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Reproduction of Eukaryotic cell/
Cell division
4.1 Chromosome morphology and function
4.2 The cell cycle and mitosis
Outline
Chromosome,Bacterial
4
All eukaryotic cells store genetic information in
chromosomes
Most eukaryotes have between 10 and 50
chromosomes in th...
Chromosomes vs. Chromatin
Chromosomes
• Tightly packaged DNA
• Found only during cell
division
• DNA is not being used for...
Chromosomes,Eukaryote Though
chromosomes
are
“all about”
DNA, in fact
much this
structure
consists of
protein
Form via
rep...
8
Duplicated
chromosomes are called
chromatids & are held
together by the
centromere
Called Sister Chromatids
Chromosomes...
Chromosome Duplication & Distribution During
Cell Division
1. A eukaryotic cell has multiple
chromosome, one of which is
r...
How Long is a Chromatid a Chromatid?
A chromatid is a chromatid as long as it is held in
association with a sister chroma...
Chromosomes, Eukaryote
Here “chromosome”
and “DNA” are not
100% synonymous
Chromosomes,Eukaryote
Genome =
DNA
Chromosome =
DNA + protein
(visible light microscope)
Chromatin =
DNA + protein
(but le...
13
DNA is tightly
coiled around
proteins called
histones
Compacting DNA into chromosomes
DNA strand tightly coiled
around group of small
protein
Forming a series of bead
like structures
The string of nucleosomes
compacted by factor of 6, then
coiled into an even denser
18
A picture of the
chromosomes from a
human cell arranged in
pairs by size
First 22 pairs are called
autosomes
Last pa...
19
Boy or Girl?
Y - Chromosome
X - Chromosome
The Y Chromosome Decides
20
SomeVocabulary
Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
SomeVocabulary
Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
SomeVocabulary Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
SomeVocabulary Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
SomeVocabulary Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
SomeVocabulary Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
SomeVocabulary Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
SomeVocabulary Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
SomeVocabulary Centromere
Centrosome
Centriole
Kinetochore
Kinetochore microtubules
Mitotic spindle
Nonkinetochore microtu...
Eukaryote Cell Cycle
Eukaryote Cell Cycle
Primary growth
phase
1st growth stage after
cell division
Cells mature by making
more cytoplasm &
o...
Eukaryote Cell CycleSynthesis
Synthesis stage
DNA is copied or
replicated
Two
identical
copies of
DNA
Original DNA
Interphase- S stage
Eukaryote Cell CycleSecondary growth phase
2nd Growth Stage
Occurs after DNA has been
copied
All cell structures needed...
35
What the cell looks like
Animal Cell
What’s occurring
Summary - Interphase
Eukaryote Cell Cycle
M phase
Division of the nucleus
Also called karyokinesis
Only occurs in eukaryotes
Doesn’t occur ...
 Mitosis is conventionally divided into four phases:
 Prophase
 Metaphase
 Anaphase
 Telophase
 Cytokinesis is well
...
38
 Used for growth and repair
 Produce two new cells identical to
the original cell
 Cells are diploid (2n)
Chromosome...
Stages of Mitosis
Mitosis (First half)
Nucleus defined, Nucleoli present, Replicated Centrosomes,
Asters present, DNA duplicated, DNA still ...
Mitosis (First half)
Chromatin in nucleus condenses to form visible
chromosomes
Mitotic spindle forms from fibers in cyt...
Mitosis (First half)
Nuclear membrane & nucleolus are broken down
Chromosomes continue condensing & are clearly visible
...
43
Kinetochore Fiber
Chromosome
44
What the cell looks like
What’s happening
Review - Prophase
45
The mitotic spindle form from the microtubules in
plants and centrioles in animal cells
Polar fibers extend from one ...
Mitotic Spindle
Aster(s)
Asters are short fibers radiating from centrioles
Mitosis (Second half)
Chromosomes, attached to the kinetochore fibers, move
to the center of the cell
Chromosomes are no...
50
What the cell looks like
What’s occurring
Review - Metaphase
Mitosis (Second half)
Occurs rapidly
Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the
cell by kinetochore fib...
52
What the cell
looks like
What’s
occurring
Review – Anaphase
Mitosis (Second half)
Sister chromatids at opposite poles
Spindle disassembles
Nuclear envelope forms around each set o...
54
Comparison
55
Means division of the cytoplasm
Division of cell into two, identical halves called
daughter cells
Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis,Animals Cytokinesis can
occur simultaneous
to telophase
cleavage furrow
forms to split cell
Cytokinesis,Plants cell plate forms at
the equator to divide
cell
Cytokinesis
Cleavage Furrow
59
Have the same number of chromosomes as
each other and as the parent cell from which
they were formed
Identical to eac...
