TPS Basics Trg Material (NXPowerLite)

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  • (利益=(売り値-原価)×販売台数)
     
     ◆上の式から、利益を増やす方法を質問し、右記の答えを得た後、
     利益を増やす方法についてそれぞれを解説し、原価を低減する
     方法が最も大切であることを理解させる。
  •  
    販売価格を上げる
      販売価格は市場の相場(実勢)で決まる。
    同一車格であれば、当社も他社も販売価格には大きな差はなく、
    当社のみ販売価格を上げることはできません。
     
    原価主義では、消費者にシワ寄せとなり好ましくありません。
    かかった原価に、利益を上乗せして販売価格を決めるという考え方は、
    成り立たちません
    (クリック)
    販売台数を増やす
      販売第一線では、日夜、販売拡大に努力しているが、今日のように、
    競争が激しい時代では、当社だけが量を増やすことは、大変困難であります。
    私たちも、車や住宅の紹介活動などを通じて積極的に販売を支援していますが、
    メーカーとしては、品質を保証した魅力ある商品を造ることが主力であります。
      (クリック)
    原価を低減する
     造り方によっては、利益を大きく増加させることができます。
    私たちが、日常の生産活動の中で努力することによって達成できる最も重要なこと が原価低減であります。
    <イラストのポイント>
    (1)「同一車格であれば消費者は当然安い車を選ぶため、車自体が売れない」
    (2)「他社も同じように販売台数を増やしているため、当社のみ量を増やすことはできない」
    (3)「同じ価格の車を同じ台数売った場合、原価が少なければ入ってくる利益が多い」
  • (クリック)(クリック)
    売り値は簡単に上げられないし、かかっただけの原価に利益を
    上のせして、値段を決めるという原価主義の考え方は好ましく
    ありません。
     
    そこで、製造業としては原価を低減して、利益を確保することが必要になるのです。
     原価低減は、私たち全員が取り組んでいくべき全社的活動であります。
    (画面を消す)
  • 4.独自の製造方法の開発(テキストP2)
     
    それでは、原価低減が必要だからといって原価を構成している
    もの全てについて、原価低減ができるかというと我々監督者の力では、どうにもならないものもあります。
     
    例えば、素材費、エネルギー費、労務費、などの単価は毎年上がっております。 
    これらのものは、我々監督者の力ではどうにもならないのです。
    しかし、これらの単価は同業他社も、その他の企業や会社も同じように上がっているわけです。
  • 一般の会社では、1つの製品を4人で造るかも知れません。
     
    材料の在庫にしても、実質的には今日の作業には今日使用する分の材料があればよいし、
    材料手配に必要な日数を考慮しても、必要以上に持たなくてもよいでしょう。
    ところが、会社によっては1日~1ヵ月分とか、ある会社では半年分の在庫をかかえている場合があります。
    必要以上に余分な在庫を持つことは、それらの材料にもお金を払っているわけで、
    材料費の他に金利が掛かります。
    更には、保管中に錆びたり、傷ついたり、時には設計変更により、
    その材料を使わなくなってしまうものもあります。
     
    トヨタの造り方はお客さんの買ってくれる速さで1個ずつ造る、こうすることによって人は2分の1に
    在庫は4分の1以下、リードタイムは数倍早くなるわけです。     
    ※リードタイム・・・発注から納品までに要する時間のこと。
    (画面を消す)
    また、他社と同じエネルギーや材料を使う場合でもこれらを有効に利用する省資源、
    省エネルギーの工夫をすることによっても大きな差が出るものです。
     
