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Mobile Networks Overview (2G / 3G / 4G-LTE)

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Mobile Networks Overview (2G / 3G / 4G-LTE) with Focus on Core Network (CS / PS / EPC)

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Mobile Networks Overview (2G / 3G / 4G-LTE)

  2. 2. 2 Table of Contents  History/Future  Introduction of GSM  Mobile Network Generations  2G/3G/4G Fundamentals  Evolution of Mobile Network  EPC Introduction  EPC-Core Structure  Related Interfaces and Protocols  4G/LTE Basic Scenarios  LTE Special Concepts  IoT/MVNO/V2X  Question & Answer  Conclusion
  3. 3. 3  History
  4. 4. 4  History
  5. 5. 5  History / Telecommunication Networks  PSTN  PSDN  WLL  WiMAX  NGN  NGMN  Cellular / Mobile Networks
  6. 6. 6  History / PSTN  PSTN (Public Switch Telephone Network) is the world’s collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks, both commercial and government-owned. It’s also referred as the Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS). Switching Office CPE CPE Transmission Facilities Switching Office
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8  History / PSTN Numbering Plan Numbering Plan Area Central Office Station N X X N X X X X X X 2-9 0-9 0-9 2-9 0-9 0-9 0-9 0-9 0-9 0-9
  9. 9. 9  History / PSTN Signaling Originating CPE Terminating Switching Office Terminating CPE Originating Switching Office Off-hook Dial Tone Dialed Digits Off-hook Off-hook (wink) On-hook (wink) Dialed Digits Audible Ring Ringing Answer Off-hook Disconnect Idle 1 2 4 3 5 7 6 6 8 9 10 10
  10. 10. 10  History / NGN Application/Management Part Session Part (Call control) Access Layer Parlay/LDAP SNMP MGCP Megaco/H.248 … Application Servers Management Servers Softswitches … Media Gateways API - Application Programming Interface
  11. 11. 11  History / NGN IP network Softswitch Application ServerNetwork Management Server Media Gateway Multiservice Access PSTN, GSM, ATM, ... Services Transport
  12. 12. 12  History / NGN SG Media Gateway Network Manager IB AAA SS7 Switch STP PSTN/ISDN SS7 Switch STP PSTN/ISDN Media Gateway Core IP Network (QoS) Gatekeeper/ Proxy Server API (PARLAY/LDAP) Application Server MGCP/Megaco/H.248 SIGTRAN SIGTRAN Н.323/ IP Network SS7 ISUP/MTP SIP/SIP-T H.323/BICC RADIUS ISUP SIP Softswitch SG Softswitch MGC SNMP
  13. 13. 13  History – Push To Talk Systems  Push-to-Talk (PTT) also known as press-to-transmit, is a method of having conversation or talking on half-duplex communication lines, including two-way radio, using a momentary button to switch from voice reception mode to transmit mode.
  14. 14. 14  History - Cellular / Mobile Networks  Cellular Network or Mobile Network is a communication network where the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell or base station.
  15. 15. 15  History - Cellular / Mobile Networks
  16. 16. 16  Growth of Mobile Network
  17. 17. 17  Growth of Mobile Network
  18. 18. 18  History • 1G FDMA (NMT, AMPS, TACS) 80’s - Voice (analog traffic, digital signaling) • 2G TDMA (GSM, D-AMPS, PDC) and CDMA (IS-95) 90’s - Voice, SMS, CS data transfer ~ 9.6 kbit/s (50 kbit/s HSCSD) • 2.5G TDMA (GPRS) 00’s - PS data transfer ~ 50 kbit/s 2.75G TDMA (GPRS+EDGE) 00’s - PS data ~ 150kbit/s • 3-3.5G WCDMA (UMTS) and CDMA 2000 00’s - PS & CS data transfer ~ 14-42 Mbit/s (HSPA/HSPA+), Voice, SMS • 3.9G OFDMA (LTE/SAE) 10’s - PS Data and Voice (VoIP) ~ 100Mbit/s • 4G IMT Advanced
  20. 20. 20  2G (RAN)  BTS (Base Station Transceiver) BTS is a piece of equipment that facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE) and a network. UEs are devices like mobile phones (handsets), WLL phones, computers with wireless Internet connectivity.  BSC (Base Station Controller) BSC is a critical mobile network component that controls one or more base transceiver stations (BTS), also known as base stations or cell sites. Key BSC functions include radio network management (such as radio frequency control), BTS handover management and call setup. It also carries transcoding of speech channels.