60
Chromosome number the same, but cells
smaller than parent cell
What is
the 2n or
diploid
number?
2
61
If mitosis is not
controlled, unlimited cell
division occurs causing
cancerous tumors
Oncogenes are special
proteins ...
62
Draw & Learn these Stages
63
Draw & Learn these Stages
64
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Name the Mitotic Stages:
Name this?
Name this?
65
Mitosis Animation
Name each stage as you see it occur?
66
Identify the Stages
Early, Middle, & Late Prophase
Late Prophase
Metaphase Anaphase
Late Anaphase Telophase Telophase &...
67
Mitosis Quiz
68
Mitosis Quiz
Chromosomes morphology and mitosis
Chromosomes morphology and mitosis
Chromosomes morphology and mitosis
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Chromosomes morphology and mitosis

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Reproduction of Eukaryotic cell/ Cell division

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Chromosomes morphology and mitosis

  1. 1. Reproduction of Eukaryotic cell/ Cell division
  2. 2. 4.1 Chromosome morphology and function 4.2 The cell cycle and mitosis Outline
  3. 3. Chromosome,Bacterial
  4. 4. 4 All eukaryotic cells store genetic information in chromosomes Most eukaryotes have between 10 and 50 chromosomes in their body cells Human body cells have 46 chromosomes or 23 identical pairs Eukaryotic Chromosome
  5. 5. Chromosomes vs. Chromatin Chromosomes • Tightly packaged DNA • Found only during cell division • DNA is not being used for macromolecule synthesis Chromatin • Unwound DNA • Found throughout Interphase • DNA is being used for macromolecule synthesis
  6. 6. Chromosomes,Eukaryote Though chromosomes are “all about” DNA, in fact much this structure consists of protein Form via replication, not by formed chromatids coming together
  7. 7. 8 Duplicated chromosomes are called chromatids & are held together by the centromere Called Sister Chromatids Chromosomes in dividing cells
  8. 8. Chromosome Duplication & Distribution During Cell Division 1. A eukaryotic cell has multiple chromosome, one of which is represented here. Before duplication, each chromosome has a single DNA molecule. 2. Once replicated, a chromosome consists of two sister chromatids connected along their entire lengths by sister chromatidcohesion. Each chromatid contains a copy of the DNA molecule 3. Mechanical processes separate the sister chromatids into two chromosomes and distibute them to two daughter cells. Chromosomes DNA molecules
  9. 9. How Long is a Chromatid a Chromatid? A chromatid is a chromatid as long as it is held in association with a sister chromatid at the centromere Homologous Chromosome Centromere Sister Chromatid Sister Chromatid When two sister chromatids separate (after metaphase) they go from being a single chromosome to being two different chromosomes
  10. 10. Chromosomes, Eukaryote Here “chromosome” and “DNA” are not 100% synonymous
  11. 11. Chromosomes,Eukaryote Genome = DNA Chromosome = DNA + protein (visible light microscope) Chromatin = DNA + protein (but less than for chromosome)DNA
  12. 12. 13 DNA is tightly coiled around proteins called histones Compacting DNA into chromosomes
  13. 13. DNA strand tightly coiled around group of small protein
  14. 14. Forming a series of bead like structures
  15. 15. The string of nucleosomes compacted by factor of 6, then coiled into an even denser
  16. 16. 18 A picture of the chromosomes from a human cell arranged in pairs by size First 22 pairs are called autosomes Last pair are the sex chromosomes XX female or XY male Karyotype
  17. 17. 19 Boy or Girl? Y - Chromosome X - Chromosome The Y Chromosome Decides
  18. 18. 20
  19. 19. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers
  20. 20. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers Recall that the centrosome is the center of the microtubule array of a cell
  21. 21. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers Keep in mind that the term centriole is not an exact synonym of centrosome and that centrosome is not a synonym of the term centromere Recall that these consist of microtubules and that a pair makes up a centrosome
  22. 22. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers Responsible for moving chromosomes relative to mitotic spindle
  23. 23. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers These are the portion of the mitotic spindle that is connected to chromosomes during mitosis
  24. 24. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers These are the microtubles that are responsible for separating chromosomes as well as pushing the centrosomes toward opposite ends of cells
  25. 25. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers Microtubules of mitotic spindle that are not connected to the chromosomes but instead responsible for pushing centrosome apart
  26. 26. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers The mitotic spindle as visible through a light microscope
