythatcanbe utilizedbyFWA. Overallsolution Werecommendutilizingtheexistingsites,radios andbasebanddeployedtoprovideMBB,and sharingtheseresourcesacrossFWAandMBB users.Currentdeploymentshavesparecapacity bothinLTEcarriersandinbasebandunits. Inaddition,werecommendutilizingtheacquired THEABILITYTODESIGN ANDINVESTFORALIMITED MARKETSHARE...ISAUSEFUL PROPERTYOFFWA
  8. 8. ✱ FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G 8 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 butundeployedbandbelow3GHz(suchas 2,600MHz),withanew2Tx/Rxradio,togetherwith theexistingLTEbandsbymeansofcarrier aggregationforbothFWAandMBB.Carrier aggregationimprovespeakspeedsaswellas coverageforbothservices.TheleftsideofFigure2 showsthespectrumuseoftheFWAdeploymentat thisfirststepdeployment.ARANslicingfeaturecan beappliedtoensurethatthereisnonegativeimpact onMBBservices(andviceversa)duringpeak loadingasaresultofFWAandLTEuserssharing thesamecarriers. Thereisnoneedtodensifythenetworkinthis case.WithregardtoCPEchoices,wesuggestusing high-end4Rxoutdoor(roof-topmounted)CPE,as FWAspeedsneedtobehighinthiscasetocompete withxDSLservicesinthearea.IndoorCPEmaybe deployedasacomplementforhouseholdswhere theirperformanceisacceptable. Performanceanalysis AlthoughMBBandFWAservicessharespectrum inthecountrytowncase,tosimplifythepresentation oftheperformanceanalysis,ourevaluationonly showsFWA.Further,wehavechosentofocusonthe downlink(DL)becausetheFWAtraffic(and broadbandtrafficingeneral)isDL-heavyandso capacityisDL-limited. TheperformanceisillustratedinFigure2.The experiencedDLdatarateforaspecifichousehold dependsonitslocation,aswithxDSLservices,and maybeupto270Mbpsinthisscenario.Anaverage householdwouldexperiencearound225Mbpsat lowsystemload.Thiscouldbeusedasthesolddata ratetoatypicalcustomer. Notehoweverthat,unlikeMBB,whereusers movearoundandexperiencebothgoodandbad radioenvironments,inthisscenariotheCPEisfixed andvariationintheradioenvironmentissmaller, Figure 2: Performance and spectrum use of FWA deployment step 1 5% best households 5% worst households Average households Served traffic load (Mbps/site) 3.0GHz 1.0GHz 0 0 50 50 100 100 150 150 200 200 250 250 300 300 350 400 Experienced user data rate (Mbps) Capacity, C = 300Mbps per site For example, 30% of 430 households per site with average busy hour consumption of 1GB/h Sold data rate 225Mbps to average households Minimum data rate Rmin = 10Mbps LTE 20MHz Add (step 1) FDD LTE 20MHz FDD LTE 10MHz GSM WCDMA FDD
  9. 9. FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 9 meaningthathouseholdswithworseradio environmentswilllikelyalwayshaveworsethan averagedatarates.Inthisscenario,thefivepercent worst-performinghouseholdsexperiencecloseto 175Mbpsatbest.Therefore,itmaybeworth consideringhavingdifferentsubscriptioncategories; itmaynotbepossibleforallhouseholdstosubscribe tothehigherservicelevel. Todimensionthesystem,theRminissetto 10Mbps.Thismeansthatthefivepercentworst- performinghouseholdsshouldexperienceatleast 10MbpsDLdatarateduringbusyhours.Thisresults inacapacityof300Mbps,or135GB/h,persite.As longasthetotaltrafficinallthreesectorsdoesnot exceed300Mbps,theRminrequirementwillbe fulfilled. Assumingthereare500householdspersquare kilometer,andaninter-sitedistanceof1,000m,an FWAmarketshareof30percentcorrespondsto some130householdspersite.At135GB/hcapacity, thismarketcanbeservedwithanaveragebusyhour consumptionofslightlyabove1GB/h–thatis,above thedimensioningtargetof0.9GB/h(2Mbps).In addition,MBBwillbenefitfromtheadditional20MHz spectrum,forexampleintermsofincreasedpeakrates. Solutionevolution Itisimportantthatthesolutionisfuture-proofand canevolvetohandlemoreconnectedhouseholds andhigherdemandperhouseholdovertime.To providehighercapacityandcopewithgreater demands,operatorscanacquireandaddanewTDD bandabove3GHz(suchas3.5GHz)using8Tx/Rx advancedantennasystemradios.Themulti-user MIMOfeaturecanbeactivatedtoprovide additionalcapacity.Figure3illustrateshow additionalcapacitycanbeprovidedinseveral evolutionsteps. Figure 3: FWA deployment solution evolution to steps 2-4: spectrum use and performance Proportion of households served (430 households per site) Average busy hour consumption (GB/h) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2.52.252.01.751.51.251.00.750.50.25 3.0GHz 1.0GHz LTE 20MHz Add (step 1) Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1 Dimensioning target•(0.9GB/h at 30%) FDD LTE/NR 20MHz Add (step 2) TDD LTE/NR 20MHz Add (step 3) TDD LTE/NR 20MHz Add (step 4) TDD LTE 20MHz FDD LTE 10MHz GSM WCDMA