    このように、他社より、よい品質のものを、より安く造るためには、機械設備や材料の使い方、あるいは、
    ムダのない効率的な作業動作、作業順序、そして作業方法を開発することが重要であり、
    次々と効率的な方法を開発していく努力が必要であります。
    これまで、独自の製造方法を開発することの必要性、重要性について説明してきましたが、
    皆さん既にお気付きの通り、この造り方について、永年、多方面から幅広く研究されたのが、
    トヨタ生産方式であります。
     <イラストのポイント>
    一般の造り方
    (1)4つの工程で、1工程につき1人いる。
    (2)大量生産なので、とにかく数を作っている。
    (3)工程間に在庫が溜まっている。→工程間在庫を保管しておく倉庫がある。→倉庫を管理する人員と、倉庫を管理するためのエネルギーが必要になる。
    (4)その倉庫に物を運ぶリフトがある。→リフトで運搬する人員と、リフトを動かすエネルギーが必要になる
    トヨタの造り方
    (1)4つの工程を、2人で行っている。→労務費が削減
    (2)お客さんの買ってくれる速さで、1個ずつ造っている。→工程間に余計な在庫を持たない。→在庫を持つために発生する費用が削減
    ※人は1/2以下に・・・工程間の技能員だけでなく、在庫を運んでいた運搬の人員も削減されるため。
    ※リードタイム・・・発注から納品までに要する時間のこと。
    ※トヨタは造り方を工夫し、単価は同じ「素材費」「エネルギー費」「労務費」を削減し
    一般の会社より、原価を下げることに成功している。
    (前項の問いに対する答え)
  •   ビデオ「トヨタ生産方式の源流」を上映する。
  • Only be necessary, and prepare a necessary thing with "J.I.T" if it is necessary.
    To the assumption "Leveling. "
  • <number>
    The uselessness of = surplus is generated going of → production demand of the amount and swinging of the kind of. needing the highest point it and exist about staff assignment/part procurement
    When swinging is few, staff assignment/part procurement with a little uselessness or more is possible.
  • <number>
  • TPS Basics Trg Material (NXPowerLite)