  27. 27. SomeVocabulary Centromere Centrosome Centriole Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubules Mitotic spindle Nonkinetochore microtubles Spindle apparatus Spindle fibers Bundles of microtubles making up the spindle apparatus; it is the bundling that makes them visible through a light microscope
  28. 28. Eukaryote Cell Cycle
  29. 29. Eukaryote Cell Cycle Primary growth phase 1st growth stage after cell division Cells mature by making more cytoplasm & organelles Cell carries on its normal metabolic activities
  30. 30. Eukaryote Cell CycleSynthesis Synthesis stage DNA is copied or replicated
  31. 31. Two identical copies of DNA Original DNA Interphase- S stage
  32. 32. Eukaryote Cell CycleSecondary growth phase 2nd Growth Stage Occurs after DNA has been copied All cell structures needed for division are made (e.g. centrioles) Both organelles & proteins are synthesized
  33. 33. 35 What the cell looks like Animal Cell What’s occurring Summary - Interphase
  34. 34. Eukaryote Cell Cycle M phase Division of the nucleus Also called karyokinesis Only occurs in eukaryotes Doesn’t occur in some cells such as brain cells
  35. 35.  Mitosis is conventionally divided into four phases:  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase  Cytokinesis is well underway by late telophase MITOSIS
  36. 36. 38  Used for growth and repair  Produce two new cells identical to the original cell  Cells are diploid (2n) Chromosomes during Metaphase of mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Eukaryotic Cell division
  37. 37. Stages of Mitosis
  38. 38. Mitosis (First half) Nucleus defined, Nucleoli present, Replicated Centrosomes, Asters present, DNA duplicated, DNA still chromatin 1. G2 of Interphase 1.
  39. 39. Mitosis (First half) Chromatin in nucleus condenses to form visible chromosomes Mitotic spindle forms from fibers in cytoskeleton or centrioles (animal) 2. Early Prophase 2.
  40. 40. Mitosis (First half) Nuclear membrane & nucleolus are broken down Chromosomes continue condensing & are clearly visible Spindle fibers called kinetochores attach to the centromere of each chromosome Spindle finishes forming between the poles of the cell 3. Prophase 3.
  41. 41. 43 Kinetochore Fiber Chromosome
  42. 42. 44 What the cell looks like What’s happening Review - Prophase
  43. 43. 45 The mitotic spindle form from the microtubules in plants and centrioles in animal cells Polar fibers extend from one pole of the cell to the opposite pole Kinetochore fibers extend from the pole to the centromere of the chromosome to which they attach Mitotic Spindle
  44. 44. Mitotic Spindle
  45. 45. Aster(s) Asters are short fibers radiating from centrioles
  46. 46. Mitosis (Second half) Chromosomes, attached to the kinetochore fibers, move to the center of the cell Chromosomes are now lined up at the equator 4. Metaphase 4.
  47. 47. 50 What the cell looks like What’s occurring Review - Metaphase
  48. 48. Mitosis (Second half) Occurs rapidly Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell by kinetochore fibers 5. Anaphase 5.
  49. 49. 52 What the cell looks like What’s occurring Review – Anaphase
  50. 50. Mitosis (Second half) Sister chromatids at opposite poles Spindle disassembles Nuclear envelope forms around each set of sister chromatids Nucleolus reappears Chromosomes reappear as chromatin 6. Telophase 6.
  51. 51. 54 Comparison
  52. 52. 55 Means division of the cytoplasm Division of cell into two, identical halves called daughter cells Cytokinesis
  53. 53. Cytokinesis,Animals Cytokinesis can occur simultaneous to telophase cleavage furrow forms to split cell
  54. 54. Cytokinesis,Plants cell plate forms at the equator to divide cell
  55. 55. Cytokinesis Cleavage Furrow
  56. 56. 59 Have the same number of chromosomes as each other and as the parent cell from which they were formed Identical to each other, but smaller than parent cell Must grow in size to become mature cells (G1 of Interphase) Daughter cell of mitosis
  57. 57. 60 Chromosome number the same, but cells smaller than parent cell What is the 2n or diploid number? 2
  58. 58. 61 If mitosis is not controlled, unlimited cell division occurs causing cancerous tumors Oncogenes are special proteins that increase the chance that a normal cell develops into a tumor cell Cancer cells Uncontolled mitosis
  59. 59. 62 Draw & Learn these Stages
  60. 60. 63 Draw & Learn these Stages
  61. 61. 64 Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Name the Mitotic Stages: Name this? Name this?
  62. 62. 65 Mitosis Animation Name each stage as you see it occur?
  63. 63. 66 Identify the Stages Early, Middle, & Late Prophase Late Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Late Anaphase Telophase Telophase & Cytokinesis ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  64. 64. 67 Mitosis Quiz
  65. 65. 68 Mitosis Quiz

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