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Electric Vehicle Chassis & Battery Systems

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The purpose of this PowerPoint is to provide a better understanding of the chassis and battery systems of common Electric Vehicles. The PowerPoint is intended for the layperson versus the technician or engineer.

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Electric Vehicle Chassis & Battery Systems

  2. 2. PURPOSE • The purpose of this PowerPoint is to provide a better understanding of the chassis and battery systems of common Electric Vehicles. The PowerPoint is intended for the layperson versus the technician or engineer. Footnote: The author retrieved this compilation of information from public domain websites provided in the reference section. Some information may need updating for accuracy.
  3. 3. POPULAR ELECTRIC VEHICLES Electric vehicle Battery Chevy Volt 16kWh, liquid cooled Li-manganese, 181kg (400lb) Toyota plug-in Prius 3 Li-ion packs, one for hybrid; two for EV, 42 temp sensors Mitsubish 16kWh; 88 cells, 4-cell modules; i iMiEV Li-ion; 109Wh/kg; 330V Nissan LEAF 24kWh; Li-manganese, 192 cells; 80Wh/kg, air cooled; 272kg (600lb) Tesla 56kWh, 6,831 Li-cobalt computer Roadster cells; liquid cooled Range advertise d Range in real world Charge times 64km, 40 miles 45km, 28 miles; 149hp electric & 1.4 liter IC engine 10h at 115VAC; 4h at 230VAC 20km, 13 miles N/A; 80hp electric & 98hp IC engine 3h at 115VAC; 1.5h min 230VAC 128km, 80 miles 88km, 55 miles; 13h at 115VAC; highway speed, mountain 7h at 230VAC pass 100km, 62 miles 160km, at highway speed with 100 miles heater on 8h at 230VAC; 30 min high ampere 224km, 140 miles; 352km, 172km, 108 miles driven 220 miles sports car 3.5h at 230VAC high ampere Ford Focus 23 kWh capacity lithium-ion battery 76 mi TBA full recharge using the car's 6.6 kW charger takes 3–4 hours @ 240 Volts AC Classis EV II nickel metal hydride (NiMH) "Ovonic" battery pack 160 miles! TBA 8 hours, (though an 80% charge could be achieved in between 1 to 3 hours)
  4. 4. TESLA CHASSIS AND BATTERY SYSTEM • Enables rapid battery swapping – the future
  5. 5. TESLA CHASSIS AND BATTERY SYSTEM • The 7,000 Li-ion cells store 53kWh of electrical power and deliver a driving range of 320km (200 miles). • Liquid cooling prevents the cells from exceeding 35°C (95°F). • To achieve the five-year warranty, Tesla charges the Licobalt cells to only 4.10V instead of 4.20V/cell. • The electronics circuits inhibit charging at freezing temperatures.
  6. 6. NISSAN LEAF • The Leaf includes a 24kWh lithium-ion battery with a city driving range of 160km (100 miles). • The battery fits under the floor of the car, weighs 272kg
  7. 7. CHEVY VOLT • The battery chemistry is based on a Li-ion polymer technology. • Li-ion polymer was chosen over a nickel metal hydride chemistry (used in the Toyota Prius) because the energy storage is two to three times higher, and the battery is safer, cheaper, and more durable. • The Volt uses a total of 288 prismatic 5×7 inch Li-ion cells. Prismatic cells are rectangular; the other common shape is cylindrical. Three cells are connected in parallel, for a total of 96 series connect groups of cells. The target output is 360 V
  8. 8. FORD FOCUS • The electric car is powered by an electric motor rated at 100 kilowatts (130 hp) and uses a 23 kWh capacity lithium-ion battery pack, which together deliver 92 kW. • Ford used a complete electric drive train developed and supplied by Magna International, and the advanced lithium-ion battery system is being engineered by Ford in cooperation with supplier Compact Power, Inc., a subsidiary of LG Chem.
  9. 9. MITSUBISHI I-MIEV • Battery16 kWh / 58 MJ (Li-ion battery) Range160 km (99 mi) (Japanese cycle) • The 16-kilowatt-hour (58 MJ) lithium-ion battery pack consists of 88 cells placed under the base floor. The pack has 22 cell modules connected in series at a nominal voltage of 330 V. There are two 4-cell modules placed vertically at the center of the pack and ten 8-cell modules placed horizontally. • Developed by Mitsubishi and GS Yuasa for both high specific energy and high rate discharge and manufactured by Lithium Energy Japan, a joint venture of GS Yuasa Corporation, Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Motors Corporation