  10. 10. ✱ FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G 10 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 Initially,thesystemisdimensionedtoserve30 percentofhouseholdswithanaveragebusyhour consumptionof1GB/h.Theareaofthegraphin Figure3markedasStep1indicatesthepossible combinationsofpercentagesofhouseholdsand averagebusyhourconsumptionforthissolution. TheareaofthegraphthatismarkedasStep2 indicatesthecapacityprovidedbyanadditional 20MHz.Thisshowsthatthesystemcanservea customerbaseof30percentwithanaveragebusy- hourconsumptionof1.9GB/h.Alternatively,the highercapacitycanbeusedtoserveanincreased marketshare(upto58percent)withanunchanged averagebusyhourconsumption. Increasingthebandwidthwithanother20MHzof TDDspectrumprovidesasystemcapacity representedbytheareamarkedStep3inthegraph. Thiswillserve30percentofhouseholdsinthearea withanaveragebusy-hourconsumptionof3GB/h. Again,thehighercapacitycouldinsteadbeusedto serveanincreasedmarketsharewithanunchanged averagebusy-hourconsumption,oracombinationof increasedmarketshareandincreasedaverage consumption. Finally,Step4,thedarkestgreyareaofthegraph inFigure3,indicateswhatcanbeachievedwhena totalof60MHzofTDDspectrumisaddedbeyond Further reading 〉〉 Ericsson Technology Review, Fixed wireless access on a massive scale with 5G, 2017, Furuskär A; Laraqui, K; Nazari, A; Skubic, B; Tombaz, S; Trojer, E, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/assets/local/ publications/ericsson-technology-review/docs/2017/2017-01-volume-94-etr-magazine.pdf 〉〉 Ericsson ConsumerLab, Connected homes, June 2015, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/assets/ local/news/2015/6/ericsson-consumerlab-connected-homes.pdf References 1. Ericsson,FixedWirelessAccessHandbook(extractedversion),availableat:https://www.ericsson.com/assets/ local/narratives/networks/documents/fwa-handbook.pdf 2. Ericsson Mobility Report, November 2017, available at: https://www.ericsson.com/assets/local/mobility-report/ documents/2017/ericsson-mobility-report-november-2017.pdf Step1.Assuminga30percentmarketshare,an averagebusy-hourconsumptionofupto4.1GB/h canbemet(outsidegraphrange). Insummary,byusingtheFWAtoolboxandlimited initialinvestments,andthenaddingTDDspectrum asneeded,thechosendeploymentisabletosupport highdataratesandconsumptionimmediatelyat launch.Then,throughaseriesofsmoothsolution evolutionsteps,capacitycangrowtomorethanfour timestheinitialoffering. Conclusion Thelargenumberofunderservedhouseholdsaround theworldrepresentsaprofitableFWAgrowth opportunityforcurrent3GPPoperators.Mobile-only operatorscanexploreanewbusinessopportunity withFWA,andconvergedoperatorscanaddFWA asacomplementtotheirfixedbroadbandstrategy forcertainlocationsasamorecost-efficientsolution withfastertimetomarket.Segmentedsolutionsare needed,withsubscriptionsanddimensioningbased onfixedandmobileparadigms.Webelievethatthe bestwaytodeliverfuture-proofbroadbandsolutions isbasedontheevolutionofLTEand5GNR,and thatthemostpromisingapproachisshared investmentusingthesameecosystem,assetsand spectrumbandsforbothMBBandFWA.
  11. 11. FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 ✱ ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 11 Håkan Olofsson ◆ has worked in the mobile industry for 25 years, with a particular focus on its RAN aspects. He joined Ericsson in 1994 and has served in a variety of capacities, mostly dealing with strategic technology development and the evolution from 2G all the way to 5G. He is currently head of the System Concept program at Development Unit Networks. Olofsson holds an M.Sc. in physics engineering from Uppsala University, Sweden. Anders Ericsson ◆ joined Ericsson in 1999 and is currently working as a system designer in Development Unit Networks. During his time at Ericsson, he has worked at Ericsson Research and in system management, as well as heading up the Algorithm and Simulations department at Ericsson Mobile Platforms/ST- Ericsson. He previously worked at the Swedish National Defense Research Establishment (FOI). Ericsson holds a Licentiate Eng. in automatic control and an M.Sc. in applied physics and electrical engineering from Linköping University, Sweden. Fredric Kronestedt ◆ joined Ericsson in 1993 to work on RAN research. Since then, he has taken on many different roles, including system design and system management. He is currently working at Development Unit Networks, where he is focusing on radio network deployment and evolution aspects for 4G and 5G. Kronestedt holds an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Sven Hellsten ◆ joined Ericsson in 1993 and over the years he has worked with radio technologies ranging from analogue AMPS, GSM, WCDMA, to LTE and 5G/ NR. His main focus has been on product management of base stations, but he has also worked with signal processing design and systems management. Hellsten holds an M.Sc. in physics engineering from Uppsala University. theauthors Theauthorswould liketothankthe followingpeoplefor theircontribution tothisarticle: TomasDahlberg, HaniElmalky,Bo Göransson,Henrik Johansson,George Jöngren,Michael Kühner,PerLindberg, StaffanLindholm, ReinerLudwig, ClaesMartinsson, BjörnMöller,Richard Möller,PerArne Nilsson,Christoph Schrimpl-Rother, SibelTombaz,Henrik Voigt,DavidWaite andJohnYazlle.
  12. 12. ✱ FIXED WIRELESS ACCESS IN LTE AND 5G 12 ERICSSON TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ✱ AUGUST 30, 2018 ISSN 0014-0171 284 23-3317 | Uen © Ericsson AB 2018 Ericsson SE-164 83 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46 10 719 0000

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