    1. 1. 1 TPS BasicsTPS Basics TPS Group Toyota Kirloskar Motor Pvt Ltd
    2. 2. 2 Goal’s of CorporationGoal’s of CorporationGoal’s of CorporationGoal’s of Corporation Toyota production system BasicToyota production system BasicToyota production system BasicToyota production system Basic Toyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality Philosophy
    3. 3. 3 From the Dealership to the Customer From the Dealership to the Customer
    4. 4. 4 Standards to Choose a CarStandards to Choose a Car How do you choose a car?
    5. 5. 5 Style Compact car Sports car Function Able to carry a lot at once Able to carry luggage Price Affordable Expensive BrandServiceQuality
    6. 6. 6 Standards to Choose a Car Standards to Choose a Car Quality is First Priority The customer doesn’t even have an interest if the quality of the car is bad.
    7. 7. 7 What Could Happen to the Company…? What Could Happen to the Company…? If We Sell Cars with Bad Quality, We Lose Customer’s ConfidenceWe Lose Customer’s Confidence Decrease in Sales results Decrease in Profit No Profit What Could Happen to Company?
    8. 8. 8 Concept of Toyota’s Manufacturing Concept of Toyota’s Manufacturing Quality is First Priority Customer FirstCustomer First
    9. 9. 9 Goal’s of CorporationGoal’s of CorporationGoal’s of CorporationGoal’s of Corporation Toyota production system BasicToyota production system BasicToyota production system BasicToyota production system Basic Toyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality Philosophy
    10. 10. 10 The Goals of CorporationsThe Goals of Corporations Carrying Out a Social Mission Pursuing Profits Sustaining Permanently Offer quality products reasonably at the right time Business management is a prerequisite Improve employee’s living
    11. 11. 11 How to SecureHow to Secure ProfitProfit Profit = (Retail Price – Cost) X Sales How can we increase profit? Profits Costs (Retail Price) ×100 Costs (Retail Price) Profits ×100 Raise retail prices Profit = (Retail Price – Cost) X Sales Profits Costs (Retail Price) ×150 Boost sales Profit = (Retail Price – Cost) X Sales Profits (Retail Price) ×100 Reduce costs Costs Profit = (Retail Price – Cost) X Sales
    12. 12. 12 Ways to increase profit (1) Raise retail prices (2) Boost sales (3) Reduce costs That car is less expensive Cars won’t sell Competitors also make efforts to increase sales volume Profit may vary even if same number of cars is sold for same price How to Secure ProfitHow to Secure Profit
    13. 13. 13 we don’t prefer the cost basis of which retail prices are set by adding profits to costs taken. Retail Price andRetail Price and CostsCosts Retail Price Cost Profit Competitor 100 96 ? Our Company 100 92 ? 44 88
    14. 14. 14 Components ofComponents of CostCost Components of cost Material Cost Energy Cost Labor Cost Depreciation Cost Maintenance Cost Others Material Cost Labor CostEnergy Cost These prices are rising each year Competitors also face same conditions Competitor A Competitor B TMC Competitor C
    15. 15. 15 $ $$ $ $ $ Even using the same materials, the same amount of powers, the same degree of payments, some companies gain profits but others not. Why does the difference occur?
    16. 16. 16 There are Big Differences in How to ManufactureThere are Big Differences in How to Manufacture Regular Manufacturing Way Toyota Manufacturing Way Raw Material Finished Parts Personnel:1/2 Stocks: less than1/4 Lead Time ? Mass production 1 day to 1 month stocks Produce one at a time, matching pull speed of next process Raw Material Finished Parts
    17. 17. 17 Cost Changes By the Way toCost Changes By the Way to ManufactureManufacture Others Maintenance Cost Depreciation Cost Energy Cost Labor CostMaterial Cost Reduce Cost Competitor Our Company Cost that increases and decreases by how to manufacture
    18. 18. 18 SummarSummar yy 1. Sustaining corporation needs to secure profits. 2. Cost reduction is the most important to ensure profits. 3. Today the environment where we operate is really tight. Overcoming the current situation requires tireless efforts. 4. Unit price of material, equipments & purchased parts is almost the same for each company. It is the manufacturing method that changes cost of products.
    19. 19. 19 4. Creation of flexible & strong organized workplace. The Aims of Toyota ProductionThe Aims of Toyota Production SystemSystem Reducing Cost by Thorough Elimination of Muda To achieve it… 1. Producing only salable products. 2. Making higher-quality cars 3. Making more reasonable priced cars
    20. 20. 20 Goal’s of CorporationGoal’s of CorporationGoal’s of CorporationGoal’s of Corporation Toyota production system BasicToyota production system BasicToyota production system BasicToyota production system Basic Toyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality PhilosophyToyota's Quality Philosophy
    21. 21. 21 Toyota Production SystemToyota Production System Toyota Production System
    22. 22. 22 The Origin ofThe Origin of TPSTPS