  21. 21. 21  GSM Frequency Bands
  22. 22. 22  ISM Bands
  23. 23. 23  3G (RAN)  NodeB NodeB is a term used in UMTS equivalent to the BTS (base transceiver station) description used in GSM.  RNC (Radio Network Controller) RNC is a governing element in the UMTS radio access network (UTRAN) and is responsible for controlling the NodeBs that are connected to it. The RNC carries out radio resource management, some of the mobility management functions and is the point where encryption is done before user data is sent to and from the mobile.
  24. 24.  2G/3G/4G Terminology IMSI number MCC MNC MSIN 3 digits 2/3 digits Not more than 15 digits IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) NMSI MCC:Mobile Country Code MNC:Mobile Network Code MSIN:Mobile Station Identification Number NMSI:National Mobile Station Identity
  25. 25.  2G/3G/4G Terminology  IMSI  IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity  IMSI is a unique identifier allocated to each mobile subscriber  Its code type is E.212  IMSI can be saved in SIM, HLR and VLR and can be transferred through MAP and Wireless interface.  IMSI has almost 15 digits (0-9) such as 432129951460001
  26. 26.  2G/3G/4G Terminology  TMSI  TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity  In order to ensure subscriber identity confidentiality, the VLR (Visiting Location Register) and SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) may allocate TMSI to visiting mobile subscribers.
  27. 27.  2G/3G/4G Terminology IMEI Number TAC FAC spare 6 digits 2 digits 15 digits IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) TAC:Type Approval Code FAC:Final Assembly Code SNR:Serial Number spare:Standby bit Example:490547403767335 SNR 6 digits 1 digits
  28. 28.  2G/3G/4G Terminology MSISDN number CC NDC SN National ( Significant ) Mobile Number MSISDN:Mobile Station International ISDN number CC: Country Code, China Country Code is 86 NDC:National Destination Code SN: Subscriber Number
  29. 29.  2G/3G/4G Terminology LAI/GCI/SAI Location Area Identity MCC MNC LAC Cell Global Identity MCC MNC LAC CI Service Area Identity MCC MNC LAC SAC
  30. 30.  2G/3G/4G Terminology TAI/TAC Tracking Area Identity MCC MNC TAC
  31. 31. 31  2G/3G CN (Core Network)  Core Network is split into CS domain and PS domain. CS domain is based on original GSM network. PS domain is based on original GPRS network.  CS domain: used to provide Circuit-switched service. Network mode can support TDM, ATM and IP. Physical entities include switching equipment (such as MSC/VLR, GMSCs, HSS), and inter-working equipment (IWF).  PS domain: used to provide Packet-switched service. Network mode is IP. Physical entities include SGSN, GGSN, CG , BG etc.
  32. 32. 32  2G/3G CN (Core Network)  Function entity shared by CS domain and PS :  MSC Server: Control layer, to realize MM (Mobility Management), CM (Call Control), MGC (Media Gateway Control).  MGW: Bearer layer, to realize the exchange of voice and media flow, and provide all kinds sources, such as TC, EC, play announcement and receive DTMF.  SG: To realize signaling transfer from MTP (SS7 transmission layer) to SCTP/IP (SIGTRAN).
