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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no obvious symptoms in adults. Occasionally, people may have a few weeks or months of mild, flu-like illness . In those with a weak immune system, severe symptoms such as seizures and poor coordination may occur. If infected during pregnancy, a condition known as congenital toxoplasmosis may affect the child.
The lifecycle of T. gondii may be broadly summarized into two components: a sexual component that occurs only within cats (felids, wild or domestic), and an asexual component that can occur within virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans, cats, and birds.:2Because T. gondii can sexually reproduce only within cats, cats are therefore the definitive host of T. gondii. All other hosts – in which only asexual reproduction can occur – are intermediate hosts.
When members of cats family consumed an infected mouth with parasites tissue cysts, the parasites survive trough cats stomach and eventually infecting epethelial cells of the cats small intestine inside intestinal cells, the parasite undergoes sexual development and reproduction, producing mellions of oocytes
Infected epethelial cells eventually rupture and release oocyte into intestinal lumen,then unsporulated oocyte shed the cats feces,oocyte needs 1 to 5 days to be sporulated, then contaminate soil,food and water.
Fecal oocyst ingested by human or warm blooded animal, rats and mamals,
First 3 are most important
Treatment is often only recommended for people with serious health problems, such as people with HIV whose CD4 counts are under 200 cells/mm3, because the disease is most serious when one's immune system is weak. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice to prevent toxoplasmosis, but not for treating active disease. A 2012 study shows a promising new way to treat the active and latent form of this disease using two endochin-like quinolones.
In people with latent toxoplasmosis, the cysts are immune to these treatments, as the antibiotics do not reach the bradyzoites in sufficient concentration. The medications prescribed for latent toxoplasmosis are: Atovaquone — an antibiotic that has been used to kill Toxoplasma cysts inside AIDS patients Clindamycin — an antibiotic that, in combination with atovaquone, seemed to optimally kill cysts in mice