  10. 10. CLASSIC EV-I & II • 1997 EV1 Gen-I • Valve Regulated Lead Acid Battery system • 1999 EV1 Gen-II • Nickel Metal Hydride battery system
  11. 11. CLASSIC EV-I & II • The Gen I EV1 models, released in 1996, used leadacid batteries, and weighed in at 1,310 lb (594 kg). The first batch of batteries were provided by GM's Delphi branch; these were rated at 53 amp-hours at 312 volts (16.5 kWh), and initially provided a range of 60 miles (97 km) per charge. Gen II cars, released in 1999, used a new batch of lead-acid batteries provided by Panasonic; some Gen I cars were retrofitted with this battery pack. • The Japanese batteries were rated at 60 amp-hours (18.7 kWh) at 312 volts, and increased the EV1's range to 100 miles (161 km). • Soon after the rollout of the second generation cars, the originally intended nickel metal hydride (NiMH) "Ovonic" battery pack, which reduced the car's curb weight to 2,908 lb (1,319 kg) entered production; this pack was also retrofitted to earlier cars (both battery pack designs were led and invented by John E. Waters under the Delco Remy organization). The NiMH batteries, rated at 77 amp-hours (26.4 kWh) at 343 volts, gave the cars a range of 160 miles (257 km) per charge, more than twice what the original Gen I cars could muster.
  13. 13. PURPOSE • The purpose of this PowerPoint is to help the layperson understand the common types of Lithium batteries.
  14. 14. Chemical name Material Abbr, Short form or Nickname Comments Lithium Cobalt Oxide LiCoO2 (60% Co) LCO Li-cobalt High capacity; for cell phone laptop, camera Lithium Manganese Oxide LiMn2O4 LMO Limanganese, or spinel Most safe; lower capacity than Li-cobalt but high specific power and long life. Power tools, e-bikes, EV, medical, hobbyist. Lithium Iron Phosphate LiFePO4 LFP Li-phosphate Same as above Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide LiNiMnCoO 2 (10–20% Co) NMC NMC Same as above Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide LiNiCoAlO2 9% Co) NCA NCA Gaining importance in electric powertrain and grid storage Lithium Titanate Li4Ti5O12 LTO Li-titanate Same as above
  15. 15. REFERENCES • Battery University • Battery University™ is a free educational website that offers hands-on battery information to engineers, educators, media, students and battery users alike. • The tutorials evaluate the advantages and limitations of battery chemistries, advise on best battery choice and suggest ways to extend battery life. • Notes: The author of this PowerPoint worked in the battery and automotive industry for approximately five years prior to his existing career position.
  16. 16. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS • • Tesla • http://www.teslamotors.com/models/features • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla_Motors Nissan Leaf • http://www.karoto.gr/static/media/2013/07/Nissan-Leaf_2014_1000ad-5.jpg • EV1 • http://www.cleanmpg.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1642 • Volt • http://www.driveforinnovation.com/volt-teardown-the-battery-pack/ • Ford Focus • http://boronextrication.com/tag/battery/ • http://www.ford.com/technology/electric/howevswork/ • Mitsubishi i-MiEV • http://johndayautomotivelectronics.com/software-reliability-testing-for-mitsubishis-imiev/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitsubishi_i-MiEV • GM EV – I & II • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Motors_EV1#Battery
  17. 17. ABOUT THE AUTHOR • Felix holds a Master’s Degree in Business, Bachelor’s Degree in Science, Green Six Sigma, Certificate in Urban & Regional Planning, and Certificates in Advanced Power Quality and Energy Management. Enjoys basketball, rugby, cricket, chess, and helping regular people understand different things. For questions or clarification send email to felixlopezmail@gmail.com