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Accounting for gender-related structures of agricultural value chains

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Presentation by Tanguy Bernard, Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI, made during the “International value chains in agriculture: challenges and opportunities to address gender inequalities” session at the WTO PUBLIC FORUM 2016

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Accounting for gender-related structures of agricultural value chains

  1. 1. Accounting for gender-related structures of agricultural value chains Tanguy Bernard International Food Policy Research Institute and University of Bordeaux WTO Public forum September 29, 2016
  2. 2. • Understanding supply response to trade opportunities requires an understanding of micro-level structure of value chains • In this presentation: gender aspects of value chain structures with examples from Sub-Saharan Africa
  3. 3. Source: The World Bank and ONE Campaign (2014), from various LSMS/ISA- based studies Women farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa consistently produce less per hectare than their male counterparts. Even after accounting for differential access to land.
  4. 4. Reasons include  Differential access to labor  Differential access to inputs  Differential access to information  Differential socio-economic returns from agriculture  Potential disincentive to effort and investment
  5. 5. Two examples  Preferences: women may value different types of incentives than men. Example from contract farming  Norms: women’s earnings are dedicated to different types of spending than men. Example from spot market participation
  6. 6. Milk supplier of the LDB. © Patrick Willocq Laiterie du Berger – a small dairy unit in Northern Senegal  Highly remote, semi-nomadic milk suppliers  Gender division of tasks: women in charge of milking  Most contracts are held by men  Large seasonal and short-term instability of milk supply  85% anemic children Example 1
  7. 7. Pilot test of a health-related incentive for regular delivery  Daily delivery of micronutrient fortified product for children upon regularity of delivery  RCT-based evaluation amongst 430 suppliers  Find large effects on delivery in households where women have better control of milk revenues  Positive effect on children’s health Example 1
  8. 8. Gender-differences in spending responsabilitie in many SSA countries  Men are responsible for large expenses (housing, education, health)  sell large quantities at once  Women are responsible for daily needs (condiments, meat, small supplies)  sell small quantities weekly Partly due to difficulties to save in cash Example 2
  9. 9. Small quantity sales Limited to local market with low quality premium Low incentive to improve quality (seeds and post- harvest) Low to medium quality and lower income Large quantity sales Access to markets with high quality premium Positive incentive to improve quality (seeds and post- harvest) High quality and higher income MEN WOMEN Example 2 Translates into production inneficiencies
  10. 10. Example 2 Possible interventions  Innovative financial services - sell at once, paid weekly  Collective processing and marketing - requires variety and quality homogeneity Need further piloting and evaluation Women parboiling association in Benin
  11. 11. Thank you Studies supported by: European Commission, International Fund for Agricultural Development, African Development Bank, CGIAR Program for Institutions and Markets, IFPRI