    23. 23. 23 Fixed position stop Tact Time Production Continuous Flow Pull Production SequencingLeveling JIT Jidoka Standardized Work TPS Pokayoke Andon The House Of Toyota Heijunka
    24. 24. 24 Just-in-timeJust-in-time 1.What is the just-in-time?1.What is the just-in-time? What is Necessary When it is necessary In the amount Necessary The selling thing When it is selling The amount of sell. To make it from the cost proportional to production "Leveling is a major prerequisite to achieve JIT. "
    25. 25. 25 How To Establish Just In Time 1.Tact time 2.Continuous Flow processing 3.Pull System To Establish JIT through out manufacturing cycle, need to apply following Thee principles
    26. 26. 26 Tact TimeTact Time Production quantity per dayProduction quantity per day 333 cars a day333 cars a day How many seconds per carHow many seconds per car do we need?do we need? 1 car in every 81 sec.1 car in every 81 sec. ExampleExample Takt TimeTakt Time Orders from CustomersOrders from Customers 6,660 cars a month Production quantity per month (plan)Production quantity per month (plan) 6,660 cars a month Manufacturing speed
    27. 27. 27 Customers Pace of Sales = Pace of ManufacturingPace of Sales = Pace of Manufacturing Order Order sheet Factory Tact time establish synchronization between manufacturing speed and selling speed Tact Time Establishes the system of manufacturing only Necessary thing and necessary quantity Tact Time Establishes the system of manufacturing only Necessary thing and necessary quantity Tact TimeTact Time
    28. 28. 28 A Raw MaterialFinished Goods C Raw MaterialFinished Goods Raw Material Finished Goods B Conventional System Just In Time Approach Raw Material Finished Parts Sales Production line 1 Production line 2 Production line 3 Production line 4 Continuous FlowContinuous Flow Continuous Flow establishes Manufacture and convey when is it is required (one by one is ideal) It avoids in-between stagnation of stocks Continuous Flow establishes Manufacture and convey when is it is required (one by one is ideal) It avoids in-between stagnation of stocks
    29. 29. 29 Why the pull system is required Ideally If the customer demand is constant and production line produces with out trouble (no line stop) pull system is not necessary By just with Tact time and continuous production we can achieve JIT Sales Production Plan Production line 1 Production line 2 Production line 3 Production line 4 But practically both the things are (customer demand and individual line net processing speed) subjected to fluctuate. If we don't establish pull system we need to keep high inventory to match fluctuation Customer Pull SystemPull System
    30. 30. 30 Push system •The Preceding Process pushes the finished goods to the Following Process, irrespective of demand . Pull system •Following Process withdraw from Preceding Process, WHAT parts they need, WHEN they need, in what QUANTITY they need . Conventional System Supplier Customer Supplier Customer High Inventory Just In Time Approach Push System Pull System Pull SystemPull System
    31. 31. 31 By giving sales information to many process will cause high inventory stagnation between process. SalesProduction Plan SalesKanbanKanbanKanbanKanban Give sold information to only final process with sold speed and establishing pull system keep complete manufacturing with same pace of sales Pull SystemPull System Pull System Ensures the JIT in Practical Conditions Pull System Ensures the JIT in Practical Conditions
    32. 32. 32 ① ② ③ Next process Pulling Produce parts in the order of pull, only the parts pulled, In the quantity pulled and one by one        Place produced parts at its palce Fillup only the parts which next process is pulled Reduce completed parts stock Just In time work place Set the processing speed by Tact time
    33. 33. 33 SUPPLIER : D001 - A DENSO INDIA LIMITED, PROCESS CODE : AA QTY/BOX : 4 PACKING CODE : 424 KEY CODE : 505017447 LOCATION CODE : F1C25-EG04 KANBAN NO : C882 TKM 268W PART DETAILS: STARTER ASSY 28100-0D120-00 SEQ.No: DOCK: 2 01 31-MAY-05 10:41:21 • A Instruction for Production and Transportation.A Instruction for Production and Transportation. • A visual information tool :A visual information tool : - To prevent over-production.- To prevent over-production. - To detect delays or advancement of- To detect delays or advancement of processes.processes. • A tool forA tool for Continuous ImprovementContinuous Improvement .. KANBAN is aKANBAN is a small signboard / card,small signboard / card, workwork on Pull system concept, is the key controlon Pull system concept, is the key control tool for “Just-In-Time” production.tool for “Just-In-Time” production. Kanban is used as: Kanban Sample Pull SystemPull System
    34. 34. 35 Just In Time (summery) Three Basic principles of JIT 1.Continuous Flow processing 2.Pull System 3.Tact time •Tact time establish synchronization between manufacturing speed and selling speed •Continuous flow processing system reduces inventory stagnation between process to process(great inventory reduction) •Pull system establish synchronized speed between process to process and establish Just in time manufacturing chain
