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Toxoplasmosis

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toxoplasmosis

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Toxoplasmosis

  1. 1. Toxoplasmosis Prepared by: • Shkar fayaq • Shkar yasin • Gashtiar bakhtiar • Rawezh khasraw
  2. 2. Outlines: • Definition • History • Etiology • Life cycle • Sign and symptoms • Epidemiology • Diagnosis • Treatment
  3. 3. What’s toxoplasmosis? • Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.
  4. 4. History • The first recorded case of congenital Toxoplasmosis was in 1923 • Toxoplasma Gondii was first identified as human pathogen in 1939.
  5. 5. Types • Type I : virulent in mice and human • Type II : virulent in human • Type III : mostly virulent in animals
  6. 6. Transmission 1. Ingestion of undercooked foods. 2. Contaminated foods 3. Ingestion of unpasteurized milk products. 4. Ingestion of oocyst. 5. Organ transplantation 6. Blood transfusion.
  7. 7. Stages of infection 1. Acute toxoplasmosis. 2. Latent toxoplasmosis. 3. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis.
  8. 8. Categorization
  9. 9. 1-acquired in immunocompetent patients • Generally asymptomatic.
  10. 10. 2- acquired or reactivated in the immunodeficient patients • Immunodeficient patients often having CNS disease but may have myocarditis or pneumonitis
  11. 11. 3-Congenital • Acquired by the mother during pregnancy, severity varing with trimester
  12. 12. 4-Ocular • Causing Chorioretinitis (bilaterally) • Lesions develop in the eye due to cyst rupture.
  13. 13. Life cycle of parasite
  14. 14. epidemiology • Occur through out the world • Survey of 99 studies in 44 countries shows highest prevalence are within lower altitude countries
  15. 15. In Iraq-babylon province
  16. 16. Diagnosis • Polymer chain reaction • Serological test: A:sabin field man test B:indirect fluoresence antibody essay C:enzyme linke immunosorbent essay ELISA D:latex agglutination test E:hemagglutination essay
  17. 17. DIAGNOSIS DIRECT EXAMINATION: o MICROSCOPY o Antigen detection o Polymer chain reaction
  18. 18. Serological tests: • Enzyme linke immunosorbital essay (ELISA) • Indirect fluorescent antibody • Methylene blue dye test(DT) • Sabin fild man test • Commertiale kits for agglutination test • Enzyme immunoessay
  19. 19. prevention
  20. 20. 1. Avoid eating raw meat
  21. 21. 2. Wash all vegetable
  22. 22. 3.wash hands
  23. 23. 4.use gloves when gardening
  24. 24. 5.Do not empty or clean cat boxes without gloves
  25. 25. Treatment • Acute phase : • Pyrimethamine • sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine • spiromysisn
  26. 26. • Atovapuone • clindamysin+atovaquone Latent phase:

Remarques

  • Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.[3] Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no obvious symptoms in adults.[2] Occasionally, people may have a few weeks or months of mild, flu-like illness . In those with a weak immune system, severe symptoms such as seizures and poor coordination may occur.[1] If infected during pregnancy, a condition known as congenital toxoplasmosis may affect the child.
  • The lifecycle of T. gondii may be broadly summarized into two components: a sexual component that occurs only within cats (felids, wild or domestic), and an asexual component that can occur within virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans, cats, and birds.[26]:2Because T. gondii can sexually reproduce only within cats, cats are therefore the definitive host of T. gondii. All other hosts – in which only asexual reproduction can occur – are intermediate hosts.

    When members of cats family consumed an infected mouth with parasites tissue cysts, the parasites survive trough cats stomach and eventually infecting epethelial cells of the cats small intestine inside intestinal cells, the parasite undergoes sexual development and reproduction, producing mellions of oocytes

    Infected epethelial cells eventually rupture and release oocyte into intestinal lumen,then unsporulated oocyte shed the cats feces,oocyte needs 1 to 5 days to be sporulated, then contaminate soil,food and water.

    Fecal oocyst ingested by human or warm blooded animal, rats and mamals,
  • First 3 are most important
  • Treatment is often only recommended for people with serious health problems, such as people with HIV whose CD4 counts are under 200 cells/mm3, because the disease is most serious when one's immune system is weak. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice to prevent toxoplasmosis, but not for treating active disease. A 2012 study shows a promising new way to treat the active and latent form of this disease using two endochin-like quinolones.[69]
  • In people with latent toxoplasmosis, the cysts are immune to these treatments, as the antibiotics do not reach the bradyzoites in sufficient concentration.
    The medications prescribed for latent toxoplasmosis are:
    Atovaquone — an antibiotic that has been used to kill Toxoplasma cysts inside AIDS patients[72]
    Clindamycin — an antibiotic that, in combination with atovaquone, seemed to optimally kill cysts in mice[73]
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