  33. 33. 33  2G/3G CN (Core Network)  HLR/HSS: To realize mobile subscriber management and location information management.  VLR: To deal with all kinds of data information of current mobile subscriber.  AUC: To store authentication information of mobile subscriber.  EIR: To store IMEI data of mobile subscriber.  SMS: Short Message Center.
  34. 34.  Scenario 1: Location Update MS BSS MSC VLR HLR/AUC Locating updating request(IMSI) Um BSSAP MAP MAP A B D Locating updating request Update location area (IMSI) Send parameters(IMSI) Authentication parameters (RAND/SRES/Kc,IMSI)Authenticate Authentication request Authentication response Authentication response Update location Inserte subscriber data Subscriber data insertion ack. cancel location cancel location ack. PVLR Update location ack. (HLR?) Set cyphering mode Forward new TMSI Update location area ack.CYPHER MODE COMMAND CYPHER MODE COMPLETE Location updating accepte TMSI reallocation complete TMSI acknowledge CLEAR COMMAND CLEAR COMPLETE imsi/tmsi,old lai,current lai/gci
  35. 35.  Scenario 2: 2G Authentication AUC HLR MSC/VLR MS Store the authentication key Ki of all subscribers in HLR SIM Card Store authentication key Ki, algorithms A3 and A8 Generate authentication triplet according to A3 and A8 algorithms Temporarily store authentication triplet, and deliver the authentication triplet to VLR upon VLR’s request Store the authentication triplets of all accessed subscribers Access request RAND Ki Algorithm A3 Algorithm A8 SRESMS Kc SRESMSSRESAUC =? Unequal: authentication fail Equal: authentication succeeds RAN/Kc/SRESAUC
  36. 36.  Scenario 3: GSM Basic Call Flow (1/2) Um A B D A Um MSa BSSa MSC VLR HLR BSSb MSb channel requestRACH SDCCH CM service request (CKSN,IMSI/TMSI) CM service req.) CM service req.) Send parameters (IMSI/TMSI) Authentication para. (IMSI,RAND/SRES/Kc)Authenticate (RAND,CKSNn) Authentication request(RAND,CKSNn) Authentication response(SRES) Authen. res.(SRES) Set cyphering mode Access req. accepted (IMSI/MSISDN) CM service accept CIPHER MODE COMMAND(Kc) CIPHER MODE COMPLETE Setup ( MSISDN) Send info. for o/g call setup Complete CallCall proceeding ASSIGNMENT REQUEST ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE Send routing info req. (MSISDN, supplyment service info ) Provide roaming number req(IMSI) Provide roaming number Ind Send Routing infomation acknowledge send info.for i/c call setup page MS(LAI) PAGING(LAI,IMSI) Page responsePage response(LAI,GCI)
  37. 37.  Scenario 3: GSM Basic Call Flow (2/2) Um A B D A Um MSa BSSa MSC VLR HLR BSSb MSb Process access req. Send para. (IMSI/TMSI) Authen. para. (IMSI,RAND/SRES/Kc) Authenticate (RAND,CKSNn) Authentication request(RAND,CKSNn) Authentication(SRES) Authentication response(SRES) Set cyphering mode Access request accepted Complete call CIPHER MODE COMMAND(Kc) CIPHER MODE COMPLETE Setup (calling MSISDN) Call confirmed ASSIGNMENT REQUEST ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE Alerting Connect Connect acknowledge Alerting Connect Connect acknowledge
  38. 38. 38  2G/3G CN - PS Domain  SGSN: To realize packet switching function, signaling control function and route function of packet service.  GGSN: To realize inter-working with PS domain and external data network. SGSN GGSN(A) MS BSS GPRS backbone ISP A ISP B Internet/ IntranetGGSN(B) DNS • CG: To realize billing function of packet service. • BG: To realize inter-working of two GPRS network and guarantee the security of network.