    35. 35. 36 Fixed position stop Tact Time Production Continuous Flow Pull Production SequencingLeveling JIT Jidoka Standardized Work TPS Pokayoke Andon The House Of Toyota Heijunka
    36. 36. 37 What is Standardized Work? Standardized Work is S/W is Defined as an effective and orderly method of producing without waste Work organized in such a way is called standardized work. By standardizing work, work force, tools, parts, and equipment are all effectively used, and quality,cost, safety and workability are improved. Also, what is needed at the time can be manufactured.Standardization of work is one of effective methods for Kaizen.
    37. 37. 38 Pre-requisite for Standardized work Pre-requisite for Standardized work Work Must be able conduct repeatedly, cyclically Work Must be able conduct repeatedly, cyclically To produce cyclic job, workload must be leveled To produce cyclic job, workload must be leveled Heijunka (leveling) production is the base Heijunka (leveling) production is the base
    38. 38. 39 Heijunka is the basic requirement in Just in time production The three principles of JIT are based on Heijunka The heijunka is the basic necessity in JIT systems Keep daily production in pace of average of kinds and quantity of sold parts Quantity Time Minimum Heijunka Maximu m Need man-power/material matching to peak quantity Man waiting and excess material occur If fluctuation so big HeijunkaHeijunka
    39. 39. 40 What is leveling? Leveling of amount and kind with respect to selling speed (some times its called vertical leveling (volume) and horizontal leveling (kinds) Amount Leveling of kind TimeTime The maximum value Minimum value Leveling of amount Amount BBBCCC A A A C AB C AB C B A 5
    40. 40. 41 Reduction in variation experienced by the customer There are three main elements of Heijunka… 1. Leveling: Overall leveling of a process to reduce variation in output 2. Sequencing: Managing the order in which work is processed (Mixed Production) 3. Stability or Standard Work: Reduce process variation HeijunkaCustomer Demand Leveling Jidoka Just-in-Time Heijunka Toyota Production System
    41. 41. 42 Fixed position stop Tact Time Production Continuous Flow Pull Production SequencingLeveling JIT Jidoka Standardized Work TPS Pokayoke Andon The House Of Toyota Heijunka
    42. 42. 43 Jidoka refers to the ability of production lines to be stopped in the event of such problems as equipment malfunctions, quality problems or work being late, either by machines which have the ability to sense abnormalities or by workers who push a line-stop button. And Visualize on real time JidoukaJidouka STOP! Defect
    43. 43. 44 Aims of JidokaAims of Jidoka 1. Building 100% quality in at all times 3. Manpower savings (No need monitoring of machinery) 2. Failure prevention of machinery & equipment JidoukaJidouka Three Basic tools of Jidouka 1.Andon 2.Fixed Position Line Stop system 3.Pokayoke
    44. 44. 45 AndonAndon B1B1 B2B2 B3B3 C1C1 C2C2 C3C3 LineLine In JIT Line Any problem at process effects entire line In JIT Line Any problem at process effects entire line Need to take action immediately before it effects entire line Need to take action immediately before it effects entire line Identify the location and Problem Identify the location and Problem Visualization SystemVisualization System Andon BoardAndon Board
    45. 45. 46 •Team member detects the Problem, he turns ON the FIXED- POSITION stop switch. •The Line keeps moving until it reaches a fixed position. •Turning on the switch, also summons the supervisor. Why Required •This allows line supervisor & Team Member to resolve the problem before the line comes to stop •It ensures the completion of Standard work cycle of other process of the line Start Position Stop switch turn on position> Supervisor call button gets on Line Stop Position > After move to next pitch Fixed Position Line StopFixed Position Line Stop
    46. 46. 47 Fool proof system by using simple mechanism. (Low Cost & highly reliable devices or innovations that either detect abnormal situation before they occur at Production Process) Machining : Reverse installation is impossible by putting an obstruction plate Example of Preventing missing weld-nut Example of Preventing out-of position Mounting Welding : Welding will not take place if nut is missing Height of the Nut Spindle Machine BeforeKaizen Chuck Work (out of position) AfterKaizen Work (Mounted normally) Blocking plate Pokayoke- Fool proof systemPokayoke- Fool proof system
    47. 47. 48 tool detection broken tool PokayokePokayoke
    48. 48. 49 Baffle Plate Examples of JidokaExamples of Jidoka
    49. 49. 50 Good Concepts -Good ProductsGood Concepts -Good Products Toyota SloganToyota Slogan
    50. 50. 51 Andon physically points out the location & type of problems JIDOKA Tension Management. Since minimum stock, every problem can be easily detected. Just In Time TPS TPS in Other words

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