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Manure management to improve soil structure and food security and mitigate greenhouse gas emission
Animal confinement with roof
Possibility to collect both feces and urine
Covering manure to
prevent nutrient losses
Using banana leaves or
crop residues to cover
Open animal housing Nutrients are washed away
from uncovered manure
Nitrogen is lost to the air
from uncovered manure
GOOD MANURE MANAGEMENT POOR MANURE MANAGEMENT
Composting is the natural process of ‘rotting’ or decomposition of organic matter by
microorganisms under aerobic conditions.
Chose a shady place in proximity
Collect composting material
(manure, crop residues, fresh
and dry grass, top soil, ash, etc.)
Cut the plant material to the size
of a finger
Layers of a newly made compost heap.
Water the compost twice a week
Use the stick to check temperature
Tranfer of compost manure from 1st to 2nd pit after 2 - 3 weeks
Turning will help to provide air to the heap and will ensure that
the materials on the outer layers will decompose as well.
1 2 3 1 2
Manure collection is very dependent on livestock housing.
Free range systems:
(kraal) to keep animals at
Clean kraal (i.e. remove
manure) as often as possible
(at least once a month)
This is a system where the manure is collected
within the cowshed
Anaerobic digestion is a biological
process that produces biogas
Advantages of using Biogas:
• Saving of expenditures on fuel sources
• Saving time collecting wood
• Increased food production from
• Reduction in smoke related diseases
• Preservation of forest
• Workload reduction especially for
women and children
• Bright light to help in quality education
and household works
• Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
application rates vary
according to the type of
animal, collection and storage
method, available soil nutrient
content and the crop
General rule: apply two
handfuls of solid manure
(cattle, goat, sheep, etc.) or
one handful of poultry
manure per hole/plant for
What is Integrated Manure Management?
Preserve nutrients: About 70 - 95% of the nutrient intake of
production animals is excreted via dung and urine.
Protect health and safety: prevent transmission of zoonotic
diseases that be transmitted through manure.
Reduce detrimental environmental effects: Poor manure handling
leads to higher greenhouse gas emissions and pollution of ground
and surface water.
Economic viability: Good manure management > better organic
fertilizer > less synthetic fertilizers >lower production costs.
Capturing methane as biogas provides cooking fuel and lighting
that can replace firewood and charcoal.
Manure management to improve soil structure & food security and mitigate
greenhouse gas emission
Asaah Ndambi, David Pelster and Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
Collection Treatment Storage Application
Nutrient cycles in crop-livestock systems
Steps of Integrated Manure management
Apply manure 8 – 2 weeks before planting, preferably
immediately before ploughing.
Mix the manure with soil immediately after application
Biogas for life. Source: National Biogas Program
of Ethiopia (NBPE)
Kraal system with possibility to collect manure
Cleaning the animal shed
Clean the housing system (e.g. stalls) daily or at least weekly.
Collect manure with bedding material to reduce nitrogen losses
Deep litter systems:
These are systems where layers of bedding material are
repeatedly spread on older layers as they get soiled.
Deep litter poultry system (Source: Milkwood) Ensure
a correct moisture balance in the litter. Prevent any
water spills from drinkers and add litter when
Benefits of Integrated Manure Management
Good manure management gives a better
fertilizer hence higher crop yields.
The initial study summarized manure policies from 12 Sub-Saharan African
countries. The results indicate that most countries:
a) don’t have a stand-alone manure management (MM) policy,
b) have shared responsibility for MM between different ministries which are
often incoherent, leading to abnegation of these responsibilities
c) take limited action to promote good manure management practices.
This information aims to support policy makers, researchers, extension
workers, farmers, and other stakeholders to understand the importance and
common practices of manure management.
Authors: Asaah Ndambi, David Pelster and Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Box 30709 -00100,
Nairobi, Kenya www.ilri.org
This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0