  39. 39. 39  Evolution of Mobile Networks 2000/03 2001/03 2002/03 2005/12 2006/X 3GPP R99 -CN: TDM 3GPP R4 - CN: MSC server and MGW 3GPP R6 - IMS QoS, Billing, FMC, etc 3GPP R7 - IMS enhance 3GPP R5 - CN: IMS introduced TISPAN R1 -- NGN/FMC, etc TISPAN R2 -- NASS/RACS, etc
  41. 41. 41  R4 Architecture Control Layer Bearer Layer MSC H.248
  42. 42.  R5 Architecture GSM /GPRS BSS BTS BSC NodeB RNC PCU UTRAN SCP SMS SCE PSTN/PLMN Internet, Intranet HLR/AUC/HSS SGSN CG BG GGSN GPRS backbone MGW MGW VMSC Server GMSC Server IP/ATM BackboneCS domain PS domain Iu-CS Iu-PS IP backbone MRFP IMS domain MGW P-CSCF S-CSCF MGCF MRFC IPBB
  43. 43.  EPC Introduction
  44. 44.  EPC Structure
  45. 45.  Functions of EPC  MME: Mobility Management Entity  Mobility Management  Selection of S-GW and P-GW  Tracking Area (TA) Management  Authentication  Bearer Management  NAS Signaling  MME Selection for HO with MME Change  SGSN Selection for HO to 2G/3G Access Network  Lawful Interception of Signaling Traffic
  46. 46.  Functions of EPC  NAS (Non Access Stratum)  EPS Mobility Management  GUTI Reallocation  Authentication  Security Mode Control  Identification  Service Request, Paging, …  EPS Session Management  EPS bearer procedure  Transaction-related procedures
  47. 47.  Functions of EPC  TA (Tracking Area Identity)
  48. 48.  Functions of EPC  S-GW: Serving Gateway  Functioning as the local mobility anchor point for inter e-NodeB handovers  Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP mobility  Supporting inter-operator charging based on QoS and QCI  Accounting for inter-operator charging (For GTP based S5/S8)  Supporting Packet Routing and Transfer  Supporting transport level packet marking for uplink and downlink data  Performing lawful interception
  49. 49.  Functions of EPC  P-GW: Packet Data Network (P-GW) Gateway  IP Address Allocation for UEs  Uplink and Downlink Rate Enforcement based on APN-AMBR  Uplink and Downlink Gateway Control based on Traffic  Supporting Packet Marking for uplink and downlink data based on transfer priority  DHCPv4 (Server/Relay) and DHCPv6 (Server) Functions  Lawful Interception
  50. 50.  Functions of EPC  HSS: Home Subscriber Server  Supporting Authentication and Registration for Subscribers and Downloading User Profiles to MME  Authentication and Registration for non-3GPP subscribers and distributing user profiles to AAA.  Provide Roaming Restriction  Provide Barring Services  Providing Restrictions Over Access Network Types  Supporting Diameter-based IP Networking
  51. 51.  Functions of EPC  PCRF: Policy and Charging Rule Function  The PCRF is mainly used for prescribing rules for policy and charging control.  The PCRF is responsible for terminating Gx and Rx interfaces.
  52. 52.  4G/LTE Basic Scenarios Scenario 1: Attach (1/2)
  53. 53.  4G/LTE Basic Scenarios Scenario 1: Attach (2/2)
  54. 54.  4G/LTE Basic Scenarios Scenario 2: Detach
  55. 55.  4G/LTE Basic Scenarios Scenario 3: S1-Release  eNode-B Triggered  User Inactivity  Repeated RRC Signaling integrity check failure  UE generated signaling connection release  Unspecified Failure  O&M Intervention  MME Triggered  Authentication Failure  Detach  Disallowed CSG Cell
  56. 56.  4G/LTE Basic Scenarios Scenario 4: Service Request (UE Triggered)
  57. 57.  4G/LTE Basic Scenarios Scenario 4: Service Request (Network Triggered)
  58. 58. 58 Thanks ForYour Attention! Hamid Reza Bolhasani bolhasani@gmail.com